Programme that is going to going to create a favorable environment in the AAP countries to anchor in an adequate ongoing upcoming adaptation projects; llong-term mainly building foundations
AAP is a strategic programme focused on building institutional and leadership capacity to lay foundation in countries2) Building capacity is major component of AAP – support institutions to organize themselves better3) Pilot projects – provide information4) Capacities to access funding international or national5) Bring the best out of the practices, replicate, bring to decision-makers
Climate change and development are inextricably linked. Climate change impacts development. Climate change must be considered in all development planning. Climate change also has implications for gender equality. MDG 3 aims to reduce women’s inequality. Climate change and gender are related because of women’s roles in the household and community make them vulnerable to climate change. Women are primarily responsible for managing natural resources. For example, women are responsible for collecting drinking water which exposes them to malaria and other water-borne illnesses. Women are also responsible for agriculture production, which is predicted to decline in many areas due to climate change. These changes would adversely impact their livelihoods. Women have developed particular indigenous knowledge and skills valuable for adaptation planning and decision-making. To mainstream gender in climate change adaptation, women’s needs must be understood. Climate change threatens to magnify existing inequalities between men and women.Women’s livelihood – which can make them more vulnerable to climate change. For example, women are often required to collect water, which can make them more susceptible to water-borne illnesses such as malariaGender mainstreaming is the process of assessing and incorporating the impact of any planned action on both men and women and ensuring that their concerns and experiences are an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of legislation, policies and programmes (Garmer 2009). Because men and women have different roles in society, they can each participate and contribute positively to climate change adaptation planning and decision-making by including both gender perspectives (Garmer 2009).
Often women are not involved in decision-making at local, national and regional levels. This includes decision-making on adaptation. Because they are not involved, their needs are not addressed. Because their needs are not addressed, they are more vulnerable to climate impacts than men.
In many developing countries, women are not involved in public sphere. They are confined to homes. They cannot leave homes – this can lead to them to not be able to escape from natural disasters. Additionally, warning information is rarely communicated to women, it is among men only. Therefore woman have much higher rates of mortality.Women’s educational opportunities are also limited, making them more vulnerable to climate change. They are not educated on climate science and climate impacts. Women are also less likely to develop coping skills, such as swimming.
Limited education and household duties limit economic opportunity. They are not able to be financially independent. Because it is difficult for them to pursue economic opportunities and their lack of financial independence, they also find it difficult to access credit. They cannot pursue alternative livelihood opportunities. Entrenched social customs limit women’s access to land. This is another limiting factor for their financial independence as land provides food security, a safety net as a form of collateral, and economy security. For example, women’s lack of financial stability inhibits them from acquiring technologies such as drip irrigation and sustainable energy systems. Land provides financial security, food security and an asset in case of emergencyLimited education limits their opportunities to pursue alternative livelihoods and improve their financial situation.
Importance to involve women in decision-making to share their knowledge among all members of the community and ensure that their needs are addressedIncrease the adaptive capacity of not only women, but communities, nations and regions
Climate science – women can understand climate impactsEarly warning – prepare for climate impactsHard strategies such as crop diversification and technologies, such as irrigation systems
Indicator: Fund established and specified percentage of national budget allocated to gender and climate change initiatives in key sectors
Ryan Laddey: Africa Adaptation Programme Experiences - gender and climate change : vulnerabilities and resilience in the face of climate change
Africa Adaptation Programme<br />Gender and Climate Change: Vulnerabilities and Resilience in the Face of Climate Change<br />
Africa Adaptation ProgrammeBackground<br /><ul><li>Established under the Japan-UNDP Joint Framework for Building Partnership to Address Climate Change in Africa
Launched in 2008 by UNDP in partnership with UNIDO, UNICEF and WFP, with funding of US$92 million from the Government of Japan </li></ul>Morocco<br />Mozambique<br />Namibia<br />Niger<br />Nigeria<br />Rwanda<br />Sao Tome<br />Senegal<br />Tanzania<br />Tunisia<br />Burkina Faso<br />Cameroon<br />Congo<br />Ethiopia<br />Gabon<br />Ghana<br />Kenya<br />Lesotho<br />Malawi<br />Mauritius<br />
Africa Adaptation ProgrammeObjectives<br />Enhancing the adaptive capacity of vulnerable countries to climate change and disaster risks<br />Promoting early adaptation through evidence-based solutions and initiatives for action<br />Laying the foundation for long-term investment to increase resilience to climate change across the African continent<br />
Programme Outcomes<br />In approaching this goal, AAP will focus its support to countries around:<br />Strengthening long term planning to enable countries to manage both existing and future risks associated with climate change and other causes<br />Building effective leadership and institutional frameworks for enhanced coordination and cohesion of programmes<br />Supporting the piloting of adaptation initiatives in the field<br />Identifying a range of financing options for sustained adaptation<br />Building knowledge management systems and promoting information sharing.<br />Planned activities to ensure that inter-<br />regional expertise and capacity <br />development is provided to 20 countries.....<br /><ul><li>Advice and assistance relating to enhanced Government policy-making and planning in this field
Support for leadership development and institutional reform as well as enabling individual development
Encouraging exposure to world best practice and data
Creation of region-wide databases and learning opportunities </li></li></ul><li>NOTE<br />The information in this presentation is from the project design phase. It was gathered from the project documents for the 20 AAP countries. It is not a reflection of implementation. <br />
The Development Context<br />Climate change and development<br />Gender inequality and climate change<br />Millennium Development Goal 3<br />Women’s knowledge and skills<br />Agriculture, Livestock<br />Households<br />Mainstreaminggender into climate change adaptation<br />Gender mainstreaming: the process of incorporating the impact of any planned action on both men and women and ensuring that their concerns and experiences are an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of legislation, policies and programmes (Garmer 2009). <br />Women’s livelihood activities are directly dependent on the natural environment.<br />
Key Challenges for Reducing Gender-Based Vulnerability<br />Decision-making Power<br />Absence of women in climate change adaptation planning and decision-making <br />Important indigenous knowledge they possess is not incorporated<br />Needs are not addressed<br />In Cameroon, women constitute13.5% of parliament.<br />
Key Challenges for Reducing Gender-based Vulnerability<br /><ul><li>Limited Access to Information</li></ul>Early Warning<br />Information not disseminated to women<br />Limited Educational Opportunities<br />Lack of formal education<br />Not educated on climate science and prediction<br />Unable to acquire certain skills (e.g. swimming)<br />After the cyclone and flood of 1991 in Bangladesh the death rate was nearly five times as high for women as for men (Brody 2008).<br />In Sub-Saharan Africa, the female adult literacy rate is 53.3 percent, while the rate for adult men is 71.2 percent (UNESCO 2009).<br />In Ghana, 44.1 percent of women have no formal education, compared to 22.1 percent of men (Ahmed 2008).<br />
Key Challenges for Reducing Gender-based Vulnerability<br />Limited Financial and Economic Opportunities<br />Due to limited education and other responsibilities<br />Lack of financial independence<br />Poor access to credit<br />Limited ownership of land<br />In Senegal, over 70 percent of women are involved in agriculture; however, they only own 13.4 percent of the land (Ahmed 2008). <br />
Gender-sensitive Adaptation Approaches in the AAP<br />Decision-making Power<br />Document and share women’s valuable knowledge <br />Equal participation of women - reduce vulnerability of women to climate change and increase adaptive capacity of communities, nations and regions<br />
Examples<br />Cameroon: Incorporating gender planning into field pilot interventionsby working with and involving women groups at local/regional level, in order to benefit the whole community<br />Nigeria: Emphasis on developing women’s leadership in key institutions, including the Ministry of Women’s Affairs, state and local government counterparts and in civil society <br />
Gender-sensitive Adaptation Approaches in the AAP<br />Access to Information and Education<br />Outreach and Awareness<br />Educate on climate science and climate impacts<br />Early warning systems<br />Hard adaptation strategies<br />Crop Diversification<br />Technology <br />
Examples<br />Ethiopia: Local-level awareness campaigns and workshops conducted on gender and climate change adaptation <br />Burkina Faso: Developing and implementing a climate change adaptation training programme for vulnerable groups and women at the community level <br />
Gender-sensitive Adaptation Approaches in the AAP<br />Financial and Economic Opportunities<br />Budget allocations for gender initiatives<br />Access to climate funds<br />Access to technologies<br />
Examples<br />Ghana<br />Specific fund and budgetary allocations to support initiatives that target women and promote gender equality in climate change adaptation programmes<br />Kenya<br />Training provided to enhance the access of women and vulnerable groups to climate financing options at the national and international level<br />