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Adaptation and improvement of the
seed-plot technique in smallholder
potato production
Presentation by
Z.M. Kinyua
Plant P...
Common sources of seed potato
Farmers commonly obtain seed potato for planting from:
• own previous crop harvests
• ‘neigh...
Different inputs, different expectations
Poor quality seed
Good quality seed
Bacterial wilt - a consequence of planting
infected seed tubers
A devastated potato field
A healthy, promising
potato crop
The principle
Improving seed potato quality through a
seed-plot technique
Site selection for seed-plot establishment
Might be contaminated, especially if low-lying!
Probable sites (bush
land, othe...
Schematic presentation of seed-plot practice
Seed plot
Seed plot
Seed plot
Seed plot Main field
Main field
Main field
Mark...
1. Adaptation of potato seedplot technique
10 seed-plot trial sites in Kenya, managed by farmer groups:
• Kianthumbi - 3 s...
Active participation of a farmer group in
establishment of a potato seed plot
Establishing a potato seed plot
• A well-dug...
Established potato seed plots
2. Effect of fertilizer application in potato seed plots
General information
Cultivar used: Asante
Trial location: Abo Wes...
CountryTrial site (Group name or
host farmer)
%
Small
tubers
%
Medium
tubers
%
Large
tubers
Tubers/
m2
Multipl
ication
rat...
• Productivity of seed plots: 28.6 to 69.6 tubers/m2
• Mean multiplication ratio: up to 6 tubers per plant.
• Yield in mos...
Fertilizer
regime
Number of tubers by
size
Total
tubers
Total
tuber
yield
(kg)
Average
weight
per
tuber (g)
Tuber
multipli...
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Small Medium Large
Seed size categories
Proportionoftotaltubers(%) Zero
DAP-Low
DAP-High
Mavuno-...
• Seed-size (medium) tubers
low DAP & low Mavuno more than DAP-high and Mavuno
Planting-high
• Ware-size (large) tubers:
h...
Conclusion
The seed-plot technology, with improved productivity
through fertilizer application, can increase the availabil...
Discussions/clarifications
Seed plot
measurements
Estimated amount of seed to
plant in a seed plot
Size of ware potato field
to be covered with seed
...
Thank you
• ASARECA
• KARI and other host institutions
• Participating farmer groups
• Organizers, 9th Triennial APA Confe...
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Sess10 1 z.m. kinyua adaptation and improvement of the seed-plot technique in smallholder potato production

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Transcript of "Sess10 1 z.m. kinyua adaptation and improvement of the seed-plot technique in smallholder potato production"

  1. 1. Adaptation and improvement of the seed-plot technique in smallholder potato production Presentation by Z.M. Kinyua Plant Pathologist & National Coordinator Crop Health Programme Kenya Agricultural Research Institute kinyuazm@gmail.com +254 (0)733 999444 Presentation during the 9th Triennial African Potato Association Conference The Great Rift Valley Lodge, Naivasha, Kenya 30 June-4 July 2013
  2. 2. Common sources of seed potato Farmers commonly obtain seed potato for planting from: • own previous crop harvests • ‘neighbours’ • market places • Distant potato-producing areas (high altitude zones) Other sources (Kenya) • KARI (e.g. Tigoni station & its sub-centres) • Agricultural Development Corporation -Molo • Individual private companies (e.g. Kisima Farm, Midlands Ltd) • Farmer groups/CBOs producing clean seed potato • Individual farmers with reputable seed potato > 95% < 5%
  3. 3. Different inputs, different expectations Poor quality seed Good quality seed
  4. 4. Bacterial wilt - a consequence of planting infected seed tubers A devastated potato field A healthy, promising potato crop
  5. 5. The principle Improving seed potato quality through a seed-plot technique
  6. 6. Site selection for seed-plot establishment Might be contaminated, especially if low-lying! Probable sites (bush land, other crops, homestead, etc.)
  7. 7. Schematic presentation of seed-plot practice Seed plot Seed plot Seed plot Seed plot Main field Main field Main field Market or home consumption Market or home consumption Market or home consumption Season 1 Season 2 Season 3 Season 4 (Initial multiplication)
  8. 8. 1. Adaptation of potato seedplot technique 10 seed-plot trial sites in Kenya, managed by farmer groups: • Kianthumbi - 3 seed plots • Mutethia Mbuyene - 3 seed plots • Kibaranyaki - 3 seed plots • Muchicha - 3 seed plots Done during the 2010 long rains season (April-July) Repeated during the 2010 short rains (October-December) 5 seed plots hosted by farmer groups for three seasons (2010-2011)in Uganda: • Rushebeya • Kayanga • Kyambura • Burema • Mpangango Productivity assessed by determining tuber yields (number & weight per unit area) Methodology
  9. 9. Active participation of a farmer group in establishment of a potato seed plot Establishing a potato seed plot • A well-dug bed (loosened soil) • Narrow bed marked (1.8m width) to avoid stepping in when working. • Fertilizer applied (DAP - 18: 46: 0) and raked in. • Furrows made and tubers placed at a spacing of 30cm by 30cm. Methodology (cont’d)
  10. 10. Established potato seed plots
  11. 11. 2. Effect of fertilizer application in potato seed plots General information Cultivar used: Asante Trial location: Abo West Division, Meru Central District, Kenya. Seedplot size: 2.4m by 1.8m Spacing: 30x30cm thus accommodating 8 rows of 6 tubers (48 plants) per plot. Two fertilizer types: diammonium phosphate, DAP (18: 46: 0) Mavuno Planting (10: 26: 10) Three fertilizer rates: no fertilizer application (0kg N/ha), DAP low level (45kg N/ha) DAP high level (90kg N/ha) Methodology (cont’d)
  12. 12. CountryTrial site (Group name or host farmer) % Small tubers % Medium tubers % Large tubers Tubers/ m2 Multipl ication ratio Yield (t/ha) Kenya Muchicha (Munyugi P) 5.99 54.43 39.58 49.4 4.5 41.7 Kenya Muchicha (Bundi H) 7.16 61.30 31.54 48.5 4.4 32.1 Kenya Kianthumbi (Kimathi S) 10.33 70.41 12.37 54.4 4.9 28.4 Kenya Kianthumbi (Kaimenyi E) 5.27 71.14 23.60 62.7 5.6 40.7 Kenya Kianthumbi (Kinoti R) 5.51 60.64 33.84 44.5 4.0 45.1 Kenya Mutethia Mbuyene (Wambui) 6.84 56.16 36.94 65.9 5.9 69.8 Kenya M Mbuyene (Mbijiwe T) 7.45 54.02 33.69 41.5 3.7 44.6 Kenya M Mbuyene (Kinya M) 5.85 67.02 26.61 60.4 5.4 40.7 Kenya Kibaranyaki (Murithi I) 8.96 66.92 24.12 28.6 2.6 21.6 Kenya Kibaranyaki (Agwima S) 8.52 67.41 27.58 39.7 3.6 30.9 Uganda Kyambura 20.16 75.22 4.63 54.7 4.9 45.1 Uganda Kayanga 26.45 66.19 7.36 69.6 6.3 74.1 Uganda Rushebeya 20.35 73.74 5.91 40.0 3.6 21.6 Uganda Burema 29.49 61.22 9.29 63.6 5.7 66.4 Uganda Mpangango 49.35 45.86 4.79 47.2 4.3 15.1 Results Seed-plot potato yields in various sites in Kenya and Uganda
  13. 13. • Productivity of seed plots: 28.6 to 69.6 tubers/m2 • Mean multiplication ratio: up to 6 tubers per plant. • Yield in most of the sites was above 40 tonnes/ha. indicating that the technique was easily adaptable in many areas • Sites that had low yields also had poor tuber multiplication ratios. Results (cont’d)
  14. 14. Fertilizer regime Number of tubers by size Total tubers Total tuber yield (kg) Average weight per tuber (g) Tuber multipli cation rate Small Medium Large Zero 32.25a 102.50a 12.50a 147.25a 3.80a 25.82a 4.09a DAP-Low 23.25a 163.25b 33.75ab 220.25b 10.16b 46.12b 6.12b DAP-High 31.50a 162.00b 43.00b 236.50b 12.04b 50.93b 6.57b Mavuno- Low 29.75a 155.75b 30.75ab 216.25b 10.35b 47.85b 6.01b Mavuno- High 26.75a 133.50ab 49.25b 209.50b 11.14b 53.19b 5.82b Note: The parameters are taken from plots measuring 1.8 x 2.4m (4.32m2) Tuber productivity in seed plots with different fertilizer application regimes Results (cont’d)
  15. 15. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Small Medium Large Seed size categories Proportionoftotaltubers(%) Zero DAP-Low DAP-High Mavuno-Low Mavuno-High Potato tuber sizes under different fertilizer application regimes Results (cont’d)
  16. 16. • Seed-size (medium) tubers low DAP & low Mavuno more than DAP-high and Mavuno Planting-high • Ware-size (large) tubers: high DAP and high Mavuno Planting more than DAP-low and Mavuno Planting-low No. of tubers and corresponding total tuber yield in plots without fertilizer was significantly lower than fertilized plots. The fertilized plots did not differ significantly across all the treatments Results (cont’d)
  17. 17. Conclusion The seed-plot technology, with improved productivity through fertilizer application, can increase the availability of quality seed potato. Recommendation The seed-plot technology should be widely promoted, especially in smallholder farming systems where frequent replenishment of seed stocks is hampered by financial inadequacies.
  18. 18. Discussions/clarifications
  19. 19. Seed plot measurements Estimated amount of seed to plant in a seed plot Size of ware potato field to be covered with seed from a seed plot Width (m) Length (m) Number of tubers Weight (kg) Acres Hectares 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 4.5 9 21 32 43 64 86 90 180 420 640 860 1280 1720 6-7 12-15 28-35 43-53 58-71 86-106 115-143 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.75 1 1.5 2 0.04 0.08 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.61 0.81 Approximate seedplot sizes to produce adequate seed tubers for ware fields
  20. 20. Thank you • ASARECA • KARI and other host institutions • Participating farmer groups • Organizers, 9th Triennial APA Conference • Sponsors, 9th Triennial APA Conference • The Session Participants Z.M. Kinyua
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