GEOFFREY OMEDO Africa Adaptation Programme Programme Officer AAP/UNDP Kenya Tel: +254-20-7625079/2327359 Skype: omedo.make...
PRESENTATION OUTLINE <ul><li>INTRODUCTION:  </li></ul><ul><li>Background, Problem Statement,  </li></ul><ul><li>LITERATURE...
KEY DEFINITIONS <ul><li>Hazard -  A dangerous condition or event that threatens or has the potential for causing injury to...
BACKGROUND <ul><li>The potential for loss of life and livelihoods due to environmental interruptions  is a global phenomen...
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND STUDY AREA <ul><li>Study was conducted in Korogocho located in the Nairobi North District, Kasara...
KOROGOCHO AND NAIROBI MAPS
SUMMARY OF RESEARCH RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
<ul><li>Common Types of hazards, their impact and coping strategies </li></ul>TYPOLOGY OF HAZARDS IN KOROGOCHO SLUM Biolog...
<ul><li>  Table 1: Flood occurrence, impact and coping strategies  </li></ul>Year Impact Coping strategies 1989 1995 1996 ...
General flooding renders houses inhabitable in Vietnam, Grogan A and Nyayo Villages
<ul><li>  Table 2: Fire occurrence, impact and coping strategies  </li></ul>Year Impact Coping strategies 1980 1993 1994 1...
Common types of housing materials in Korogocho
Table 3: Disease occurrence, impact and coping strategies  Year Disease Impact Coping strategies 1998 1999 2000 2002 2003 ...
Analysis of Hazard Probability and Severity in Korogocho <ul><li>This implies that the four most common hazards in korogoc...
<ul><li>Exposure indicators: Quality of Housing and rent payable </li></ul>(Source: Fieldwork)
EXPOSURE TO FLOODS (Source: Fieldwork)
 
The risk index for common hazards in Korogocho
DPSIR FRAMEWORK Adaptation Mitigation DRIVING FORCES Poverty Population Urbanization Policy  PRESSURES Poor Housing Enviro...
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>Vulnerability of Korogocho to Hazards is a factor of the quality of houses, livel...
RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>Urban areas: Adaptation strategies needed  </li></ul><ul><li>Projected scenarios in GCM Models wil...
 
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Omedo: Vulnerability of urban informal settlements to environmental hazards: a case study of Korogocho in Nairobi

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Omedo: Vulnerability of urban informal settlements to environmental hazards: a case study of Korogocho in Nairobi

  1. 1. GEOFFREY OMEDO Africa Adaptation Programme Programme Officer AAP/UNDP Kenya Tel: +254-20-7625079/2327359 Skype: omedo.makeke Email: [email_address] Website: http://www.ke.undp.org/ VULNERABILITY OF URBAN INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS TO ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS A CASE STUDY OF KOROGOCHO IN NAIROBI
  2. 2. PRESENTATION OUTLINE <ul><li>INTRODUCTION: </li></ul><ul><li>Background, Problem Statement, </li></ul><ul><li>LITERATURE REVIEW: </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical Studies, Urbanization, Informal settlements, </li></ul><ul><li>RESEARCH METHODOLOGY & STUDY AREA: </li></ul><ul><li>SUMMARY OF FINDINGS CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: </li></ul>
  3. 3. KEY DEFINITIONS <ul><li>Hazard - A dangerous condition or event that threatens or has the potential for causing injury to life or damage to property or the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster - A serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread human, material, or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected society to cope using its own resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Risk - The probability that a particular system or population will be affected by hazards. </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerability - Potential for loss due to a sudden or gradual environmental interruption. </li></ul>
  4. 4. BACKGROUND <ul><li>The potential for loss of life and livelihoods due to environmental interruptions is a global phenomenon, but vulnerability is more pronounced in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Over the last 20 years, there has been a notable growth of Nairobi as a regional socio-economic epicenter due to increased urban activities </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in urban sprawl and slums which pose significant challenge to the environment and livelihood </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the informal settlements in Nairobi and Africa are increasingly vulnerable to environmental hazards and disasters. </li></ul>
  5. 5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND STUDY AREA <ul><li>Study was conducted in Korogocho located in the Nairobi North District, Kasarani Division, approximately 11 kilometers from the Central Business District. Comprises of nine settlements, namely (Grogan A, Grogan B, Kisumu Ndogo, Nyayo, Highridge, Korogocho A, Korogocho B, Gitathuru and Ngomongo) </li></ul><ul><li>Sources and methods of data collection: Study made use of both primary and secondary data through a random survey of households in Korogocho; Random informal interviews, Direct field observation; and 1 Focus Group Discussion </li></ul>
  6. 6. KOROGOCHO AND NAIROBI MAPS
  7. 7. SUMMARY OF RESEARCH RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
  8. 8. <ul><li>Common Types of hazards, their impact and coping strategies </li></ul>TYPOLOGY OF HAZARDS IN KOROGOCHO SLUM Biological Geophysical Hydrological Meteorological Epidemics - Cholera, malaria, tuberculosis, dysentery, fungal infections, HIV/AIDs, common colds, flu, malnourishment Insect Infestation - infestations - Rat infestations Earthquake - Earth tremors are a common feature but no fatalities were reported Mass movement (dry) - Landslides especially during construction and in river banks Floods - El Nino floods - Common flash floods - General flooding due to poor draining systems, construction of houses in flood plains and underground water seepage - Flooding due to River Gitathuru and bursting their banks Storms - Strong storms that washed away houses - Localized storms during the main rainy season Socio-climatological Extreme temperature (i.e. cold and hot), Droughts, Fires
  9. 9. <ul><li>  Table 1: Flood occurrence, impact and coping strategies </li></ul>Year Impact Coping strategies 1989 1995 1996 1997 1998 2003 2006 2009 2010 <ul><li>People were displaced </li></ul><ul><li>Adults and children drowned </li></ul><ul><li>Houses were washed away, especially those near the river </li></ul><ul><li>Houses collapsed, especially those made of mud </li></ul><ul><li>Houses were filled with water </li></ul><ul><li>There was outbreak of waterborne diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Property and bridges were destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Small livestock were swept away </li></ul><ul><li>Temporarily moved to safer places or higher grounds </li></ul><ul><li>Dug channels to facilitate free flow of water </li></ul><ul><li>Use “soil” bags or tyres to divert water </li></ul><ul><li>The most affected received tents, food, clothes and medicine from Red Cross, the government and church (except in 2003 and 2009) </li></ul>
  10. 10. General flooding renders houses inhabitable in Vietnam, Grogan A and Nyayo Villages
  11. 11. <ul><li>  Table 2: Fire occurrence, impact and coping strategies </li></ul>Year Impact Coping strategies 1980 1993 1994 1999 2000 2007 2008 2009 2010 <ul><li>Some people were burnt to death </li></ul><ul><li>People were left homeless and helpless </li></ul><ul><li>Houses were burnt down </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of property </li></ul><ul><li>Sought refuge and help from friends and relatives </li></ul><ul><li>Sought refuge in the community centre </li></ul><ul><li>Moved to other areas </li></ul><ul><li>Went back to the rural home </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilized ourselves to stop the fire from spreading </li></ul><ul><li>The most affected received tents, food, clothes, household items, medicine, building materials and money from the church, NGOs, government, well wishers, Red Cross, Islamic community, area MP and Councillor (except in 1999 and 2010). </li></ul><ul><li>The fire brigade helped to put out the fire </li></ul>
  12. 12. Common types of housing materials in Korogocho
  13. 13. Table 3: Disease occurrence, impact and coping strategies Year Disease Impact Coping strategies 1998 1999 2000 2002 2003 2004 2006 2009 2010 <ul><li>Cholera </li></ul><ul><li>Malaria </li></ul><ul><li>Typhoid </li></ul><ul><li>TB </li></ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Common Colds </li></ul><ul><li>Some people, especially children died </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of medication was too high </li></ul><ul><li>People suffered poor health </li></ul><ul><li>Moved to designated areas </li></ul><ul><li>Took preventive measures, i.e. boiling water for drinking and improving hygiene conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Sought own treatment and medication </li></ul><ul><li>The affected people received free treatment, vaccine, medicine and food from Red Cross, the government, NGOs and the church (except in 2004) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Analysis of Hazard Probability and Severity in Korogocho <ul><li>This implies that the four most common hazards in korogocho are diseases, floods, fires and droughts </li></ul><ul><li>Droughts have the least probability and severity of occurrence. In the FGDs, respondents reported that droughts lead to secondary impacts in the informal settlement </li></ul><ul><li>Floods, fires and diseases are almost always a factor exacerbated by the living conditions ( weighted scale of 3), </li></ul>River Gitathuru
  15. 15. <ul><li>Exposure indicators: Quality of Housing and rent payable </li></ul>(Source: Fieldwork)
  16. 16. EXPOSURE TO FLOODS (Source: Fieldwork)
  17. 18. The risk index for common hazards in Korogocho
  18. 19. DPSIR FRAMEWORK Adaptation Mitigation DRIVING FORCES Poverty Population Urbanization Policy PRESSURES Poor Housing Environmental degrad. Poor infrastructure STATE disaster prone, insecure, Risky environment (disease, fires, floods,) IMPACT Poverty Deaths Diseases Hopelessness RESPONSE Policy CBO/NGOs Committee’s Awareness
  19. 20. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>Vulnerability of Korogocho to Hazards is a factor of the quality of houses, livelihoods and socio economic resilience </li></ul><ul><li>Common hazards reported are floods, fires, diseases and drought. Diseases are associated with highest vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Mitigation and Adaptation measures as captured in the DPSIR </li></ul>
  20. 21. RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>Urban areas: Adaptation strategies needed </li></ul><ul><li>Projected scenarios in GCM Models will affect vulnerability in informal settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty is a major predisposing factor, but local planning can have a major impact in reducing the levels of suceptability </li></ul>
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