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  • 1. Afton Thompson EDTECH 506 Justification Paper Final Project Fall Semester 2013 13 December 2013 Justification Paper Final Project Project Description Students will be reviewing grammar concepts throughout this unit as a means to completing the Four Level Analysis, an extensive review and examination of parts of speech, sentence structure, and other components of grammar. Being able to complete the Four Level Analysis independently is a required skill for the next grade level, as the Four Level analysis will gain in involvedness and complexity User Assumptions The audience for this unit of instruction and the graphics created therein, are 7 th grade Language Arts students at a variety of ability levels. Most students rank on the proficient level for language usage and grammar skills demonstrating correct use of grammar concepts and recall. Approximately 20% of the student population ranks below proficiency with limited use of concepts or knowledge. The graphics created for this unit of instruction were designed to in part to introduce lesson topics to students or to aid them in comprehending the lesson material. A few graphics were used as informational graphics to break up the monotony of note taking. Graphics were also created to help students understand the grammatical concepts presented in lessons. Graphics included in the unit will assist students who are not considered proficient in language usage or grammatical concepts with their recall and understanding of skills. Graphic Descriptions (listed in the order of appearance in the unit) 1. Four Level Analysis Flow Chart showing required elements of each stage of the analysis process. This flow chart is color coded for information-readiness and ease of use. 2. Four Level Analysis example each step of the analysis and examination process. This is a black and white informational graphic that students will complete as they go through the lessons. 3. Parts of Speech graphic used to introduce Lesson 1 uses two talking heads in place of the “E” in speech.
  • 2. 4. Color Coded Parts of Speech graphic will help students visualize the parts of speech that make up sentences. Each part of speech is colored a different color. 5. Parts of a Sentence informational graphic also use elements of color to depict the separation of subjects and predicates in a sentence. A blue and purple color scheme is used. 6. Prepositional Phrases graphic is long and rectangular, similar to a film or picture strip. This graphic shows variations of prepositional phrases using repetition in color and graphics. 7. Dependent and Independent Clause informational graphic is used to depict the function and differences of independent and dependent clauses. A maroon and pine green color scheme is used to differentiate text and examples. 8. Types of sentences organizational flow chart uses rectangle shapes, arrows, and color to organize the information about each type of sentence into smaller chunks that are easier for students to understand. 9. Lesson 5 header graphic introduces the topic. It’s meant to look like a chalkboard, with the letters “Putting it all” succinctly separated, and the letters in the word “together” joined for symbolism. 10. Completed example of the Four Level Analysis for student use to check their work upon completion of each stage of the analysis. The corrections are done in red text, with the original black text. Design Process Typography was used in the design of the interjection and preposition graphics during Week 4 of the course. These graphics are used in Lesson 1: Parts of Speech. I've designed each one to help students remember concepts concerning each representation. For the preposition character, I've designed it to provide a visual cue by changing the font color and size (Lohr, 2008, pp. 242). This would help students remember that prepositions mean the position of things in relationship to their objects. I used this concept as well as type categories of repetition, contrast, and proximity (Lohr, 2008, pp. 214-215) to create the Interjections character. I felt using these concepts would show an interjection's relationships to the words around it. In the third line of text, I inserted the word interjection directly between two of the blahs and smashed the text together. Text colors of grey, white, and black are used to contrast one another, drawing attention to certain concepts. Shape was used in the design of the Personal Pronouns graphic used in Lesson 1, the Types of Sentences informational graphic used in Lesson 2, and the Four Level Analysis flow chart used in the Goal page of the unit of instruction. The Personal Pronoun graphic will serve as an opening visual to students, and clearly illustrates the use of shape through the use of rectangular containers used to house information and by the use of text color (Lohr, 2008, pp. 252). Shape was also used in the design process of the Types of Sentence graphic to contain the informational text in much of the same way as the aforementioned image. For this image I also used horizontal alignment to show that the
  • 3. text on the left is primary, or most important, and the text on the right is secondary (Lohr, pp. 128). I used proximity to show that each item in the image is relative to each other, therefore placing them each equidistant from one another (Lohr, pp. 133). I've also put this in a table format with two distinct columns to make the information clear, and easy to understand (Lohr, pp. 135). Shape is also demonstrated in the Four Level Analysis flowchart as containers of information. Circles, squares, and rectangles are used to differentiate from topic title, topic concepts, and topic content. The use of organization was also used in the design of this graphic so that the content was information-ready and user friendly. This graphic was designed to help learners understand what to look for and analyze during each phase of the Four Level Analysis process. Selection techniques were used in the design of the Clauses informational graphic presented in Lesson 3: Phrases and Clauses of the unit of instruction. This image will help my students understand the essential differences between independent and dependent clauses because the ideas are clear and presented in a logical sequence. From a design standpoint, I used two key elements required in this week's design: selection principle and concepts in figure-ground. Figure-ground is what the learner should be paying attention to (figure) and what they shouldn't (ground) (Lohr, 2008, pp. 102). In my image, I'm drawing the learner's attention to the shadowed text. According to Lohr, this helps the learner focus on what is really important in the image. Actions I used to accomplish this were by adding contrast in my heading, creating a centered alignment for my text examples and a left alignment pattern for the informational text. I also used repetition by repeating text colors and patterns (pp. 110). Selection principle and figure-ground work in tandem--both are to draw the learner's attention to key elements of the design, whether they be images or text. I demonstrated the use of selection principle in nearly the same way as I did for figure-ground. What I wanted the learner to pay attention to, I boldfaced or used color to create contrast in order to emphasize figure-ground. By doing this, I am better able to select text that summarizes the key points of instruction (Lohr, 2008, pp. 111). Color and depth is demonstrated in the Parts of Speech graphic activity used in Lesson 1, and the Subjects and Predicates informational graphic used in Lesson 2: Parts of a Sentence. The Subjects and Predicates graphic serves as an introductory image to help students identify subjects and predicates (simple and complete) in sentences. The ability to do this is an important component of the 4-Level Analysis. The Color Coded Parts of Speech image will help students identify parts of speech in sentences, another component of the 4-Level Analysis process. Both images use the principle of white space to separate text groupings. White space is also used to separate headings and subheadings from informational text (Lohr, 2008, pp. 272). Both images also use scale to differentiate from headings and informational text. The headings in the Subjects and Predicates image are in boldfaced capital letters with a colored gradient background. The heading in the Color Coded Parts of Speech image is a much bolder, bigger font than the informational text included in the rest of the image (Lohr, 2008, pp. 271). I am also using color principles to connect parts to a whole in each image (Lohr, 2008, pp. 270). In
  • 4. the Color Coded Parts of Speech image, I use color to help the students connect each word in a sentence to its part of speech. In the Subjects and Predicates image, I am using color to differentiate subjects (in purple) and predicates (in blue), making their identification easier. Organization principles are used in the Types of Sentences graphic used in Lesson 4 of the unit of instruction. This image will be an introductory image to the Types of Sentences, and will be taught after we've learned about independent and dependent clauses. For this image, I used horizontal alignment to show that the text on the left is primary, or most important, and the text on the right is secondary (Lohr, pp. 128). I used proximity to show that each item in the image is relative to each other, therefore placing them each equidistant from one another (Lohr, pp. 133). I've also put this in a table format with two distinct columns to make the information clear, and easy to understand (Lohr, pp. 135). Color and space techniques were used in the design process of the informational graphic on adverbs. This graphic will be used in Lesson 1 of the unit of instruction. For this graphic, I used the element of space to separate portions of my text so that each question was grouped together (Lohr, pp. 272). I thought this would be easier for students to mentally digest. I also tried to apply concepts of space and balance into my graphic by making sure that the information was balanced symmetrically (Lohr, pp. 275) by ensuring that the questions were stacked on the left with the informational text and examples on the right. Because the formatting of these are the same or equal, they are considered symmetrical.