Vandana A. Kumar and Atul Kumar
G.B.PANT UNIVERSITY OF AG.&TECH.,INDIA
Currently, India : the third‐largest producer in the world. 
The production level hovers around 25‐28 million tonnes. 
Pro...
The INFORMAL system‐ more important and prevalent than 
FORMAL system in most potato growing countries. 
FORMAL systems ar...
Production of clonal disease free quality seed material
–Through in vitro multiplication methods using nodal segments of
d...
FORMAL / INFORMAL SEED PRODUCTION SYSTEM
*Alternate methods of potato seed
production Need be incorporated in
seed chain B...
BRIEF OUTLINE….
Starting year : August – 2006 Year up to (Aug.) 2012.
Objectives : (i) Awareness generation amongst farmer...
A modern seed potato program must have in vitro 
capabilities and human resources competent in use of 
these techniques. T...
Nodal segment / sprout as explant
Established & proliferated for 4-5
times in MS semisolid medium with
NAA & GA3
‐‐ Tuberi...
Stage –I (1st year)
Stage –II (2nd year)
Stage –III (3rd year)
Stage –IV (4th year)
FS-I (5th year)
FS-II (6th year)
Certi...
MICROTUBERS from lab to field
1.Improvement of in vitro methods for MT & MP production
A. Single- vs. Double- Node cultures: for shoot proliferation
No....
B. Comparison of semisolid and liquid medium for
rooted MP production
Medium Starting
Culture
Subcultured
& placed
into
Gr...
2. Improvement of in vivo methods : 4 methods
A.  Use of MTP   and MP as alternate to seed
Tuber / plant for         MTP =...
C.    Use of Sprouts 
‐New way of  large  scale / low  cost  seed tuber production
‐Additional high‐grade,   virus‐free,  ...
Gradation of tubers
Size Wt.
range
in gm
Total
No.
%
V. big 80-140 447 5.36
Big 50-79.9 661 7.92
Medium 25-49.9 1247 14.94...
Trainings & Demonstrations (2011-12)…..
Trainings
31. 3.11 - Hill Campus :- 20
28. 4.11 - village :- 39
8. 9.11 - Hill Cam...
SEED PRODUCTION IN LESS TIME : SUCCESS
STORY -1
Chaupariyal Satyon Bageshwar Bageshwar 3 Years
2007 2008                  ...
938 (MP) G0  75Kg (G I) 350Kg (G II) 577Kg (G III)
85Kg  575Kg 4750Kg 2600Kg
2008                      2009               ...
Saud village : Success story - 3
High yields :  20 ‐37 times 
18 farmers :
49 Kg         681 G II in  2011
1 year saved : ...
Khushi Ram ‐
2008:    938MTP  ‐ 85 Kg
2009:  1335MTP ‐ 104 Kg 
+  575Kg  from his previous seed
350 Kg sold ‐ Rs.7700/‐
20...
Anil Goswami : use of MTP
2007 -08 : 50 MTP - 7Kg,
2008-09 : 1200MTP - 60 Kg
2011-12 : 2100 MTP
Madan Giri
2009-10 : 1.8 Q...
Maun village : Success story - 6
14 Farmers : purchased 43 Kg G I = 2010
11 Farmers : produced 531 Kg GII
20 times yield
*...
Seed Acceptability of farmers
during 5 years’ work
Year Villages Material 
given 
to 
Farmers 
Farmers 
under 
observation...
G 0 PRODUCTION (IN VITRO) 2011-12
Shoot propagules:
H    : > 1200 in S9 
GH : > 990   in  S9 
HS :> 400    in  S9
Micropla...
Future scenario…….
Domestic Aeroponic unit: for uniform and repeated 
harvests of tubers……gaining momentum in India…..
As ...
Module proposed  for  increasing  efficiency of   seed production… 
1. Integration of in vitro methods : MP and MT product...
Main potato growing seasons in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia
Kenya: the majority of sampled farmers cultivated potato twice a...
…..I  have seen  in vitro facilities in private houses  and 
kitchens & bed rooms in Vietnam,  where farmers had 
recogniz...
Suggested points in reference to African crop growing seasons
1. Kenyan crop season matches with Indian season
April – Jul...
Uganda and Ethiopia have three crop seasons 
1. Harvest from 1st crop season can be used as seed for 3rd crop 
season
2. F...
Acknowledgement s…….
African Potato Association for granting 
scholarship facilitating participation in this conference
Ho...
Thanks !!!
Sess10 4 vandanar a. kumar and atul kumar – integration of in vitro techniques in informal seed production systems of pota...
Sess10 4 vandanar a. kumar and atul kumar – integration of in vitro techniques in informal seed production systems of pota...
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Sess10 4 vandanar a. kumar and atul kumar – integration of in vitro techniques in informal seed production systems of potato in africa

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Sess10 4 vandanar a. kumar and atul kumar – integration of in vitro techniques in informal seed production systems of potato in africa

  1. 1. Vandana A. Kumar and Atul Kumar G.B.PANT UNIVERSITY OF AG.&TECH.,INDIA
  2. 2. Currently, India : the third‐largest producer in the world.  The production level hovers around 25‐28 million tonnes.  Produces around 8% of the world’s total produce.  The productivity level is nearly 17‐20 tonnes/ha. By 2020 : 1.3 billion population of India will need 49 million tonnes of potato: certainly a challenging task ??? Production of healthy seed potato - accounts for about 40- 50% of total cost of cultivation. Breeder’ seed : Reaches the farmers : 7-8 field exposures : For raising a ware crop (only 30% of ‘Breeder’ seed requirement of country met through FORMAL system). Requirement of quality potato seed growing farmers: not fully met through ‘Formal seed supply chain’ Indian scenario……..
  3. 3. The INFORMAL system‐ more important and prevalent than  FORMAL system in most potato growing countries.  FORMAL systems are, as a rule, unable to provide the quantities  needed for majority of potato growing farmers. But… INFORMAL system ‐ *widespread informal exchange of potato  seed and  *based on mutual trust & obligation for promised  quality/variety Depends on FORMAL system: needs , now and then, *fresh clean  material or *new varieties to continue. Hence, in more and more potato growing countries, the govt.  authorities/agricultural institutions have begun to realize the role of  INFORMAL sector and have started supporting it actively. 
  4. 4. Production of clonal disease free quality seed material –Through in vitro multiplication methods using nodal segments of disease free mother plants of latest released / recommended varieties. –Field planting of in vitro propagated planting material (hardened microplants/microtuber-raised plats) for developing mini tuber seed material. Enabling farmers by generating awareness amongst them for using  this hi‐tech (clonal, disease free) planting material in form of  hardened microplants/microtuber‐raised plants/mini tubers. *Testing of this hi‐tech. material at farmers field and recording of  yield data, quality of potato tubers produced and tracking  the  farmers/ planting material and produce to study the adoption  pattern and continuation. Imparting  “ON‐FARM/OFF‐FARM” training towards handling and  storage of produce, *to develop CONSORTIUM of potato growers and  *to develop confidence regarding this INFORMAL seed production  chain and exchange of this material amongst them. Horticulture Technology Mini‐Mission Mandate with a BROAD OBJECTIVE of  INTEGRATION OF    IN VITRO    TECHNIQUES  IN INFORMAL    SEED       PRODUCTION SYSTEMS      OF      POTATO
  5. 5. FORMAL / INFORMAL SEED PRODUCTION SYSTEM *Alternate methods of potato seed production Need be incorporated in seed chain Both at in vitro and in vivo level, particularly in Uttarakhand where- •Quality Seed- always a scarcity *Off season crop is grown • Proper Storage facility lacks *Farmers to be trained to become part of Integrated seed production system • *Alternate methods of potato seed production Need be incorporated in seed chain Both at in vitro and in vivo level, particularly in Uttarakhand where- •Quality Seed- always a scarcity *Off season crop is grown • Proper Storage facility lacks *Farmers to be trained to become part of Integrated seed production system • Quality seed production assures Increase in productivity Uttarakhand State PRODUCTION : 3rd Highest   28 million tonnes ≈  8% of world total  AREA :  4th Highest : 18 lakh Ha
  6. 6. BRIEF OUTLINE…. Starting year : August – 2006 Year up to (Aug.) 2012. Objectives : (i) Awareness generation amongst farmers, and (ii)  Production, distribution and monitoring of quality potato seed material   to farmers  Technical program (2006-2012) : (a) Perpetual in vitro propagation : (G 0) : Nucleus seed MP (Micro-plants) & MTP (Microt-uber –raised plants) (b) G I, G II, G III, G IV, G V Tuber seed production (c ) Trainings, Enabling Farmers for bulk seed production (d) Standardization of crop timings (Hills-Summer, Plains-Winter) (e) Collaboration with Research Centers for seed production (G1, G2…)
  7. 7. A modern seed potato program must have in vitro  capabilities and human resources competent in use of  these techniques. Thus virus‐infested material is  cleaned up, can be maintained in vitro indefinitely  with no danger of re‐infection. Rapid clonal multiplication of clean material possible  all the year round with latest in vitro/vivo technologies. Material multiplied in vitro need be suitably  transplanted to produce  clean mini‐tubers (poly‐ houses/aeroponic unit).  xx
  8. 8. Nodal segment / sprout as explant Established & proliferated for 4-5 times in MS semisolid medium with NAA & GA3 ‐‐ Tuberization Medium -- Microplant MS with BA & high sucrose -- Microtuber induction -- Hardening in Polyhouse -- Harvest, Storage -- Germination, sowing -- To the field in polyhouse -- Transplanted in field Shoot propagules shifted to liquid medium
  9. 9. Stage –I (1st year) Stage –II (2nd year) Stage –III (3rd year) Stage –IV (4th year) FS-I (5th year) FS-II (6th year) Certified (7th year) Certified I (8th year) Certified II(9th year) Breeder seed (Basic seed) Foundation seed Certified seed Tuber selection and indexing (Nucleus seed) SEED PRODUCTION-Conventional INTEGRATED TECHNIQUE Nucleus seed : 8‐9 months Indexed mother plant 2‐6  months 2‐3  months
  10. 10. MICROTUBERS from lab to field
  11. 11. 1.Improvement of in vitro methods for MT & MP production A. Single- vs. Double- Node cultures: for shoot proliferation No. of propagules in different subcultures Multi. Ratio % Lost SNC S7 S8 S8 S9 S9 195 1841 76.9% + 15.8% Pre Lost Tubern. 133 1327 47.0% + 32.7% Pre Lost Tubern 268 1:9.6 22.8 DNC 210 812 32.5% + 0.49% Pre Lost Tubern. 544 2186 82.3% + 8.7% Pre Lost Tubern 195 1: 3.9 6.5 After correction of losses, The multiplicity was 1 : 7.3 in SNC and 1 : 3.7 in DNC SNC improved efficiency  for shoot proliferation in vitro
  12. 12. B. Comparison of semisolid and liquid medium for rooted MP production Medium Starting Culture Subcultured & placed into Grew as No. of branches at the time of Hardening in polyhouse Time taken Semi solid 1 20 Tubes Long shoots 20 1 month Liquid 1 1 Bottle Several shoot bunches 5 bunches x 4 branches = 20 20 days Proliferation in liquid medium required less time, material, glassware & manual operations but was more prone to contamination.
  13. 13. 2. Improvement of in vivo methods : 4 methods A.  Use of MTP   and MP as alternate to seed Tuber / plant for         MTP = 4.01,            Range    3‐9   Tuber / plant for         MP = 2.18,              Range    2‐4 *MTP can be regenerated, stored year round * MP can be produced and hardened  during peak demand season both in Hills and Plains. B.      Multiple harvest  for increasing  tuber seed yield /plant Comparison done for one time (H1), two time(H2) and three time(H3) harvests in  field from in vitro developed   Micro‐plants No. of harvests H3 H2 H1 Av. No. (10 plants) 116.22 91.66 42.11 Av. Wt. (10 plants) 1927.48 gm 1690.46 gm 1721.97 gm
  14. 14. C.    Use of Sprouts  ‐New way of  large  scale / low  cost  seed tuber production ‐Additional high‐grade,   virus‐free,   seed  potato  stock  ‐New  source  of  income  to  small  farmers - Tuber yield = 29.19 Kg from 166 sprouts - No. of tubers = 666 - Tuber / plant = 4.12 D. Use of stem cuttings when crop is delayed and aerial  growth is high, photosynthates are directed  towards storage - Field grown plant : Cut and transplanted - Age of ~ 2 months - Segments obtained from 1 plant = upto 10 - Survival in field = upto 25% - Tuber yield per plant = 2-3 at axillary bud + 1-3 at stem base
  15. 15. Gradation of tubers Size Wt. range in gm Total No. % V. big 80-140 447 5.36 Big 50-79.9 661 7.92 Medium 25-49.9 1247 14.94 Small 15-24.9 1356 16.25 V.small 7-14.9 1908 22.86 V.v.small < 7.0 2726 32.67 Total 8345 100 Harvested at research fields from MTP and MP for 3 years Parameters LIT HIT Tuber size 10-20 gm 40-45 gm Multiplication rate 12 times 6 times Tuber yield 191q/ha 210q/ha Cost of cultivation Rs. 31,100 Rs. 47,700 Net profit per Re. 0.84 0.31 Low input technology (LIT) vs. High Input technology (HIT) CPRI Station, Gwalior, MP Suitable tuber size needed for efficiency improvement 
  16. 16. Trainings & Demonstrations (2011-12)….. Trainings 31. 3.11 - Hill Campus :- 20 28. 4.11 - village :- 39 8. 9.11 - Hill Campus :- 179 23.12.11 - village :- 7 24.12.11 –Res.Stn:- 12 = 275 Farmers 8.9.11 Training 8 villages - 179 farmers 304 Kg seed - 142 farmers 11 Demonstrations for MTP & MP : 3 varieties (H, GH, HS) MTP and MP at Res. Stn.= 2792 :- 175 Kg MTP at 3 farmers fields = 5105 :- yield awaited Total MTP ( 7195) + MP (882) = 8077 Area at Res.Stn. (222.75m 2) + farmers’ fields (382.85 m2 ) 27 field visits in 15 villages xx
  17. 17. SEED PRODUCTION IN LESS TIME : SUCCESS STORY -1 Chaupariyal Satyon Bageshwar Bageshwar 3 Years 2007 2008                  2009                 2009‐10 4 Generations 209(MP)G0 :19Kg 90Kg (G II) 110Kg (G III) 260Kg (G IV) (G I) 8Kg 7Kg 40 Kg
  18. 18. 938 (MP) G0  75Kg (G I) 350Kg (G II) 577Kg (G III) 85Kg  575Kg 4750Kg 2600Kg 2008                      2009               2009‐10        2010 Chaupariyal Chaupariyal Dhanori Dhanori SEED PRODUCTION IN LESS TIME : SUCCESS STORY 2 2 years 3 Generations
  19. 19. Saud village : Success story - 3 High yields :  20 ‐37 times  18 farmers : 49 Kg         681 G II in  2011 1 year saved :  2 crops in 2010 -11 4 farmers : G I       G II G III  160 Kg G III 2100 Kg  G IV in  2011 Seed saved from last year 7 Farmers : G I          G II in 2010 125 Kg 705 Kg G III in 2011 Earning   in  1   year Sushil Chand : In 2010 : G I       G II        G III 1000 Kg produced,  880 Kg sold,  Rs.22000/‐ earned In 2011 : 2 Kg        80 Kg G II For 2012:  120 + 80 Kg seed available
  20. 20. Khushi Ram ‐ 2008:    938MTP  ‐ 85 Kg 2009:  1335MTP ‐ 104 Kg  +  575Kg  from his previous seed 350 Kg sold ‐ Rs.7700/‐ 2010 :   577Kg seed from previous year  Sale for Rs.4000/‐ 2011 :   125 GII + 280 Kg GIII seed stock  + earned  Rs. 11700/‐ in 2 years 3 Chaupariyal village : Success story -4 In  2011 Produced  G III =   800 Kg G IV = 2200 Kg (H) G IV =   250 Kg (S) Sold as seed  35 Kg to Hem Singh Worth Rs.900/‐ Sold in market  Worth Rs. 30,000/‐ Demanding  for 2012  20,000 MP
  21. 21. Anil Goswami : use of MTP 2007 -08 : 50 MTP - 7Kg, 2008-09 : 1200MTP - 60 Kg 2011-12 : 2100 MTP Madan Giri 2009-10 : 1.8 Q - 35 Q : 25 Q sold 2010-1 1: 8.5 Q - 23 Q : 10 Q sold 2011-12 : 10 Q - 37Q 5Daulatpur village : Success story - 5 Narendra Giri 2009-10 : 1.3 Q - 12.5 Q : 5 Q sold to 2 farmers 2010-11 : 4.5 Q - 60 Q :11.5 Q sold to 4 farmers 2011-12 : 4.5 Q - 90 Q
  22. 22. Maun village : Success story - 6 14 Farmers : purchased 43 Kg G I = 2010 11 Farmers : produced 531 Kg GII 20 times yield *Guddi Devi *Siddheshwar Prasad *Bachni Devi *Trilok Singh 2010 = 4 Kg G I 79 Kg G II 2011 = 35 Kg G II 300 Kg G III Rs.3600/- 2011 = 4 Kg G I 65 Kg G II As Seed for 2012
  23. 23. Seed Acceptability of farmers during 5 years’ work Year Villages Material  given  to  Farmers  Farmers  under  observation  2007 06 22 10 2008 03 18 6 2009 03 11 8 2010 09 51 34 2011 21 150 134 Total 42 252 192 Total 192 farmers given seed material as MP, MTP, G1,G2 G3 seed 21 villages under observation in 2011
  24. 24. G 0 PRODUCTION (IN VITRO) 2011-12 Shoot propagules: H    : > 1200 in S9  GH : > 990   in  S9  HS :> 400    in  S9 Microplants Till Feb, 2012 K.Himalini=1400 Microtubers H : 2485,  HS :692,  GH :2365 Total till  Dec, 2011 =   5542
  25. 25. Future scenario……. Domestic Aeroponic unit: for uniform and repeated  harvests of tubers……gaining momentum in India….. As small as 1x1x1 m size of equipment can be made 10 cm spacing of MP in 1m2 area, 10 day old MP from in vitro growth Minimized water usage Minimized nutrient requirement -Harvest of minitubers every 10-15 days interval -Tuber size maintained between 5-10 gm -8-10 harvests per plant
  26. 26. Module proposed  for  increasing  efficiency of   seed production…  1. Integration of in vitro methods : MP and MT production 2. Efficiency increase of MP production in vitro : Single Node Cutting   (SNC) + delayed  sub‐culturing 3. More efficiency in vitro : SNC + formation of large sized MT which  would replace the mini‐tuber seed (up to 2 gm) 4. Integrating in vitro + in vivo methods :  MP + aeroponic system ‐ Harvesting small & uniform sized seeds. 5. Seed Number increase : Multiple harvests (3) in field  6. More alternate in vivo methods : sprouts and stem segments  in  poly‐house followed by field transfer.  7. Regulating crop timings : summer and winter crops in a year 8. Minimizing water usage 9. Farmers encouraged for producing their own seed of as early  generations as possible 10.Farmers trained to become part of informal seed production system through  COSORTIUM for uninterrupted availability of quality potato seed.
  27. 27. Main potato growing seasons in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia Kenya: the majority of sampled farmers cultivated potato twice a year, during  the main rainy seasons.  Uganda, the majority of sampled farmers grew potato twice a year, dedicating  24‐32% of their arable land to potato depending on the season and district.  In Ethiopia the main potato growing season depended on the zone.
  28. 28. …..I  have seen  in vitro facilities in private houses  and  kitchens & bed rooms in Vietnam,  where farmers had  recognized  the enormous value  of clean material  and  where  they have experimented successfully with its  production in their houses……. Peter   Schmiediche : Former     Senior  Breeder   at   International Potato Center, CIP, Peru.  Presently,    International  Agricultural  Consultant  and Chief  Trainer  at  Wageningen International , The Netherland's,  on Potato   Seed   Production, Certification  Systems
  29. 29. Suggested points in reference to African crop growing seasons 1. Kenyan crop season matches with Indian season April – July  matches with off season of Indian hill summer crop  Sept – December  matches with Major crop of Indian plains in winters 2. Use Tissue culture facility:‐ Propagate year round  in vitro: use of  70 – 80% propagules for MT  production , multiply 20‐30%   for next subculture (SNC/DNC),and 1‐2 months before crop season : Liquid culture for large quantity  production of microplants (for aeroponics also). 3. Harden microplants and transplant in Poly‐house/field 4. Delay the transplanting by 1 month and harvest at scheduled time for  obtaining small sized mini‐tubers Contd…
  30. 30. Uganda and Ethiopia have three crop seasons  1. Harvest from 1st crop season can be used as seed for 3rd crop  season 2. For the 2nd crop, use of microplant is feasible. Awareness generation amongst farmers and regular  training/monitoring is key to success.    5. From overmature minitubers, use sprouts  as separate propagules 6 If aeroponics available : Harvest microtubers , store them and  sprout when needed 8. From delayed crop : use 2‐3 node long stem segments as cuttings for quick harvest of aerial minitubers/underground minitubers 9. Over maturation of tubers to be avoided 10. Delay mini tuber germination during storage by *manipulating  light intensity and *reducing temperature, if possible.
  31. 31. Acknowledgement s……. African Potato Association for granting  scholarship facilitating participation in this conference Horticulture Technology Mission for  North‐East Himalayas, Mini‐Mission‐1 for financial  support GB Pant University of Agriculture and Technology for permitting me to attend this  conference Principle Investigator‐Dr. Vandana A. Kumar and all  co‐workers.
  32. 32. Thanks !!!

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