VACUUM FRYING PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY IMPROVES QUALITY
ATTRIBUTES OF FRIED SWEETPOTATO CHIPS
1Esan, T.A., 1,*Sobukola, O.P.,...
Introduction
Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) is a dicotyledonous plant
that belongs to the family Convolvulaceae
The yellow ...
Core
Crust
Heat and mass transfer during atmospheric deep-fat frying
Structural oil
Penetrated
surface oilSurface oil
Microstructural changes during atmospheric deep fat frying
Atmospheric conditions High temperatures
Key structural
compone...
What is the problem?
Temperature and oxygen affects the quality of
atmospheric fried products and oil
Solution
Vacuum fryi...
New processing technology: Vacuum inclusion
7/3/2013 6
Vacuum frying operations
vacuum
pump
Depressurization: Patm → Pvac
T oil = T frying
Frying
Pressurization: Pvac → Patm
PV(...
Hypothesis
By reducing the frying pressure, (vacuum deep-fat
frying), it is possible to remove product moisture in a
low-o...
Main objective
Study the effect of vacuum inclusion in a traditional
deep-fat frying operation, in order to understand its...
MATERIALS
Three varieties of YFSP were procured from local market
in Abeokuta, Nigeria:
EX-OYUNGA
442016
SPK004
Three diff...
Frying Operations
Table1: The coded values of the independent variables for vacuum
frying of cassava roots
Codes
Variable ...
Manometer
Frying
vessel
Condenser Pressure
release
valve
Temperature
controller
Vacuum frying machine donated by Internati...
Sample Analysis
Oil and moisture contents of fried SP chips (AOAC,
2003)
Colour parameters – (Glories, 1984)
Carotenoid co...
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
7/3/2013 14
7/3/2013 15
Experimental
Run Oil Moisture β-Carotene Texture Lightness Redness Yellowness
(%) (%) (ppm) (N)
Values are mea...
7/3/2013 16
*Significant at 5% level
A, B, C, D and E are frying temperature, vacuum pressure, frying time, SP variety and...
17
15.4973
16.1583
16.8192
17.4802
18.1411
Oilcontent
108.00
115.00
122.00
129.00
136.00
6.54
11.54
16.54
21.54
26.54
A: F...
18
15.6903
34.6283
53.5663
72.5043
91.4423
BetaCarotene
108.00
115.00
122.00
129.00
136.00
6.54
11.54
16.54
21.54
26.54
A:...
19
3.0816
12.9044
22.7272
32.55
42.3728
Lightness
108.00
115.00
122.00
129.00
136.00
6.54
11.54
16.54
21.54
26.54
A: Fryin...
7/3/2013 20
17.3168
31.8758
46.4349
60.9939
75.5529
Yellowness
108.00
115.00
122.00
129.00
136.00
6.54
11.54
16.54
21.54
2...
7/3/2013
21
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
Atmospheric Optimized Vacuum
Moisturecontent(%)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Atmospheric O...
7/3/2013 22
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Atmospheric Optimized Vacuum
Lightness(L*)
-18
-16
-14
-12
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
Atm...
Key findings
In terms of the basic deep fat frying qualities:
Vacuum fried SP chips retains more carotenoid than
atmospher...
Acknowledgement
International Foundation for Science (IFS)
K + S Kali GmbH for full sponsorship of
the corresponding autho...
MANY THANKS FOR YOUR
ATTENTION
7/3/2013 25
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Sess13 2 sobukola_th4_abs077 [compatibility mode]

  1. 1. VACUUM FRYING PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY IMPROVES QUALITY ATTRIBUTES OF FRIED SWEETPOTATO CHIPS 1Esan, T.A., 1,*Sobukola, O.P., 1Sanni, L.O. and 2Bakare, H.A. 1Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Nigeria 2Department of FoodService and Tourism, Federal University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Nigeria *Corresponding Author: olajidephilip@yahoo.com/sobukolaop@unaab.edu.ng 1
  2. 2. Introduction Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the family Convolvulaceae The yellow flesh varieties is high in carbohydrates, vitamin A, and produces more edible energy per hectare per day than wheat, rice or cassava. Snack foods especially the fried foods is enjoying an ever increasing popularity world-wide (SFA, 1997; Brinkmann, 2000); The frying technology is important to many sectors of the food industry: suppliers of oil and ingredients; food service operators; the food industries, and manufacturers of equipment; 2
  3. 3. Core Crust Heat and mass transfer during atmospheric deep-fat frying Structural oil Penetrated surface oilSurface oil
  4. 4. Microstructural changes during atmospheric deep fat frying Atmospheric conditions High temperatures Key structural components changes Starch dehydration Water vaporization Moisture loss Crust Core Beneficial compounds degradation Non-enzymatic browning reactions Frying oil hydrolisis Frying oil thermal degradation Frying oil oxidation Oil uptake
  5. 5. What is the problem? Temperature and oxygen affects the quality of atmospheric fried products and oil Solution Vacuum frying (VF) to design novel snacks What do we need? Development of a vacuum frying system 7/3/2013 5
  6. 6. New processing technology: Vacuum inclusion 7/3/2013 6
  7. 7. Vacuum frying operations vacuum pump Depressurization: Patm → Pvac T oil = T frying Frying Pressurization: Pvac → Patm PV(T) surface oil layer air 7/3/2013 7
  8. 8. Hypothesis By reducing the frying pressure, (vacuum deep-fat frying), it is possible to remove product moisture in a low-oxygen environment at a low temperature (due to water boiling-point depression), allowing to produce low fat and nutritious novel snacks, such as SP chips, while keeping unique characteristics of regular fried snacks. 7/3/2013 8
  9. 9. Main objective Study the effect of vacuum inclusion in a traditional deep-fat frying operation, in order to understand its impact in the developed microstructure and associated transport phenomena, particularly oil uptake, as well as in the main quality parameters of fried SP chips. 7/3/2013 9
  10. 10. MATERIALS Three varieties of YFSP were procured from local market in Abeokuta, Nigeria: EX-OYUNGA 442016 SPK004 Three different types of frying oils normally used for frying were purchased from a local market in Abeokuta: Refined bleached deodorized oil (RBDO) Palm oil (PO) Groundnut oil (GO) 7/3/2013 10
  11. 11. Frying Operations Table1: The coded values of the independent variables for vacuum frying of cassava roots Codes Variable -1 0 +1 X1 EX-OYUNGA 440216 SPK004 X2 RBDO PO GO X3 (oC) 108 122 136 X4 (cmHg) 4.91 9.91 19.91 X5 (min) 3 6 9 X1, X2, X3, X4 and X5 are SP variety, types of oil, frying temperature, vacuum pressure and frying time, respectively 7/3/2013 11
  12. 12. Manometer Frying vessel Condenser Pressure release valve Temperature controller Vacuum frying machine donated by International Foundation for Science (IFS)7/3/2013 12
  13. 13. Sample Analysis Oil and moisture contents of fried SP chips (AOAC, 2003) Colour parameters – (Glories, 1984) Carotenoid content of raw and fried YFC chips (AOAC, 2005) Texture (Garaya and Moreira, 2002) 7/3/2013 13
  14. 14. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 7/3/2013 14
  15. 15. 7/3/2013 15 Experimental Run Oil Moisture β-Carotene Texture Lightness Redness Yellowness (%) (%) (ppm) (N) Values are means of duplicate 1 16.38 2.10 53.37 6.9 26.58 0.84 71.88 2 13.72 1.76 4.89 5.75 1.04 74.25 23.88 3 17.07 2.12 82.74 9.50 32.53 10.87 56.33 4 17.10 4.27 60.79 14.00 2.02 69.57 27.96 5 11.33 2.45 48.32 8.65 27.96 1.37 69.86 6 17.83 1.85 62.21 5.05 26.58 31.23 41.96 7 9.93 3.07 54.79 3.25 26.33 1.26 71.54 8 16.99 1.66 1.89 3.15 1.96 71.37 25.97 9 7.51 2.85 68.21 20.55 31.24 42.37 25.65 10 19.32 1.87 80.69 4.90 19.93 22.71 56.78 11 10.85 2.14 75.48 9.45 28.12 1.45 70.03 12 17.34 1.94 86.06 7.10 25.91 1.16 72.62 13 6.93 2.94 71.85 8.60 41.27 35.96 21.95 14 7.10 1.97 87.95 4.90 62.60 7.19 29.87 15 10.92 2.07 75.32 15.00 34.95 3.02 61.66 16 18.30 2.17 104.69 5.60 38.26 2.96 57.97 17 16.16 2.07 69.00 5.90 39.64 1.87 57.94 18 17.00 1.83 72.16 7.80 4.52 67.84 27.48 19 17.29 1.77 94.58 12.20 1.76 71.27 25.56 20 18.60 2.13 103.27 10.40 1.84 38.74 58.63 21 17.58 1.68 96.64 6.35 26.30 0.64 72.83 22 5.36 7.25 66.16 5.15 58.31 9.86 31.14 23 10.41 2.05 82.89 6.60 26.05 1.04 72.74 24 15.20 1.94 107.85 9.45 1.78 39.86 58.33 25 17.83 2.38 109.90 4.45 23.86 11.26 63.96 26 8.17 5.84 71.37 1.87 72.40 24.96 27 15.00 1.93 8.53 3.65 1.74 73.84 23.96 28 15.80 2.25 72.48 12.85 26.09 0.91 72.97 Table 1. Response surface Analysis result of responses as a function of the independent variables
  16. 16. 7/3/2013 16 *Significant at 5% level A, B, C, D and E are frying temperature, vacuum pressure, frying time, SP variety and type of frying oil Parameters Oil Moisture β-Carotene Texture Lightness Redness Yellowness Intercept 9.85 1.78 81.68 7.15 23.23 14.69 61.66 A -0.02 -0.50 -15.68* 1.37 -11.38* 20.04* -9.63 B 0.23 -0.42 - 2.90 1.19 0.66 -11.25 10.56 C 0.85 -1.08 -13.74* 2.29* -11.57* 14.61 -2.90 D 0.77 -0.23 -4.47 -1.73* 5.58 -7.91 2.43 E 1.07 0.01 3.58 -2.08* -4.65 2.06 2.48 A2 -1.34 0.45 -44.31* -4.70* -2.07 34.28* -32.28* B2 0.57 0.46 2.68 -0.85 2.23 -3.58 1.29 C2 0.13 -0.33 11.62 0.04 -5.01 12.35 -7.56 D2 0.15 0.27 17.99 2.02 -6.65 0.83 5.69 E2 -2.89 0.17 -3.68 4.22* 6.83 -17.17 10.55 AB 0.16 0.29 11.57* 0.69 9.26 -2.60 -6.84 AC -0.57 0.08 -4.30 -1.66 -0.61 4.56 -4.09 AD 1.01 0.40 -13.46* -0.30 -2.56 -0.65 3.15 AE -0.46 0.54 3.84 -3.27* 8.11 -9.91 1.69 BC 0.51 0.71 16.45* -2.96* 0.27 3.20 -3.60 BD -0.14 0.18 -14.71* -0.56 -1.08 -1.79 2.79 BE -0.68 0.06 1.83 0.07 9.16* -11.99 2.79 CD -1.34 0.50 -11.28* -3.55* 11.19* -9.20 -2.13 CE 1.14 0.25 -8.32 2.45* 1.05 -0.72 -0.56 DE -0.44 -0.09 8.37 -0.03 6.06 -5.97 0.0012 R2 0.76 0.72 0.95 0.95 0.89 0.91 0.875 PRESS 2209.46 1380.80 37000.23 3415.56 48307.68 200000 95030.57 F value 1.75 0.89 6.80 5.51 2.89 3.34 2.46 Table 4. Regression coefficients for the quadratic models for all the responses
  17. 17. 17 15.4973 16.1583 16.8192 17.4802 18.1411 Oilcontent 108.00 115.00 122.00 129.00 136.00 6.54 11.54 16.54 21.54 26.54 A: Frying Temperature B: Vacuum pressure Oil content A: Fry ing Temperature B:Vacuumpressure 108.00 115.00 122.00 129.00 136.00 6.54 11.54 16.54 21.54 26.54 15.938 16.3786 16.3786 16.8192 16.8192 17.2599 17.7005 22 1.60721 2.17901 2.7508 3.3226 3.8944 Moisturecontent 108.00 115.00 122.00 129.00 136.00 6.54 11.54 16.54 21.54 26.54 A: Frying Temperature B: Vacuum pressure Moisture content A: Fry ing Temperature B:Vacuumpressure 108.00 115.00 122.00 129.00 136.00 6.54 11.54 16.54 21.54 26.54 1.98841 2.3696 2.7508 3.132 3.5132 22 Fig. 1. Response surface and contour plots for moisture and oil contents of fried sweetpotato chips
  18. 18. 18 15.6903 34.6283 53.5663 72.5043 91.4423 BetaCarotene 108.00 115.00 122.00 129.00 136.00 6.54 11.54 16.54 21.54 26.54 A: Frying Temperature B: Vacuum pressure Beta Carotene A: Fry ing Temperature B:Vacuumpressure 108.00 115.00 122.00 129.00 136.00 6.54 11.54 16.54 21.54 26.54 28.3156 40.9409 53.5663 53.5663 66.191666.1916 78.817 78.817 22 -0.26368 1.74021 3.7441 5.74799 7.75188 Texture 108.00 115.00 122.00 129.00 136.00 6.54 11.54 16.54 21.54 26.54 A: Frying Temperature B: Vacuum pressure Texture A: Fry ing Temperature B:Vacuumpressure 108.00 115.00 122.00 129.00 136.00 6.54 11.54 16.54 21.54 26.54 1.07225 2.40817 2.40817 3.7441 3.7441 5.08003 5.08003 6.41596 22 Fig. 2. Response surface and contour plots for Beta carotene and texture of fried sweetpotato chips
  19. 19. 19 3.0816 12.9044 22.7272 32.55 42.3728 Lightness 108.00 115.00 122.00 129.00 136.00 6.54 11.54 16.54 21.54 26.54 A: Frying Temperature B: Vacuum pressure Lightness A: Fry ing Temperature B:Vacuumpressure 108.00 115.00 122.00 129.00 136.00 6.54 11.54 16.54 21.54 26.54 9.63012 16.1787 22.7272 29.2757 35.8242 22 -2.2911 18.0985 38.488 58.8775 79.2671 Redness 108.00 115.00 122.00 129.00 136.00 6.54 11.54 16.54 21.54 26.54 A: Frying Temperature B: Vacuum pressure Redness A: Fry ing Temperature B:Vacuumpressure 108.00 115.00 122.00 129.00 136.00 6.54 11.54 16.54 21.54 26.54 11.3019 24.895 24.895 38.48852.081 65.6741 22 Fig. 3. Response surface and contour plots for Lightness and redness of fried sweetpotato chips
  20. 20. 7/3/2013 20 17.3168 31.8758 46.4349 60.9939 75.5529 Yellowness 108.00 115.00 122.00 129.00 136.00 6.54 11.54 16.54 21.54 26.54 A: Frying Temperature B: Vacuum pressure Yellowness A: Fry ing Temperature B:Vacuumpressure 108.00 115.00 122.00 129.00 136.00 6.54 11.54 16.54 21.54 26.54 27.0228 36.7288 36.7288 46.4349 46.4349 56.1409 65.8469 22 Fig. 4. Response surface and contour plots for yellowness of fried sweetpotato chips
  21. 21. 7/3/2013 21 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Atmospheric Optimized Vacuum Moisturecontent(%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Atmospheric Optimized Vacuum Oilcontent(db) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Atmospheric Optimized Vacuum BetaCarotene(ppm) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Atmospheric Optimized Vacuum Texture(N) Fig. 5. Comparison of atmospheric and optimized vacuum fried SP chips
  22. 22. 7/3/2013 22 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Atmospheric Optimized Vacuum Lightness(L*) -18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 Atmospheric Optimized Vacuum Redeness(a*) 69.5 70 70.5 71 71.5 72 72.5 73 73.5 Atmospheric Optimized Vacuum Yellowness(b*) Fig. 6. Comparison of colour properties of atmospheric and optimized vacuum fried SP chips
  23. 23. Key findings In terms of the basic deep fat frying qualities: Vacuum fried SP chips retains more carotenoid than atmospheric fried samples after processing Colour properties of vacuum fried samples are better than the atmospheric fried samples Vacuum fried samples are more crispier than atmospheric fried samples 7/3/2013 23
  24. 24. Acknowledgement International Foundation for Science (IFS) K + S Kali GmbH for full sponsorship of the corresponding author to APA 2013 24Optimized vacuum fried SP crisps Atmospheric fried SP crisps
  25. 25. MANY THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION 7/3/2013 25
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