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Negussie: Role of plant health clinics in enhancing adaptive capacity to climate induced plant health problems: Experiences from Kenya
 

Negussie: Role of plant health clinics in enhancing adaptive capacity to climate induced plant health problems: Experiences from Kenya

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    Negussie: Role of plant health clinics in enhancing adaptive capacity to climate induced plant health problems: Experiences from Kenya Negussie: Role of plant health clinics in enhancing adaptive capacity to climate induced plant health problems: Experiences from Kenya Presentation Transcript

    • Role of plant health clinics in enhancing adaptive capacity to climate induced plant health problems: Experiences from Kenya Negussie E, P. Karanja, D. Romney, C. Muriithi, R. Kamau, E. Boa, N. Zombe, R. Wanjiku, N. Murage, M. Mulaa, R. Day and J. Mutisya   CABI Africa
    • Introduction
      • Changing climate & weather variability have impacts on trends & distribution of pests/diseases,
            • creating new threats to farmers.
      • Adaptive capacity is needed to detect & quickly respond to new pest problems.
      • Most African countries however lack early detection and rapid response systems for new or changing pest problems.
      • Interventions by public extension are often inflexible and do not enable smallholders to cope with unpredictable changes & emerging challenges.
      • The majority of small-scale farmers do not have access to adequate and timely advice on how to handle existing or emerging plant health problems (Bentley, 2009).
    • Introduction ...
      • Different actors are poorly linked:
          • Affecting flow of information, coordination and effectiveness of service delivery.
      • Plant health clinics, an initiative by the Global Plant Clinic (GPC) alliance led by CABI, emerged (from 2002) as a response to these gaps/limitations.
      • Since 2003, plant health clinics have been established in several developing countries
    • What are plant health clinics and how do they operate?
      • PHCs are community based public service delivering demand-driven advice to farmers
          • are run by trained agronomists or extension workers at public places
          • have basic facilities – table, chairs, shade, reference books, photos
          • can be integrated to existing structures and activities
      • Farmers bring samples of their ailing crops for diagnosis, and often leave with recommendation/advice.
      • The recommendations incorporate scientific and indigenous knowledge
            • are adapted to specific local conditions
      • Clinic data also provide information on changing status of pests/diseases
          • providing early warning of emerging threats.
      • Clinic staff diagnosis and respond rapidly to a demand
      • The farmer brings her problems to the clinic
        • Samples
      • And receives advice/ recommendations, immediately
    • The need to move towards creating a plant health system
        • The initiative is based on the understanding that capacity to adapt is not just a function of individuals or organisations,
          • but of the whole system and
          • how its parts interact and perform sustainably.
      • Thus the clinics need to be connected as part of a more integrated plant health system.
          • Has to be linked to other actors and services.
          • This would help to provide effective services more sustainably
    • Initiation of the Kenyan plant health clinics
      • Over 80 plant clinics became operational in different
      • African, Asian and Latin American countries
      • Encouraging results from the previous plant clinics led to
      • the initiation of the current Kenyan scheme
          • – towards mid 2010.
      • The aim is to establish PHCs and provide farmers with
      • regular and reliable access to locally relevant advice on
      • management of plant health problems caused by climate
      • change & other drivers.
      • Also aims to support establishment of a more effective
      • national plant health system that can provide farmers
      • with quality advice more effectively and sustainably.
    •  
    • Processes in rolling out PHC in Kenya and achievements
      • 20 plant clinics were established in 10 districts of Kenya in 6 months.
      • Various governmental, CBOs and private organizations have been involved.
      • Key processes and stages in rolling out the plant clinics were:
        • Identification of partners/clinic organizations;
        • briefing and consultative meetings with partners;
        • nomination of staff to be trained and operate plant clinics;
        • training of plant doctors;
        • joint planning (where, how many, by whom, when to run plant clinics, etc)
        • running plant clinics;
        • publicity through various local channels;
        • monitoring and backstopping
        • facilitating information and experience sharing.
    • Clinic sessions held, queries received & outreach
      • Plant clinics are run by one or more organizations.
      • The majority were operating weekly or fortnightly at fixed places
      • Some sessions were held during field days, exhibitions, agri shows, etc.
      • Over 248 sessions were held in about six months (table 1).
      • Had wide outreach:
          • Close to 5000 queries received on various plant health problems.
          • Farmers from over 240 villages visited 4 of the clinics in 6 month.
          • Early studies indicate that each clinic serves around 2000 people.
          • Plant health problems brought to clinics vary from clinic to clinic based on:
              • locations, agro-ecology and the value farmers attach to the crops.
    • Table 1. No. of clinics established, sessions held and queries received (June 2010 - January 2011) Clinic district No. of clinics started No. of clinic sessions held No. of queries received Clinics running organization Nakuru North 4 38 >189 MoA Machakos 3 50 382 MoA + CBO Kikuyu 3 13 94 MoA Kirinyaga 2 14 104 MoA Embu 2 24 249 MoA (+KARI+KEPHIS) Mukurwe-ini 1 14 >80 MoA Transnzoia, Kwanza and Bungoma 4 92 2972 2 CBOs (+KARI) Meru 1 3 22 Private company Total 20 248 >4092
    • Table 2. Crops received in three clinic clusters in the first six months Crop Number of queries presented to the clinics Embu Kitale 1 (Dajopen) Kitale 2 ( Killi SH) Maize 45 286 24 Kales 22 197 15 Beans 15 192 8 Tomatoes 13 217 19 Bananas 29 74 9 Fruits (Avocado, orange, passion, mango, pawpaw) 1 20 Irish potato 11 51 3 Cabbage 68 4 Night shade 40 14 Coffee 35 7 Spinach 38 2 Cow peas 34 14 Watermelon and pumpkin 8 29 Cassava 12 14 Sweet potato 16 6 Onion 12 4 Finger millet 10 1 Ground nut 8 5 Capsicum 10 Sugar cane 8 2 Others 23 >105 >15
    • Role of plant clinics in identifying new pests and diseases
      • Clinic records provide invaluable information about the status of existing and emerging pests and diseases
          • are instrumental in maintaining vigilance.
          • E.g. Maize rough dwarf virus
      • Previous experience shows that 40 new diseases had been discovered and confirmed by the GPC from 22 countries (Boa and Reeder, 2009),
      • Information on emerging plant health issues can be used to:
          • inform research
          • facilitate rapid responses from regulatory bodies and extension agencies
          • thus help to effectively manage new pests/diseases as well as to curb the spread of existing ones.
    • Table 3: Crop pests/diseases brought to some of the clinics in the first six months Crop health problems diagnosed Frequency of query Embu Kitale 1 (Dajopen) Kitale 2 (Killi SH) Insects + bird damage (on various crops) 3 228 42 Maize head smut 47 14 Banana Fusarium wilt 8 10 5 MSV & stalkborer 11 17 Blights (on various crops) 12 10 Bacterial infection (on various crops) 3 18 12 Mildews (various crops) 9 4 Leaf spot 19 1 CBD 5 Black rot (Cabbage and kale) 2 5 Bean anthracnose 2 Abiotic factors (various) 51 4 Viral infection (on various crops) 27 Rust 14 Cassava mosaic 11 Nematodes 5
    •  
    • Role of plant clinics in adapting to effects of climate change
      • Build capacity at community and national levels through:
          • training, provision of relevant advice, technical support, and creation of networks.
      • Experience shows that plant clinics and plant healthcare system:
          • can provide community level adaptation mechanism to cope with the changes in pest risks caused by the changing climate and other drivers
          • builds adaptive capacity through provision of timely, and location specific information and effective advices,
            • to enable the community take relevant adaptation actions
          • are also useful in maintaining effective vigilance among the community,
            • serving as early warning mechanism
            • contributing to national surveillance initiatives.
    • Role contd...
          • Information generated by clinics play vital role in driving demand-led innovation and adaptation interventions.
          • enabling research, extension, regulatory bodies and others to respond to farmers’ priority problems/threats
          • both scientific & indigenous knowledge are recognised in providing advices
      • Help farmers to use environment friendly inputs & avoid excessive and indiscriminate use of agro-chemicals.
        • limited technical capacity among some local staff running plant clinics;
        • trained extension staff transfer, and overwhelming assignments
        • tendency to view the activity as a project;
        • some organizations struggled to effectively integrate plant clinics to their existing activities/budget;
        • limited publicity for the clinics;
        • Limitations in effectively linking clinics to other services – eg. diagnostic labs.
      Challenges and constraints in implementing PHCs in Kenya
    • Lessons learnt and conclusions
      • Community based PHCs have proved to be invaluable source of advice,
          • helping farmers to manage plant health problems
          • help national agencies to monitor and timely respond to emerging changes & risks of crop pests as a result of CC & other factors.
      • PHCs can provide early warning system of the effects of CC on plant health
      • Help to tap and build on local potential and IK in addressing impacts of climate change and other emerging problems.
          • can serve as an interface between community’s emerging responses and national responses,
      • Play vital role in promoting locally relevant, affordable and environmentally friendly practices and technologies.
      • Effective integration of plant clinics into existing institutional structures and establishment of strong plant healthcare system are crucial
    • Thank you for your attention! Email: [email_address]