Gender, Food Insecurity & Climate Change among Pastoral Communities: Mandera and Turkana Northern Kenya NANCY A. OMOLO UNI...
Livestock Production & the Kenyan Economy <ul><li>Livestock is their major source of livelihood and  </li></ul><ul><li>foo...
Climate Change & Livestock Production <ul><li>It has been projected that climate change will alter the regional distributi...
Predicted Impact of Climate Change on Livestock Production <ul><li>According to Thornton et al (2002), of the planet’s  </...
Death of Animals Due to Drought in Mandera
Summarize future rainfall scenarios for Turkana and Mandera districts.
Gender and Climate Change <ul><li>Empirical research undertaken by Cutter (1995),  </li></ul><ul><li>Denton (2002) and Ena...
Women Fetching Water in Turkana
Objective 2 - of the Project <ul><li>Objective: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and evaluate gender dimensions of vulnerability...
Project Sites & Sample Size This was determined by types of ecological livelihoods zones :  Agro-pastoralism and Primary  ...
Methodology TRIANGULATION TRIANGULATION QUATITATIVE DATA Structured questionnaires Climate data (rainfall &temperature) QU...
Women Focus Group Discussion in Turkana
Men Focus Group in Turkana
Women FGD in Mandera
ANALYSIS <ul><li>Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) </li></ul><ul><li>The data summarised in tables, chart...
Factors Contributing to Climate Related Vulnerability MEN WOMEN Direct risk from conflict over water and pasture; cattle r...
Findings – Existing Diversified Livelihoods SOURCES OF INCOME Kapua Katilu Namoruputh Women (%) Men (%) Women (%) Men (%) ...
Findings: Coping Strategies in the Number of Meals a Day Number of meals in a day Mandera (%) Turkana (%) One 21.1 78.5 Tw...
Types of Food Eaten by Pastoralists in Northern Kenya  <ul><li>  </li></ul>TRADITIONAL FOODS NEW  FOODS Animal products (i...
Conclusion & Recommendation <ul><li>The types of food consumed by pastoralists  have changed over the years. Today most of...
Conclusion & Recommendation <ul><li>There is evidence of diversification of livelihoods, however pastoralists involvement ...
Acknowledgments <ul><li>SUPPORTED BY: </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Change Adaptation in Africa CCAA Program funded by IDRC & ...
THANK YOU;  ASANTE SANA
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Nancy A. Omolo: Gender, food insecurity and climate change amongst pastoral communities: case studies of Mandera and Turkana in Northern Kenya

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Nancy A. Omolo: Gender, food insecurity and climate change amongst pastoral communities: case studies of Mandera and Turkana in Northern Kenya

  1. 1. Gender, Food Insecurity & Climate Change among Pastoral Communities: Mandera and Turkana Northern Kenya NANCY A. OMOLO UNIVERSITY OF KWAZULU NATAL – DURBAN , SOUTH AFRICA
  2. 2. Livestock Production & the Kenyan Economy <ul><li>Livestock is their major source of livelihood and </li></ul><ul><li>food security. </li></ul><ul><li>Kenya’s livestock production accounts for 24% of total agricultural output. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 70% of the country’s livestock and 75% of wildlife are in the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs). </li></ul><ul><li>(Orindi et al ., 2007:1). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Climate Change & Livestock Production <ul><li>It has been projected that climate change will alter the regional distribution of hungry people, with particularly large negative effects in sub-Saharan Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Smallholder and subsistence farmers, pastoralists and artisanal fisherfolk will suffer complex, localised impacts of climate change, due both to constrained adaptive capacity in many places and to the additional impacts of other climate related processes (IPCC, 2007). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Predicted Impact of Climate Change on Livestock Production <ul><li>According to Thornton et al (2002), of the planet’s </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 billion poor people, at least 90% of them are </li></ul><ul><li>located in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, climate change </li></ul><ul><li>will have major impacts on the more than 600 million </li></ul><ul><li>people who depend on livestock for their livelihoods. </li></ul><ul><li>These impacts will include changes in the productivity </li></ul><ul><li>of rainfed crops and forage, reduced water availability </li></ul><ul><li>and more widespread water shortages, and changing </li></ul><ul><li>severity and distribution of important human, livestock </li></ul><ul><li>and crop diseases. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Death of Animals Due to Drought in Mandera
  6. 6. Summarize future rainfall scenarios for Turkana and Mandera districts.
  7. 7. Gender and Climate Change <ul><li>Empirical research undertaken by Cutter (1995), </li></ul><ul><li>Denton (2002) and Enarson (2002) has shown that </li></ul><ul><li>entitlements to elements of adaptive capacity are </li></ul><ul><li>socially differentiated along the lines of age, ethnicity, </li></ul><ul><li>class, gender and religion. </li></ul><ul><li>Dankelman (2002:24) argues that climate change </li></ul><ul><li>it is often seen as a technical problem, requiring </li></ul><ul><li>technical solutions. However there are many social </li></ul><ul><li>and political aspects to this complex issue. Climate </li></ul><ul><li>change is not gender neutral and in many cases, </li></ul><ul><li>communities interact with their physical environment </li></ul><ul><li>in a gender-differentiated way </li></ul>
  8. 8. Women Fetching Water in Turkana
  9. 9. Objective 2 - of the Project <ul><li>Objective: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and evaluate gender dimensions of vulnerability to climate change among the social groups in Turkana and Mandera communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Identify women and men’s PERCEPTIONS on the impact and intensity of climate variability and change (droughts and floods) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate women’s and men’s VULNERABILITY to climate variability and change </li></ul><ul><li>Identify women & men’s COPING & ADAPTATION STRATEGIES to climate variability and change </li></ul><ul><li>Ascertain CONSTRAINTS AND OPPORTUNITIES women and men face in adapting to climate variability and change </li></ul>
  10. 10. Project Sites & Sample Size This was determined by types of ecological livelihoods zones : Agro-pastoralism and Primary pastoralism PROJECT SITES SAMPLE SIZE MANDERA Rhamu 345 Khalalio 423 TURKANA Namoruputh 104 Katilu 275 Kapua 273 TOTAL 1420
  11. 11. Methodology TRIANGULATION TRIANGULATION QUATITATIVE DATA Structured questionnaires Climate data (rainfall &temperature) QUALITATIVE DATA Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) Key indepth interviews (KIIs) SECONDARY DATA SOURCES Government of Kenya development reports Journals, Published books, Research reports Peer reviewed journal, internet databases
  12. 12. Women Focus Group Discussion in Turkana
  13. 13. Men Focus Group in Turkana
  14. 14. Women FGD in Mandera
  15. 15. ANALYSIS <ul><li>Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) </li></ul><ul><li>The data summarised in tables, charts and graphic presentations </li></ul><ul><li>The Moser Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Gender roles identification/ triple role; Gender needs assessment; Disaggregating </li></ul><ul><li>control of resources and decision-making within the household; </li></ul><ul><li>Livelihood Sensitivity Matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Livelihood sensitivity exercise is a useful tool for helping identify vulnerable livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>and consequently targeting adaptations that aim to increase the resiliency of </li></ul><ul><li>particular livelihood strategies to climate change. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate modelling – climate change scenarios </li></ul>
  16. 16. Factors Contributing to Climate Related Vulnerability MEN WOMEN Direct risk from conflict over water and pasture; cattle rustling Reproductive role (i.e. fetching firewood, water, taking care of the sick..) Loss of social status through loss of animals Minimal decision making power Reduced decision-making power Cultural stereotypes Low income (poor physical infrustructure and lack of market information) Low earning power (selling animal products like milk poor physical infrustructure, lack of market information) Illiteracy (difficulty in accessing technological innovations) Illiteracy (difficulty in accessing technological innovations) Difficulty in accessing markets (because of poor physical infrastructure) Difficulty accessing markets (as compared to men because they little social network and also poor physical infrustructure)
  17. 17. Findings – Existing Diversified Livelihoods SOURCES OF INCOME Kapua Katilu Namoruputh Women (%) Men (%) Women (%) Men (%) Women (%) Men (%) Selling livestock /products 3.9 21.9 17.6 30.2 36.6 48.8 Farm produce/Farming - - 37.0 42.5 1.1 12.2 Charcoal burning 37.6 41.1 8.1 1.9 - 2.4 Business 4.4 2.8 7.5 14.6 Weaving baskets 40.4 27.4 - - - - Casual labourer - - 1.5 1.9 Remittance from family/relative 2.8 - 0.7 - 1.1 2.4 Sale Firewood 0.3 - 13.9 4.7 20.4 - Local brewing - - 2.9 - 5.4 2.4
  18. 18. Findings: Coping Strategies in the Number of Meals a Day Number of meals in a day Mandera (%) Turkana (%) One 21.1 78.5 Two 51.8 16.1 Three 26.3 0.3
  19. 19. Types of Food Eaten by Pastoralists in Northern Kenya <ul><li> </li></ul>TRADITIONAL FOODS NEW FOODS Animal products (i.e. meat, milk, ghee, blood) Maize Wild Fruits Rice Millet Beans Pasta (especially in Mandera)
  20. 20. Conclusion & Recommendation <ul><li>The types of food consumed by pastoralists have changed over the years. Today most of the foods consumed are either bought or given to them as famine relief. This has made pastoralist s dependent. Hence there is need to strengthen the pastoral system through developing favourable policies. </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoral livelihood is very vulnerable to climate variability and change because their existing coping strategies cannot deal with the current climatic risks. Women are more vulnerable than men because of the combination of reproductive and productive roles. However, women are vulnerable depending on: age, disability, literacy level and socio-economic status. Important to support organisations which promote gender equity and make available alternative energy and time saving stoves. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Conclusion & Recommendation <ul><li>There is evidence of diversification of livelihoods, however pastoralists involvement in so many activities is a symbol of stress in the pastoral system. However, it is important to document and support the existing coping strategies through financial support (i.e. micro-finance) and capacity building. </li></ul><ul><li>There are similarities and variation in women and men coping strategies. Adaptations varies by geographical regions and culture. Therefore there is need in incorporating gender in adaptation strategies, while taking into consideration geographical and cultural differences. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Acknowledgments <ul><li>SUPPORTED BY: </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Change Adaptation in Africa CCAA Program funded by IDRC & DFID </li></ul><ul><li>The study was carried out by Kenya Vulnerability Research Team </li></ul><ul><li>(KVRT) through Practical Action; Foodlink Resources, National </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Management Authority (NEMA); University of </li></ul><ul><li>Maseno and Kenyatta University. </li></ul><ul><li>African Climate Change Fellowship Programme (ACCFP) </li></ul><ul><li>Supported Global Change of System of Analysis Research and </li></ul><ul><li>Training (START) and its partners Africa Academy of Sciences (AAS) </li></ul><ul><li>and Institute of Research Assessment (IRA) funded by IDRC and DFID </li></ul><ul><li>University of Kwa Zulu Natal, South-Africa </li></ul>
  23. 23. THANK YOU; ASANTE SANA

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