Olorunfemi: Flood Risk Management in diverse contexts: examples from Nigeria and South Africa
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Olorunfemi: Flood Risk Management in diverse contexts: examples from Nigeria and South Africa






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Olorunfemi: Flood Risk Management in diverse contexts: examples from Nigeria and South Africa Olorunfemi: Flood Risk Management in diverse contexts: examples from Nigeria and South Africa Presentation Transcript

  • FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT IN DIVERSE CONTEXTS: EXAMPLES FROM NIGERIA AND SOUTH AFRICA Olorunfemi, F.B * , Battersby-Lennard, Jane and Raheem, U.A * Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research, Ibadan
  • Outline
    • The study area
    • Climate change, disaster risk and governance
    • Vulnerability of the two cities studied
    • Key findings
    • Management of flood risk in the City of Cape Town
    • Getting communities involved
    • Conclusion
  • The good….?
  • The bad …?
  • The ugly …?
  • Climate Change as ‘Risk Multiplier’
    • In the Climate Change (CC) discourse, it is widely recognised that CC is a ‘risk multiplier’ with respect to a range of risks that are not directly associated with CC
    • Local experiences of extreme weather events have made it obvious that climate change mitigation and adaptation are matters of multi-level governance
    • The challenging problem is; how do we effectively shape human institutional responses to the risk of weather related disasters especially floods?
  • Flood Risk management in the context of climate change
    • The long term horizon of climate change pose special challenges for urban flood risk management
    • climate change provides new incentives for the need to plan ahead and to anticipate extreme weather events and trends
  • Climate change Vs Disaster Risk
    • Adverse impacts of climate change on society may increase disaster risk
    • Disasters themselves erode environmental and social resilience, and thus increase vulnerability to climate change
    • Climate change – and the likely increase in disasters – threatens to block pathways out of poverty in Africa
  • Governance in the Context of CC and DRR
    • The nature of governance is a major determinant of the success of an adaptation process to CC.
    • The governance frameworks required for disaster risk reduction give governments a key role through coordination and participation mechanisms
    • This requires the definition of policy, establishment of robust institutions, local authority capacity-building, and partnerships between numerous stakeholders, including civil society, NGOs and private sector
  • Governance in the Context of CC and DRR
    • Lebel et al, (2006) elaborate this approach and identify participation, deliberation, decision-making diversity, justice and accountability as key attributes of an ‘adaptive’ governance system
    • Where forms of governance preclude effective community participation and discourage co-management practices, local resilience tends to be low and adaptive capacity limited (Finan and Nelson, 2009)
    • On the other hand, a more resilient socio-ecological system operates in a multi-nodal, well articulated decision-making context where knowledge production and learning are dynamic and stocks of social capital generate bonds of trust (Gaventa, 2002)
  • Vulnerability of Cape Town to CC
    • Cape Town is vulnerable to climate change. A significant number of previous disasters and events have been associated with weather conditions (Murkheibir and Ziervogel, 2006)
    • Despite the efforts of the Cape Town City administration, the countless impacts of flooding in the informal settlements are still very much apparent (City of Cape Town, 2009)
    • The study focused on the management of flood risk in Cape Town’s informal settlements, with specific attention to both immediate needs and the long-term challenges posed by climate change
  • Vulnerability of Ilorin to Flooding
    • Frequent rainstorms and flooding in Ilorin has made it one of the most vulnerable cities in Nigeria in the recent past
    • The number of such incidents has been on the increase in the last few years
    • So also has the severity which translates into extensive damage to properties and the livelihoods of the people
  • Key Findings
    • The vulnerability of people in the two study areas is generated by multiple stressors
    • Key conditions generating vulnerability include poverty, overcrowding and social inequity
    • Physical dimensions of vulnerability reflect in the nature of building and location
  • Management of Flood disasters Kwara State Emergency Management Agency Disaster management Unit of the Department of Housing (informal settlements) Management structure None Upgrading/Relocation Long term plan Post disaster relief Preparedness, early warning, relief Response type After response Before and after response Response timing None at city level Cape Town Weather data, CSAG Weather information Ilorin Cape Town
  • Recent strategies implemented by the City of Cape Town
    • Monitoring and warning system, which relied on monitoring stations
    • Flood retention ponds and weirs developed to strengthen the stormwater infrastructure
    • Maintenance of infrastructure by relieving the drainage systems of built-up sand and debris
    • Development of resilient infrastructure to include appropriately designed and constructed low-income homes, storm-water drainage and sewage treatment installations to cope with flash-floods
  • Additional strategies
    • Communication and awareness programme
    • Capacity building programme involves brochures, tips, workshops, and flood risk education, including notification to informal communities within flood prone areas
    • Disaster risk management team (a joint effort between the City of Cape Town, Provincial Government and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs)
    • Mapping of high flood risk areas
    • Flooding and Storms Plan (Winter Readiness Programme )
        • unblocking of stormwater drains,
        • the upgrading of stormwater systems,
        • regular inspections of retention ponds,
        • a public education programme
        • emergency plan to handle possible disasters
  • Cape Town‘s strategic approach towards flood risk management
  • Getting communities involved …
    • Participatory risk assessment is a methodology that has been developed to engage communities developmentally, using highly participatory approaches and a bottom-up approach
    • It provides insights into how risks are generated and can be reduced
    • A Community Risk Assessment can be adapted and applied in numerous contexts, for a wide range of risks
    • It is underpinned by a commitment to participatory engagement with at-risk communities and relevant stakeholders
  • Conclusion
    • The climate change and variability are likely to worsen the prospects for poverty eradication unless action is taken to become response-capable
    • This requires a focus on reducing vulnerability, achieving equitable growth and improving the governance and institutional context in which poor people live
    • Strategies to reduce vulnerability should be rooted in vulnerability analysis and greater understanding of both household-level and macro response options that are available to decrease the poor’s exposure to climate risk
  • Acknowledgements
    • Funding for the principal author to carry out this study was provided by START, Washington DC, USA under the African Climate Change Fellowship Programme, a programme of Climate Change Adaptation in Africa (CCAA) jointly funded by DFID and IDRC
  • Thank you for listening E se pupo