Sess11 3 professor dr andreas gransee – how potassium and magnesium affect potato yield and quality

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Sess11 3 professor dr andreas gransee – how potassium and magnesium affect potato yield and quality

  1. 1. K+S Group K+S KALI GmbH How Potassium and Magnesium affect potato yield an quality Prof. Dr. Andreas Gransee K+S KALI GmbH Germany
  2. 2. Prof. Dr. Andreas Gransee, K+S KALI GmbH K+S Group Potassium uptake (kg K2O) of potato during the vegetation period 1 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 23. 25. 26. 28. 29. 31. 32. 33. 35. 36. 38. 40.KW kgha-1 Cilena tubers (430 dt/ha) Cilena leaves/stems Russet Burbanks tubers (900 dt/ha) Russet Burbanks leaves/stems K+S KALI GmbH Source: K+S KALI GmbH field trials, 2004 Cilena: Table potato variety Russet Burbanks: Processed potato variety
  3. 3. Prof. Dr. Andreas Gransee, K+S KALI GmbH K+S Group Nutrient demand of the potato crop 2 K+S KALI GmbH Average Potato Yield in Kenya (FAOstat): 19 t ha-1 Nutrient Removal Calculation by K+S KALI GmbH
  4. 4. Prof. Dr. Andreas Gransee, K+S KALI GmbH K+S Group Nutrient demand of the potato crop 3 K+S KALI GmbH Average Potato Yield in Germany (FAOstat): 46 t ha-1 Nutrient Removal Calculation by K+S KALI GmbH
  5. 5. Prof. Dr. Andreas Gransee, K+S KALI GmbH K+S Group K distribution in potato plants 4 K+S KALI GmbH
  6. 6. Prof. Dr. Andreas Gransee, K+S KALI GmbH K+S Group Effect of different doses and forms of K on yield of potato 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 Yieldt/ha Control 100 kg K2O/ha as SOP 200 kg K2O/ha as SOP 300 kg K2O/ha as SOP 5 K+S KALI GmbH Bakum-Lüsche, slight-silty sand ST (2008): 138 mg K2O/kg soil (CAL) class ‘C’ 32 mg Mg/kg soil (CaCl2) class ‘A/B’
  7. 7. Prof. Dr. Andreas Gransee, K+S KALI GmbH K+S Group Effect of K on yield and dry matter content of potato tubers 6 20,49 17,7 26,79 19,5 31,11 21,6 30,37 22,4 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 T1 T2* T3* T4* * = significant T1, 2, 3, 4 = 0, 100, 150, 225 kg K2O ha-1 (+ N = 150, P = 100 kg ha-1 each) Tuber yield (t ha-1) Dry matter content (%) (average of 10 fields), 1996-97 K+S KALI GmbH
  8. 8. Prof. Dr. Andreas Gransee, K+S KALI GmbH K+S Group Relative yield increase as affected by K supply (Control = 100 %) 7 K+S KALI GmbH K supply from soil low middle optimal high Yieldrelativeto control(%)
  9. 9. K-MA / Prof. Dr. Andreas Gransee, Dr. Hendrik Führs K+S Group K+S KALI GmbH Quality parameters for potatoes used in processing industry 8 Processing quality External quality Internal quality External consitution • Tuber size • Tuber form • Skin firmness • Eye depth Internal consitution • Valuable ingredients (e.g. starch, vitamins, minerals) • Turgor and physiological age External defects • Damages • Growth disruptions • Rot and scurf • Greening • Tuber misshaping Internal defects • Internal damages • Internal rot • Invaluable ingredients (e.g. nitrate, heavy metals, reducing sugars, alkaloides, acrylamide • Black spots • Hollow centersAccording to Dr. Haase, Max Rubner-Institute (MRI) Detmold, 2010
  10. 10. Prof. Dr. Andreas Gransee, K+S KALI GmbH K+S Group Effect of Potassium and magnesium on tuber sensitivity to damages (No. of damages per 100 tubers) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 120 240 360 240* damages(n) 2009 2008 9 K+S KALI GmbH kg/ha K2O as Patentkali®, * as Korn-Kali® Averages of three trials each, Landwirtschaftskammer Lower Saxony Varieties: Verdi 2009, Kuras and Saturna 2008 Artificial mechanical impact induced by damage test bench of potato research station Dethlingen and rating of necrotic tissue according to Bundessortenamt-Index
  11. 11. Prof. Dr. Andreas Gransee, K+S KALI GmbH K+S Group K fertilization and K form affect yield and starch content 10 K+S KALI GmbH 47,5 51,2 57 56,7 58,3 7,7 8,5 9,5 8,5 8,6 16,1 16,5 16,7 15 14,7 13 14 15 16 17 18 0 15 30 45 60 K 0 240 SOP 400 SOP 240 MOP 400 MOP % tha-1 K fertilization kg K2O ha-1 Magnesium supply in all variants: 320 kg ha-1 Kieserit gran. Schuby 2003 K content soil medium Cultivar : Linda Tuber yield Starch yield Starch content Source: Landwirtschaftskammer Schleswig-Holstein
  12. 12. Prof. Dr. Andreas Gransee, K+S KALI GmbH K+S Group Factors for black spot incidence in potato tubers 11 Growing conditions: site, water supply Variety Harvest conditions Post harvest treatment Maturity of tubers Tuber content: • free phenolic amino acids • organic acids (pH) • other phenolic compounds • activities of enzymes Mineral contents (K, Ca, Fe, Mg) Fertilization Storage conditions (After Pawelzik, Delgado 1999) K+S KALI GmbH
  13. 13. Prof. Dr. Andreas Gransee, K+S KALI GmbH K+S Group Black spots as a consequence of K deficiency 12 Deficient K supply Optimal K supply K+S KALI GmbH
  14. 14. Prof. Dr. Andreas Gransee, K+S KALI GmbH K+S Group Effect of different K supply on black spot incidence of potato 13 0 102 205 307 0 20 40 60 80 kg K2O/ha as SOP Black spot incidence (%) before after storage Average of 9 trials with increasing K supply on light soils in northern Germany K+S KALI GmbH
  15. 15. Prof. Dr. Andreas Gransee, K+S KALI GmbH K+S Group 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 controle 100 kg/ha K2O as SOP 200 kg/ha K2O as SOP 300 kg/ha K2O as SOP 300 kg/ha K2O as SOP yield(t/ha) 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 blackspotincidence(%) 14 Influence of K and Mg application on yield and quality of potatoes (variety Premiere) K+S KALI GmbH Bakum-Lüsche, silty sand Soil analysis: Ø 13,6 mg K2O/100 g soilCAL Ø 3,2 mg Mg/100 g soil CaCl2 + 400 kg ha-1 ESTA® Kieserit
  16. 16. Prof. Dr. Andreas Gransee, K+S KALI GmbH K+S GroupK+S Gruppe / 16 Quality parameters Nutrients N P K Mg Ca Tuber yield ++ + ++ + + Starch content - + +/- + + Protein content ++ ++ + Ascorbic acid - and citric acid + + ++ Maturation - + Skin firmness - + After cooking blackening ++ Storability - + + Reducing sugars - + Resistance against: Damages - + + + Black spot incidence - ++ + Discolourations ++ + = positive effect ++ = very positive effect - = negative effect Effect of fertilization on quality parameters K+S KALI GmbH
  17. 17. Prof. Dr. Andreas Gransee, K+S KALI GmbH K+S Group Magnesium Deficiency Symptoms ● Interveinal chlorosis on older lower leaves with a marbling effect (leaf veins remain green) ● Later various shades of red/purple can appear as chlorophyll breaks down leading eventually to leaf necrosis. 16Photos: K+S KALI GmbH K+S KALI GmbH
  18. 18. Prof. Dr. Andreas Gransee, K+S KALI GmbH K+S Group Potassium Deficiency Symptoms ● Bronzing of leaves and necrosis of leaf margins and tips. ● Stunted bushy plants with small leaves and very premature senescence before adequate tuber bulking. 17Photos: K+S KALI GmbH K+S KALI GmbH
  19. 19. Prof. Dr. Andreas Gransee, K+S KALI GmbH K+S Group Balanced Fertilisation Crucial for potato yield and quality 18 Potassium and Magnesium are crucial for high potato yield and the risk management in unfavorable conditions such as drought. Potassium decreases the incidence of discolorations such as internal blackening and blackspot Potassium increases citric acid, vitamin C and starch content of the tuber Potassium decreases reducing sugar content important for processing An optimum supply of potassium improves harvest and storage characteristics. This results in a reduced susceptibility to bruising Magnesium is essential for the assimilation of the plant and affects protein and carbohydrate synthesis and their transport and storage in the tuber K+S KALI GmbH Potassium and Magnesium
  20. 20. Prof. Dr. Andreas Gransee, K+S KALI GmbH K+S GroupK+S Gruppe / 1 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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