Sess06 5 gastelo, diaz, landeo & bonierbale – new elite potato clones with heat tolerance, late blight and virus resistance to address climate change
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Sess06 5 gastelo, diaz, landeo & bonierbale – new elite potato clones with heat tolerance, late blight and virus resistance to address climate change

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Sess06 5 gastelo, diaz, landeo & bonierbale – new elite potato clones with heat tolerance, late blight and virus resistance to address climate change Sess06 5 gastelo, diaz, landeo & bonierbale – new elite potato clones with heat tolerance, late blight and virus resistance to address climate change Presentation Transcript

  • New  elite Potato clones with heat tolerance,  late blight and virus resistance to address  climate change Manuel  Gastelo, Luis Diaz, Juan Landeo,  Merideth Bonierbale  APA 2013 – 9th Triennial Conference  June 30 – July 04, 2013  Naivasha ‐ Kenia
  • Introduction Potato production in developing countries is expanding to warmer environments in search of income opportunities and food security, climate change is also already affecting weather patterns in traditional potato growing areas The International Potato Center has developed a new population denominated LBHT (late blight resistance plus heat tolerance), with the objective to obtain clones with: Resistance to late blight Heat tolerance Mid‐early maturity (90 days). Resistance to PVY, PVX Drought tolerance Good quality and agronomic traits
  • Causes of Climate Change Industrial activity: from the early nineteenth  century by the use of fossil fuels (CO2)  Methane gas (CH4): from intensive livestock  production . Nitrous oxide (N2O): used in aerosols incandescent lamps . With this combination of factors and events that contribute to climate change, what happened in centuries before, now occurs in decades. Effects of Climate Change Greenhouse effect - Global warming Drought
  • Effects of Climate Change on Potato The rising temperatures and the appearance of new pests and diseases affecting the production of potato crop in the world. The temperature rise from global warming is an ongoing process and with negative effects both for the production of traditional potato varieties as for new areas. So CIP decided to look for new varieties adapted to heat.
  • Materials and Methods Population LBHT: was developed using Recurrent phenotypic selection, with four season cycle Season  II 1,000 ‐ 3,000 Screening  under field conditions :   10 hill‐plot: San Ramon ( Jul – Oct) Season IV 50 ‐100 Screening under field conditions:  LB, Heat San Ramon, Oxapampa, Majes, La Molina Season I 20,000 sedlings planted under Greenhouse  for  screening by heat San Ramon,  Summer (December – April) Season III 100‐ 200 Screening under field  conditions: LB,  Heat San Ramon, Oxapampa, Majes, La  Molina Selected clones (Parents) Stability,  Varieties Virus  resistant test, drought  Clean virus for export San Ramon.‐ a warm rain forest environment at 800 m Average temperatures in experiments during tuberization under field conditions, were 21ºC at night and 27ºC at day Day Night Night
  • # Locality Altitude masl Latitude Growing seasons Agroecological zone Selection for 1 San Ramon 800 11° 08´ S Dry and Warm  Mid elevation  tropics Heat 2 La Molina 240 12° 05´ S Spring ‐ Summer Lowland tropics Heat 3 Oxapampa 1850 10°37´ S Spring ‐ Summer Mid elevation  tropics Late blight 4 Majes 1294 16° 28´ S Spring ‐ Summer Mid elevation  tropics Heat, Drought Research sites in Peru and the potato growing seasons Oxapampa  LB 1850 mals San Ramon  Heat 800 mals La Molina Heat Spring Season 240 mals Majes Heat Spring – Summer Season 1294 mals
  • Screening for virus resistence All selected clones were screened for resistance to PVX and PVY by mechanical inoculation and grafftig in the greenhouse and index by ELISA For drought tolerance comparative fields with normal and restricted irrigation were performed, for seletcion of clones was used drought tolerance index DTI Screening for Drought tolerance
  • Selection of clones with resistance to late blight were using scale of susceptibility development by Yuen and Forbes in 2009 Screening and Selection for Late Blight under field conditions
  • Yield Stability Analysis 2012 – 2013 : 61 advanced clones were assessesd for tuber yield in SRA, LAM , MAJ under high temperatures All trials were conducted in a simple lattice design 8x8 with 20 plants per plot Two varieties were used as controls : Desiree, heat tolerant and Amarilis, heat sensitive Traits measured : Plant vigor, maturity, Marketable tuber number, Marketable and Total tuber yield The experiments were harvested at 90 days after planting Stability analyiis was performed with AMMI stability model The results of the AMMI model were interpreted on the basis of two AMMI graphs for principal components and tuber yield
  • San Ramon La Molina Majes San Ramon La Molina Majes Replications 1 31.245* 27.161 26.757 57.682** 10.911 57.228* Genotypes 63 65.067** 138.491** 167.078** 68.459** 127.172** 184.397** Block/Replications 14 3.346 21.752 13.096 4.384 30.391* 13.842 Error 49 2.793 14.402 9.882 3.009 12.745 10.785 C.V. % 9.8 14.5 16.8 9.5 12 16.5 Total tuber yield  tha ‐1 Means Square Source of variation df Marketable tuber yield tha ‐1 ANOVA for Marketable and Total tuber yield (tha‐1) in three environments 2012‐2013 Results Source of variation  df  Means Square Marketable tuber yield Total tuber yield Replications/Environments  3 28.39*  41.90* Block/Replications/Environments 42 12.73  16.20* Treatments  191 153.63  177.78 Environments  2 2997.12**  5007.20** Genotypes  63 200.92**  200.30** Genotypes x Environments  126 84.86**  89.90** PCA1  64  118.01**  134.53**  PCA2  62 51.92**  45.88** Pooled error  147 9.03  8.80 C.V. % 15.20 14.31 Combined ANOVA  for AMMI  model for Marketable and Total tuber yield (tha‐1) 
  • AMMI  Yield Stability Analysis Stable Clones       Low tuber yield Stable Clones       High tuber yield   Unstable Clones       Low tuber yield  Unstable Clones       High tuber yield
  • Tuber yield of 40 elite clones under San Ramon conditions in 2012
  • 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Clones Scale Resistance to Late Blight based on Scale of susceptibility in 40 elite clones over five seasons years in Oxapampa, 2009‐2013
  • Total tuber  yield tha‐1  under  LB AUPDC Female Male San Ramon La Molina Majes Oxapampa Oxapampa LB* PVX PVY Heat Drought 30 398098.203 393371.58 392639.31 21.29 41.83 11.48 24.03 199 0.75 ER T T 31 398098.204 393371.58 392639.31 16.81 29.98 16.65 24.93 94 0.47 ER T 32 398098.205 393371.58 392639.31 18.66 26.67 13.26 11.30 259 0.56 ER T 33 398098.231 393371.58 392639.31 20.37 21.37 13.28 21.85 18 0.19 ER T 51 398201.510 393242.5 392633.64 24.54 35.05 30.65 19.41 529 0.80 ER ER T 55 398208.219 393371.58 392633.64 24.26 34.26 27.93 14.85 607 2.15 ER ER T T 56 398208.29 393371.58 392633.64 26.85 44.57 31.69 11.48 905 2.53 ER ER T 58 398208.505 393371.58 392633.64 21.29 38.19 24.87 48.63 59 0.44 ER ER T 60 398208.670 393371.58 392633.64 25.37 36.58 18.46 32.52 59 0.48 ER ER T 36 398098.98 393371.58 392639.31 16.20 16.50 13.80 12.59 166 0.35 ER T 3 398017.53 391002.6 392639.31 26.50 36.70 19.20 15.37 488 0.93 ER T 62 Amarilis 11.94 25.00 11.33 13.37 1155 3.33 NT 63 Desiree 15.74 24.71 10.16 S T 64 Granola 11.02 13.09 2.48 S T Yungay 3.15 2079 6.00 NT Kory 9.41 488 1.79 NT # Total tuber yield   tha‐1  High  Temperatures Resistance Tolerance Pedigree Clone Eleven clones with early tuberization (90 days), heat tolerance, resistance to late blight and extreme resistance to PVY suitable for mid‐elevation tropics and climate change
  • In summary good progress has been achieved in this population and 40 outstanding clones have been selected for their heat tolerance, resistance to late blight and high tuber yields and 90 days from planting to harvest. In the screening for drought tolerance 10 clones were identified that maintain their yields under water deficit conditions and that showed higher values of drought tolerance index. 28 clones were stables and 12 were unstables but all with high tuber yield and were selected as elite clones. Conclusions
  • Eleven clones with resistance to late blight, heat tolerance, early tuberization, and extreme resistance to PVY suitable for mid‐ elevation tropics and climate change; are available for variety development and further use in breeding. 29 mid‐maturing clones with heat tolerant, late blight resistant and early maturity but without extreme resistance to PVY can be recommended for highland conditions.
  • Harvest San Ramon 2012
  • Thank you