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Communications and Qualitative Research by RI Qualitatif _ Europe, Mar. 2003
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Communications and Qualitative Research by RI Qualitatif _ Europe, Mar. 2003


Communications and Qualitative Research by RI Qualitatif _ Europe, Mar. 2003

Communications and Qualitative Research by RI Qualitatif _ Europe, Mar. 2003

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  • 1. Communications and Qualitative Research What do we know about advertising,how it works and how we can carry out better qualitative research to help ourclients optimise their communications and brands Europe March 2003/JG
  • 2. AGENDA A brief history of advertising Theoretical models Latest thinking The climate of change The research fights back What is advertising for?Advertising qualitative research in the round Advertising types Consumers and advertising The planning process and role of research Some hints and reminders The politics of advertising research 2
  • 3. A brief history of advertising
  • 4. Brief history of advertising Town criers in the 17th Century “advertised” between shouting public notices Advertising was well established in the 18th century in the UK The industrial revolution meant mass production so needed to stimulate demand rather than create it 1st known advertising agency set up in 1841 in Philadelphia by Volney B Palmer and by 1861 there were 20 agencies in New York City The oldest still in existence is JWT, set up in 1864 by William James Carlton 4
  • 5. Brief history of advertising “Marketing” wasn’t developed til the 1940s Rosser Reeves developed the idea of the u.s.p. More recently we have the e.s.p. and d.s.p. The 1970s saw the birth of “own brands” Since the 80s more pressure on advertising  increase in brands  decrease in brand loyalty  consumer repertoires 5
  • 6. Advertising in history The nature of advertising has changed hugely Messages used to be very direct and unsubtle Commercials could be very long - e.g. 2+ minutes Stereotypes of the age abounded: the advertising can look ludicrous now  though some advertising did stretch the boundaries of their topical society The immaturity of qualitative research meant that some advertising went to air not properly researched and was positively damaging to the brand: brands have died because of this 6
  • 7. Theoretical models
  • 8. Theoretical models There are many models for this - e.g.AIDA (Elmo Lewis 1900/Strong 1925)Awareness  Interest  Desire  Action (buying)DAGMAR (Colley 1961) (Defining Advertising Goals for Measuring Results)Unawareness  Awareness  Comprehension Conviction  Action (buying)USP/(ESP) (Rosser Reeves in the 60s)Persuasion Shift Model (Schwerin 1940s) And they may all still have some saliency 8
  • 9. Theoretical models Cultural variations  US belief advertising can change attitudes and persuade non users to buy a brand and users to buy more frequently  In Europe view tends to be that attitudes to brands are changed after use and not before except in certain circumstances  advertising is “announcement” and then reinforcement rather than a cause of change 9
  • 10. WINSTON FLETCHER “I am not in the least bit interested about buying most of the things I see advertised. Indeed I won’t buy them. Nor will you. Nobody is influenced by most of the advertisements they see. A few individual adverts benefit us in innumerable ways….but the great majority are irrelevant” 10
  • 11. Theoretical models These models do not  take consumer experience into account  acknowledge that not all advertising seeks to sell immediately  allow for consumer attitude at the time of receiving the advertising  take into account time, competition, marketing support  for their own or competitive brands 11
  • 12. Theoretical models These models assume communication is a linear process They are more concerned with cognition than affect They attempt to produce general, universal rules They do not allow that advertising and branded marketplaces are constantly developing They do not take into account the development in the ways in which consumers respond to advertising 12
  • 13. Old style “Necessary Condition” models sometimes hold true“Attention, Interest, Desire, Action. AIDA says that advertising mustmove through a series of steps. Each is a precondition for the nextone. This is neat, tidy and above all logical but of course itdoesn’t always work. It is most likely to operate when risks arehigh and where brands are unfamiliar and differ from each other.The consumers use advertising to learn about the brands. Thelearn, feel, do sequence also explains how advertising works fornew brands or on consumers new to a category…(new mums) On the other hand if consumers view the brands as similarand equally satisfactory the risk of making a wrong choice is low. Itbecomes easier to try a new brand on impulse and form an opinionlater. The sequence becomes do - feel - learn” David Ogilvy 13
  • 14. A brand’s equity is a whole lot more than the sum of its communication“A consumer is not a virgin plate on which advertising messagesmay be engraved. Advertising ideas are more likely to be absorbedif they fit in with the existing attitudes, beliefs, ideas, prejudicesand pieces of knowledge..advertising may be at its most effectivewhen it is reinforcing and clarifying the thoughts which peoplealready hold, rather than when it is trying to change things morefundamentally.This is not to say that attitudes can’t be changed, but that changingthem will often be a very long-term uphill job. If your advertising isgoing to fly in the face of everything that people currently believethen you better have a good story and you better have somethingto support it ” Alan Hedges 14
  • 15. Building up long term brand values and equity"A successful brand is an identifiable product, service, person or place, augmented in such a way that the buyer or user perceives relevant (unique) added values which match their needs most closely. Furthermore, its success results from being able to sustain these added values in the face of competition.” Chernatony & McDonald “Peoples pre-disposition to buy certain brands rather than others depends on the identities of the various brands concerned and the way in which these seem to relate to peoples own needs and wants…..advertising may be designed to either sharpen, point up or bring out the brands identity on the one hand, or to modify it on the other..” Alan Hedges 15
  • 16. Theoretical models The RIQ point of view  There are many valid models of how advertising works  against different strategies and audiences  Most brands are already known (at least to a degree) so a relationship already exists  so introduction/announcement less relevant  Consumers have bases of associations against which to set new communications  so a 2 way dialogue already exists  communication is cyclical rather than linear  we need to take into account category experience/ dynamics  we need to look at market maturity and individuals’ broad brand experiences 16
  • 17. Latest thinking
  • 18. …and this is now USPs ESPs DSP or talkabilityStill exist but “A price advantage Not so much whatdifficult to sustain can always be you said as how undercut, a you say it product advantage Fame can always be Did you see that outflanked, but an ad? emotional A brand that difference can brightened up my potentially life command a Advertising as part premium forever” of social landscape Don Cowley 18
  • 19. Latest thinking 4 models developed by Doug Maclay and Mike Hall in the 90s  Sales Response Model  Specific offers, direct response  Persuasion Model  Demonstration/implication of advantage  (Usually) rational needs-benefits equation  Need to focus on communicating the USP as convincingly as possible  Involvement Model  What if you don’t have a lasting USP?  Use advertising to capture imagination and emotions to create empathy/identification with brand values (user imagery/lifestyle associations etc.)  Salience  Attention! Distinctive  Brings brand (back to) front-of-mind - create a sense that something is happening to the brand - that it stands out from the rest.. 19
  • 20. Latest thinking Low involvement processing (Robert Heath 1999)  Consumers unaware of stored associations  music, specific visual etc., over time, with repetition, can last a lifetime Although higher involvement and and conscious registration is probably better, but it is not essential Affective memory is more important than cognition in decision making  Ergo, the emotional communication of advertising is probably more important than the rational message 20
  • 21. The climate of change
  • 22. Turn and face the stranger - Changes“The times they are a changing…” Markets Consumer Media Advertising The Research..!? Research solutions 22
  • 23. ChangesThe markets
  • 24. Life is only ever going to get tougher...Globalisation Brand stretch Markets tend to be mature, defensive, and viciously competitiveSegmentation Innovation/Renovation 24
  • 25. Brands have moved from making things to creating images Naomi Klein “No logo” “The brand builders conquered and a new consensus was born, the products that will flourish in the future will be presented not as‘commodities’ but as concepts, the brand as an experience or lifestyle” “The brand reinvented itself as a cultural sponge, soaking up and morphing itself to its surroundings” 25
  • 26. ChangesThe people
  • 27. Complicated lives Wanting it all Safety and nurture Information overload Family democracy Great Positive expectations ParentingNo fixed roles New fears Coping Complicated with Worry Society androgyny Lives Who to trust? Negotiation Drowning Having it All in Choice Proliferation Work/life balance More ways to choose Attainment 42% of consumers are willing CASH RICH, to spend money to save time TIME POOR 27
  • 28. The “Knowing” Consumer Rules...Expert EditorsExpert Editors Fickle Fickle Demanding Demanding They get it!! 28
  • 29. Fickle, demanding, expert editors Will complain in person about poor service or 65 faulty goodsWould tell friends to stopbuying from a particular 50companySupport breaking the lawas an acceptable form of 60protest against corporateactions Source: Henley Centre - “Planning for consumer change” 29
  • 30. ChangesThe Media
  • 31. Plethora of media Cinema Radio TV Editorial Newspapers Magazines Packaging/LiveryInternet Total Communications Exhibitionsbanners Sponsorship Sampling Outdoor Ambient Direct Mail 31
  • 32. Communication is the roundConsider: The Purchase Cycle: Trial Purchase Short-List Honeymoon BRAND Hunting Settling in Early Prospecting Maturity …and therefore:  The role of advertising at each stage  The strategic and tactical role of different media 32
  • 33. An ample sufficiency 150 radio ads 250 TV ads400 display ads 350 Posters Over 1000 3 cinema ads commercial messages “In our media drenched society it is getting increasingly difficult to communicate with the consumer using above the line advertising” The Henley Centre, Media Futures 1999 33
  • 34. Ad avoidance Tv ads are annoying Enjoy Ads as much as TV programmes32 32 3027 28 26 2422 22 2017 18 1612 14 127 10 8 62 4 2-3 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 0 1997 Lowe Howard Spink: 13% of TVRs worth nearly 500 million are lost due to channel surfing 39% agree - “I usually switch channels or leave the room when the ads are on” 34
  • 35. Media options abound and are becoming ever more fragmented 1988/89 1997Consumer magazines 2,042 2,438Singles released 3,932 5,928Albums released 8,752 18,386Multiplex cinema sites 14 118Newsprint supplements 14 52Commercial radio channels 60 188CD-ROM titles 390 16,762Web pages 0 132mTV channels 4 60+ Source: The Henley Centre, COMMET model 35
  • 36. A Niagara of channels, but only a pint glass of viewing... Number of channels14012010080 Hours of TV watched60 4.040 3.9 3.820 3.7 0 3.6 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 Source: Carlton TV, The Henley Centre, Media Futures 1999 36
  • 37. Farewell to ‘Saturday Night at the Palladium’ Roger Parry, Clear Channel International“Forward bookings for outdoor sites are looking better in the next quarter - but I suspect it may be a more structural change in broadcasting. Media has fragmented. There are so many more ways of spending money. Until 4 years ago P & G never used outdoor advertising and now they are oursecond biggest client. The days of the great dominance of TV may well be over.” “Until a couple of years ago the brand was promoted solely by TV and posters, Now Nestlé uses TV, radio, press, outdoor, sponsorship and new media including text messaging. TV accounted for the company’s entiremarketing budget 10 years ago, 80% 5 years ago, 67% last year and 65% this year. Within 3 years TV will account for “much less than 2/3” of the marketing budget.” Marketing Director of Nestle talking about KitKat The brand masters are taking note!! 37
  • 38. There are only so many hours in the day% decrease in media consumption due to Internet use by intensity Heavy users Medium users Light users 54 38 25 23 20 14 14 12 10 6 6 4 TV Magazines Newspapers Radio Follow the consumers on line? 38
  • 39. Follow the consumers on-line?!?! Jupiter MMXI “Click through rates on standard html banner ads and buttons are at a feeble 0.1 - 0.3%” “33-50% of traditional advertisers claim that fears over high costs, pooraudience reach and ineffective measurement tools will keep them out of new media advertising” Janet Hoy Ignite Mail “When people go on the internet they are often on some kind of mission, usually for information. They are so focused that they are just blocking out banners or frames. They are not even seeing them, never mind clicking on them.” Broadcast advertising? Or direct marketing? 39
  • 40. Ambient media “A vast rapidly expanding territory inhabited by a burgeoning number of mutating lifeforms…”UK ambient media revenue (£m) 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001* Source: Concord/bladetracker *industry forecast 40
  • 41. 41
  • 42. What is this ‘Ambient Media’ anyway? The Practitioners Main View: Types of Anywhere youAmbient Media can think of “It’s more a state of mind than anything else. When you communicate a message when people don’t expect it” “Anything from dressing buildings with 50m posters, to the back of doors in pubs and petrol pumps - a vast range” ”From postcards to toilets - advertising in urinals to airports - anything non- traditional” 42
  • 43. What are ambient’s benefits? Clients views Matthew Pilcher, media manager, Nestle UK “You have to accept its limitations. It is simply not an alternative tomainstream but it is a useful addition to the armoury that marries creative impact with improved reach” Nigel Marson, Mar comms controller, Yellow Pages “Ambient is about surprise. If you can do something unusual once in a while it has great impact.” Helen Keays, brand and ad director, Vodafone “Much is made of novelty, but what attracts us is its ability to target particular audiences with particular messages” 43
  • 44. What are the benefits? Agencies views“The bigger clients have undoubtedly realised that there is really no limit towhat can be a potential medium these days. As long as the ambient media choices continue to surprise, they will attract those clients who want their message to stand apart from the norm” Nick Welsh, executive creative director, Ammirati Puris Lintas “The struggle is more about using tricks that can get publicity for your client’s products. But that shouldn’t just mean launching ambient stunts with no connection at all to what you are advertising” Shaun Mcllrath, creative director, FCA“Many more clients are briefing for a campaign idea these days, not just aTV ad, that’s where ambient come in. Agencies are looking for all sorts of media to interpret that brief” Gary Fraser, art director, Claydon Heeley Jones Mason “Its about creating the mood and reaching the consumer in the right environment” Michelle Ball,director, Mind Share 44
  • 45. Examples of Best Ambient MediaFHM Gail Porter Projection on HP: “Daring and different and high profile” “Made people think FHM was cool, sexy and slightly risqué” “Generated a lot of PR”Vaseline Deodorant Strap Hangers: “Clever, strategically clever” “Deodorant on the tube when people are lifting their arms - clever” “Generated PR” 45
  • 46. Good examples of ambient 1999, Emap Metro - FHM Some of the best ambient stunts benefit from a bit of bare-faced cheek. This projection of a naked Gail Porter onto the Houses of Parliament secured huge publicity for lad’s mag FHM in every section of the national press.In 1999, Landowner were greeted with the sight of letterboxes andtelephone boxes that had been ‘drained of blood’ Transforming everydaylandmarks into something out of the ordinary was a highly effective way forthe NHS to publicise its desperate need for blood donors.1999, NHS - National Blood Service 46
  • 47. Good examples of ambient 2000, Calvin Klein - Eternity Ambient can bring crowd-stopping stunts to any location at any time. Calvin Klein’s Eternity selected Covent Garden on St Valentine’s Day as the ideal location for it’s writing wall. Romantics of every age and sex flocked to the wall to write messages for loved ones.Blah blah blah…... 2001, Phillips - Lady Shave 47
  • 48. ChangesThe advertising
  • 49. That was then... “Advertisements are now so numerous that they are very negligently perused, and it has therefore become necessary to gain attention by magnificence of promises, and by eloquences sometimes sublime andsometimes pathetic. Promise, large promise, is the soul of an advertisement.” Dr Samuel Johnson, 1758 49
  • 50. Ads need to be powerful and engaging enough to attract consumers’ attention Time poor, fickle, Media overloadactive consumerStopping power, clever media buying &creativity become more important than ever 50
  • 51. Stay pressed, feel good, or a campaign that you can play with..? Wonderbra 51
  • 52. Creativity Creativity is ever more important, because:  of the need to stand out in increased clutter  of increasing advertising literacy  it generates brand goodwill  it generates saliency & talkability  it is at the heart of involvement And it needs sensitive measures to access its value When creativity works, it is;  intriguing  long-lasting  “sticks” to the brand  impactful/memorable  distinctive And when it doesn’t, it’s not creative - just expensive or silly!!  confusing - gets in the way of the message)  self-referential  counter-intuitive vis-à-vis the category  out of kilter with the brand essence 52
  • 53. Creativity - there are many paths to enlightenment Appeal (+) “Comfort Zone” “Mould Breaking” Oxo family Pot Noodle, Tetley Guinness,Different Different (-) New Oxo (+) “LCD/Samey” “High Risk” (can wear in) Sunny Delight Monster Egg Appeal (-) Oxo 1 Oxo 2 Oxo 3 Persil Tetley Fairy 1 Fairy 2 Sunny Delight Super Noodles Guinness Monster 53
  • 54. EXERCISE: BREAKOUT GROUPS Looking at some of the advertising we have/you have brought, which fit into the quadrants. Ascertain what it is about the advertising which puts it into the relevant quadrant Then write an advertising brief for the advertising- I.e. what was the advertiser trying to achieve with this advertising - target group - main message - tone of voice - anything else they were trying to achieve 54
  • 55. ChangesThe research
  • 56. Research“I know some great advertising ideas that have died simply because, in rigorous atmosphere of pre-testing, people’s instant response is often one of rejection. This is a quite understandable defencemechanism. After all, we are nearly always trying to change people’s behaviour and they resist that. Too many quantitative researchersstill tend to see advertising as some sort of mechanical treatment of people’s machine-like minds. In my view, response to communication message isn’t instantaneous, it happens over time” “Researchers have got to be prepared to dismiss ‘likeability’ as the key measure. Good ad’s are about strength of impact. They’ve got to challenge the comfortable behaviour the consumer currentlyenjoys. Few researchers are genuinely willing to go down this road” Rupert Howell “Researched to death on Advertising” 56
  • 57. ChangesThe research and analysis fights back
  • 58. First principles - no better place to start than this“Different campaigns aim to reach different objectives over differing time scales against different marketcontexts by having different effects on different groups of people. To suggest … that this diversity can be encompassed by a single rule of thumb is naively unrealistic”. Alan Hedges - Testing to destruction - 1974 58
  • 59. Where are we coming from? We acknowledge the value of all schools of thought!!AIDA/Persuasion Low involvement ‘Framework’ Strong v’s weak And many more... 59
  • 60. Where are we coming from? Our approach is varied and diverse - a synthesis of thinkingIt is essential to have, in our minds, amodel for how this particular piece of advertising is intended to work. But there is no universal model 60
  • 61. Where are we coming from... Our guiding lights are:  the context you’re operating in  the response you desire  the way in which you expect the advertising itself to deliver that response 61
  • 62. Context, response, how do we get there?Every Ad is performing a unique task Category Dynamics Brand Essence/Positionings Communication Strategy Creative Strategy DESIRED RESPONSE 62
  • 63. Desired response Do I think the brand is better? Does the brand mean more to me?Do I understand it? Have I been zapped? Am I reappraising the brand? Do I like it? How it provoked me?Am I motivated/impressed? Do I feel good/am I involved with the idea? 63
  • 64. Category DynamicsEvery ad works in a different way depending on the context…. INERTIA LOW HIGH INVOLVEMENT CONTEXT INVOLVEMENT - reward vs risk EXPERIMENTALISM 64
  • 65. Causes of Inertia - communications need to fight against or reinforce….Complicated High Price to change items “It’s the brand I like the best” High price Brand “I always just buy of failure the same brand” Loyalty
  • 66. Brand essence positioningAxes include Heritage/status - Product Values - User imagery - Personality - Momentum (innovation/growth) - Pricing positioning - Tone - Distinctiveness - Leader/challenger 66
  • 67. Communication Strategy USP / NewsSustain / Enhance Change / Modify ESP 67
  • 68. Creative Strategy Different / DifferentiatingRational Emotional Category Conventions Using symbolic association, Information / Argument,Assertion / Command,Talkability / Contradiction / Humour 68
  • 69. Desired response Ultimately, the purpose of advertising is “to drive and sustain disposition topurchase the brand, over the short and/ or long term” 69
  • 70. Desired responseWhat are we trying to do for the brand..? Brand Currency Talkability “Edge”, momentum, Standout, Fame BrandSustenance Reward, Remind, Refill, Nourish, Seed BrandReappraisal Enlighten, Educate, Announce, Surprise, Seduction, Contradict 70
  • 71. What is advertising for?
  • 72. What is advertising?“The codfish lays ten thousand eggs The homely hen lays one. The codfish never cackles To tell you when she’s done. And so we scorn the codfish, While the humble hen we prize. Which only goes to show you That it pays to advertise.” Author unknown, quoted in Bruce Bohle, The Home Book of American Quotations, 1967, New York, NY: Dodd, Mead and Company, p 5. 72
  • 73. What is advertising for? From a simple requirement to increase sales, advertising intentions are now many  to increase sales is still the most common reason for advertising  generally, nowadays, in the longer term  to maintain sales in mature markets which are at near saturation point 73
  • 74. What is advertising for? To sell to predefined groups To discourage sales! To make people feel part of a “club” 74
  • 75. What is advertising for? To control a brand  positioning, repositioning, building/changing imagery Change corporate image  though this mystifies consumers Social advertising to change behaviours and attitudes  drink driving campaigns, wartime advertising etc. 75
  • 76. Advertising qualitative researchin the round
  • 77. Qual or quant? In principle Qualitative when options are still open • optimising, exploring, understanding, developing, understanding how the communication works, disaster checks, final decisions not made, materials still rough Quantitative when further down the line • choosing between fairly finished executions, need to measure elements of communication, further down the line in production terms, need numbers to persuade bosses/partners, nearer to a final decision And individual clients have individual preferences 77
  • 78. Qual or quant?To produce a 30 sec TV commercial takes 4 months and involves 50 people qual Client Qualitative Agree Prepare creative Agree creative Brief creative/ Creative Brief Research positioning Brief brief Media team development l l l l l l lA/M & A/P A/M & A/P Client & A/M & A/P Client & A/M & Creatives & A/M Creatives A/P A/P & A/P Agree Post The Shoot Pre Production Present to client Review/refine ideas media production quant l l l l l lMedia & A/M Production, Production, A/M, Production, A/M, A/M & A/P Creatives, media, creatives Client, Creatives, Client, Creatives A/M & A/P Production Co. Book media Agree repeats, finalise On air Campaign buying review Monitoring contracts, supply success,racking studies materials etc. l l l l l Media TV Admin & A/M TV Admin Media, A/M & client A/M & A/P 78
  • 79. Advertising qualitative research in the round Strategy development stage  bridge between creatives and consumers Creative execution stage  nurture ideas and give executional guidance Pre-testing  qual (or quant) This is what the concept factory is all about 79
  • 80. Structure of an advertisement message Consumer storyline 80
  • 81. Advertising types
  • 82. Different advertising forms and devices Personalisation Celebrities New, improved 82
  • 83. Different advertising forms and devices Controversy Magical qualities Fantasy and nostalgia Narrative techniques Authority Demonstrations Targeted 83
  • 84. Different advertising forms and devices Metonymy Metaphors Creating stereotypes Attaching meaning Extending the brand Rhetoric and repetition 84
  • 85. Consumers and advertising
  • 86. How consumers use advertising Brands exist in the mind  impressions derived from numerous sources Advertising harnesses and enhances existing impressions  acts as an intervention in the brand/user relationship - directing and manipulating Advertising gives the brand owner control over what the public think and thus over the brand in the future  emphasise brand differences  invest it with values  give us permission to use the brand 86
  • 87. How consumers use advertising Certainly not passively Advertising is a dialogue, not a monologue Buy Bloggo Why should I? 8 out of 10 cars prefer it Only 8 out of 10! We choose the advertising we take in  react to it, bring own experiences and prejudices to interpret the meaning 87
  • 88. How consumers think advertising works People believe advertising is always to affect sales  Researchers need to explain intentions so respondents can adjust their sights Need to understand typologies when reacting to advertising in order to understand the context of their reactions  Sophisticated Critics  Uninhibited Appreciators  Careful Deliberators  Suspicious Rejectors 88
  • 89. Advertising to different target audiences Individuals are affected by their own personalities and culture However, lifestage is a primary factor  outward and inward looking differences Advertising is part of our contemporary culture  it reflects what is going on around us (or should)  but some lifestages (e.g. Mums) may eschew contemporary culture and look inwardsAdvertising needs to take this into account and careful targeting is required 89
  • 90. Advertising to different target audiences CHILDREN  do vary by academic year  the younger they are the less able they are to see behind the advertising  but they “obey” the advertisers even on products outside their interests  and are very honest 90
  • 91. Advertising to different target audiences TEENAGERS AND YOUNG ADULTS  into contemporary culture and can be hooked into brands by association  a youth world: so works on other age groups by association  but wear out is faster with this lifestage  advertising has to be leading edge: can be pushed to the limits 91
  • 92. Advertising to different target audiences WOMEN  Decades of being portrayed one-dimensionally had resulted in sensitivity to being patronised and stereotyped  Hard to persuade mothers at home to spend on themselves - L’Oreal’s “because I’m worth it” is ingenious 92
  • 93. Advertising to different target audiences MEN  Becoming a more important audience as they move into new categories  There has been a period of “anti-man” advertising (incompetence with household appliances, women outdoing men in laddish behaviour etc.) but there is now a backlash, even from women! 93
  • 94. Advertising to different target audiences THE SILVER MARKET  a hard nut to crack  don’t need to belong to popular culture  the furthest away from brand owners and advertisers  don’t like seeing their own age depicted in advertising so hard to target accurately 94
  • 95. The planning process and therole of research
  • 96. The planning process “Propositions derived by purely rational means are entirely devoid of reality.” (Albert Einstein) Where is the brand Why are we here Campaign Where could we be How can we get there Positioning and target audience Creative ideas Proposition and advertising Creative objectives brief Advertising strategy 96
  • 97. Where are we? An audit of the brand to be advertised  can include  internal brain storming  SWOT and GAP analysis  Interactive Innovation  Gain understanding of the current users, non users, lapsed users etc.  looking at the brand and its competition  looking at the company - current/historical  examining prevailing climate of opinion or cultural change  observation - hang round shops etc. Certainly qualitative research to provide this understanding but worth suggesting to client that you look within to see what you already know 97
  • 98. Positioning and target A description of the brand vis a vis the competition The people to whom the brand will be marketed  this is not the same as user image 98
  • 99. Proposition and Objectives What the brand represents + a motivation for buying and this is not in a competitive context What the advertising is seeking to achieve 99
  • 100. Advertising strategy and creative brief Advertising strategy is a statement of everything else  often not given to the researchers but ask: it can be useful Creative brief is a development of this which does contain the important elements of the strategy  you shouldn’t do the research til you have seen this as it is a crucial part of the briefing 100
  • 101. Creative development/ideas Finding ways of expressing the creative brief  define and optimise the creative ideas into executions Several stages and different agencies do it different ways  research scripts, storyboards, animatics  with and without voice overs and music  qual and/or quant And often they skip stages, blur the lines between testing ideas and testing almost finished materials A time to try and sell Concept Clinic 101
  • 102. Designing and implementing research BEFORE THE RESEARCH  explore your own knowledge and experience about the category  try and get hold of anything the agency has already done (at least the strategy) if you haven’t been involved at early stages  Find out the relationship between client and agency  don’t want to be piggy in the middle if the relationship is declining or is brand new 102
  • 103. Designing and implementing research THE BRIEFING  what stage are we at - strategy/creative/more finished  can plan the research without this  need as much detail about the thinking as possible  what does the agency consider to be the creative idea  you may need to know more about the executional intent - tone of voice, accents etc.  What are the media plans and will there be PR  How is the advertising to work  slow burn, immediate impact, level of exposure Do not leave the room without the creative brief! 103
  • 104. Designing and implementing research SEMIOTICS  sometimes used instead of qualitative  but useful in conjunction, if only informally  what are the major signifiers  what signifiers might they be creating and to whom  how does the ad work on a symbolic/metaphoric or product/metonymic level  how do the form and content of the ad work together  what does does the ad use  how does it measure up to the brand’s historical codes and those of its competitors  how do they work in relation to the brand’s history and its future  is the ad using a dominant, emergent or residual set of codes or are residual codes being used in an emergent way  what kind of discourse or discourses are we looking at: e.g. post-modernism, feminism etc. 104
  • 105. Designing and implementing research SAMPLING  Strategic development stage  seeking inspiration for the agency’s thinking  not seeking to understand the whole market  useful to isolate specific or extreme types of people, e.g. real lovers of the brand or category  consider “creative” people (we have a questionnaire format)  consider speaking to professionals in the field  waiters, cooks, journalists  consider a panel of leading edge consumers to use a number of time  easiest to recruit by networking 105
  • 106. Designing and implementing research SAMPLING  Strategic development stage  need to consider every possibility and avenue so can be creative in sample design  accompanied shopping, family groups, friendship groups, groups of workmates, partners  work in home to observe category usage  small groups where individuals can contribute more  larger groups to reach consensus  “pub crawls” - visiting the brand’s normal habitat  pre group tasks  diaries, taking photographs, visiting venues, networking with friends (informal pre group group)  etc. 106
  • 107. Designing and implementing research SAMPLING  Creative development stage  simpler  need to talk to the target audience  e.g. is the ad to pull in new users but not alienate existing ones: need to talk to both  extreme users’ views atypical here  advisable to exclude people who are genuinely anti advertising (c. 20% of the population??)  can affect the flow of the group  militates against use of projectives 107
  • 108. Designing and implementing research SAMPLING  Creative development stage  emphasis on developing ideas so normal groups are usually best for public media like TV and posters  this does “hot house” ideas in a way that ads are not normally seen  but we are seeking to develop ideas, not predict the success of the advertising  we need to deconstruct in order to develop  consider post-group telephone interview  to evaluate the residual effect/memory  for press mix of groups and individual interviews are advisable  groups for development  depths for revealing private feelings about a private medium 108
  • 109. In the room: neuro linguistic programming Actually more relevant to psychoanalysis but has some elements we can exploit in our work  use of language related to senses  where the moderator looks  mirroring 109
  • 110. Analysis and interpretation A four layered process  planning and fieldwork  analysis of data derived from the fieldwork  interpretation  conversion into the client’s framework None of the stages are discrete See separate training module on analysis, interpretation and reporting 110
  • 111. Some hints and reminders
  • 112. Some hints and reminders THE CREATIVE IDEA  cannot be changed: only the execution can  has to be nurtured  respondents are heavily influenced by the execution  may miss the wood for the trees  ideas, without smart production details, are easy to squash 112
  • 113. Some hints and reminders Need to consider for all advertising  the message  the role of the brand  the endline/slogan  tone of voice  is it interesting enough to add to communication at subsequent viewings For TV/cinema advertising  narrative and how it unfolds over time For print advertising  does it capture immediate attention so consumers can elect to look further  immediately communicate the brand 113
  • 114. Some hints and reminders THE MEDIUM  often overlooked, esp. in print and radio  e.g an upmarket magazine v. a tabloid newspaper  pop v. news radio station  specific TV channel  environment of the poster ad brand advertising consumer environment 114
  • 115. Some hints and reminders BRAND-CONSUMER RELATIONSHIP  needs to be explored in the fieldwork and reported in the deliverable  is it a repertoire brand consumers are fond of but have no further use for  is it becoming a commodity so branding has limited salience  is it too aspirational  did my mother use it and do I love my mother  etc. 115
  • 116. Some hints and reminders BRAND-ADVERTISING RELATIONSHIP  needs to be explored in the fieldwork and reported in the deliverable  how is the brand represented in the advertising  what is it saying about itself  what role does it play in the narrative, e.g.  hero, villain, nurturer etc. etc.  is this how the brand is expected to speak  should it be speaking as it always has or is it intended that it speaks differently now  what does the tone of voice do for the brand 116
  • 117. Some hints and reminders CONSUMER-ADVERTISING RELATIONSHIP  needs to be explored in the fieldwork and reported in the deliverable  transactional analysis can help here  ascertained in fieldwork through the projective “Who made this ad and what do you think their feelings were towards you?”  is the advertising patronising, talking down, baffling, treating them as an adult etc. etc. 117
  • 118. Some hints and reminders  CONSUMER-ADVERTISING RELATIONSHIPADVERTISING CONSUMER ADVERTISING CONSUMER Parent Parent Parent Parent Adult Adult Adult Adult feels right Child Child Child Child 118
  • 119. Some hints and reminders THE IMPORTANCE OF LIKEABILITY  Likeable advertising (by consumers, employees, agencies) is probably preferable  sense of pride  but is not always a prerequisite to success  dislike can lead to dialogue  can depend on the product category  instant likeability can lead to boredom/wear out  appeal grows over time  Alex Biel (1990) described liking as a gatekeeper  the gate is raised and the ad gets in!  more likely to trust the advertising  holds attention and makes consumer feel positive towards the advertiser 119
  • 120. Some hints and reminders HUMOUR  if the viewer is laughing with the brand it increases affinity  but it is gender and culture specific  watch out for respondents being sanctimonious in public about low humour  they may laugh their heads off in private  too much humour can obscure the brand message so check carefully for communication 120
  • 121. highproduction values Understanding the creative mechanic humour “I actually laughed out loud which I never do with adverts” superior “I felt the man sitting in the bath was horrible, but it was a insight good idea to help you remember the ad” shock “Aggressive, manipulative and offensive” intrigue “I thought the ad was going to be about child abuse” “Sticks in your mind - you don’t see a cow in a train originality station every day” finesse “Presentation was lovely I could just eat one” 121
  • 122. The politics of advertisingresearch
  • 123. The politics of advertising research“I notice increasing reluctance on the part ofmarketing executives to use judgement; they arecoming to rely too much on research and they useit as a drunkard uses a lamp post – for supportrather than for illumination.” David Ogilvy in 1971,Confessions of an Advertising Man 123
  • 124. The politics of advertising research  A triangular relationship is rarely stable Brand owner Planner AccountAd agency Researcher Creatives handlers Brand Target Advertising Audience 124
  • 125. The politics of advertising research THE CLIENT  Answerable to his MD  Takes the financial risk  Needs a way to predict the outcome of the advertising  Handing over decision-making but none of the responsibility to the agency  Can feel divorced from the creative process  Has to ensure he is not sold an inadequate idea  Looks to research for reassurance 125
  • 126. The politics of advertising research THE ADVERTISING AGENCY  A triangular balance of power  Planners sit between creatives and researchers ands this can stretch loyalties  Balance of power is with the creatives as, without them, there would be no advertising  Account handlers have conflicting loyalties between getting the best advertising for the brand and bringing in the money  They all feel anxious about the researchers  are they sympathetic to the advertising process  how can they be objective  will they destroy the creative idea through lack of understanding  etc. 126
  • 127. The politics of advertising research RESEARCHERS  Their loyalties can be divided depending on who chose them and who is paying the bill  The party who did not choose the researcher can be hostile  The researchers may be “manipulated” towards the outputs from the work  e.g. to kill an idea which one party does not want  Client needs vary  some want researchers to be specific  some planners do not want researchers to say which ads will work but only to provide a diagnostic 127
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