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Lindiwe Sibanda: New Thinking on Community-led Responses: From Local to Global
 

Lindiwe Sibanda: New Thinking on Community-led Responses: From Local to Global

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  • Preamble slide leading to the following Communities role in development
  • November hits high – COP16 meetings

Lindiwe Sibanda: New Thinking on Community-led Responses: From Local to Global Lindiwe Sibanda: New Thinking on Community-led Responses: From Local to Global Presentation Transcript

  • New Thinking on Community-led Responses: From Local to Global AfricaAdapt Climate Change Symposium Addis Ababa, 11 March 2011 Lindiwe Majele Sibanda (PhD) CEO, FANRPAN
  • Outline
    • From Local to Global
    • Understanding the Local Context
    • Understanding the Global (Policy) Context
    • Innovations for scaling UP- What can be done?
  • From Local to Global
  • From Local to Global
    • COMMON VISION-Sustainable Development for a World free of Hunger and Poverty
    • Facilitating linkages and partnerships between state and non state actors at all levels
    • Building the capacity for policy analysis and policy dialogue in Africa
    • Advocating for evidence based policies
  • From Local to Global Global Policy Making and Investment Options (Local and Indigenous Knowledge) Empirical Learning Anecdotal Findings National/Countries Policy Frameworks Continental Policy Frameworks Feedback
  • Linking Local to Global Model Natural, Physical, Financial, Human and Social HOUSEHOLD Livelihood Assets   Agri. Production Databases Climate Data GIS Mapping OF assets Policy Development National Policy Level Community Livelihood Global Level Data Global Knowledge Research Level Scaling Up Scaling Down   Policy Dialogue
  • Understanding the Local Context YOU CAN’T IMPROVE WHAT YOU DON’T MEASURE!
  • Which Communities?
    • Over 75% of the African population lives in RURAL areas
    • 80 % of farmers in Africa are smallholder farmers
      • rely on rain-fed agriculture for their livelihoods
      • Women constitute 70% of the labour force
    • Produce 80 % of the food that is consumed by Africans
      • on farms that are less than 2 hectares
  • Household Vulnerability In Africa
    • A quarter of the world’s chronically poor population is in Sub-Saharan Africa,
    • One in 6 – 7 people are chronically poor.
    • Two-thirds of this population lives in rural areas, and rely on rain-fed subsistence agriculture for their livelihood
  • ● Land Owned - 1 ha ● Main Crops - Staples ● Yields - Maize 100kg/ha ● Fertilizer used - 20% of recommended ● Agricultural implements owned - hand hoe FACE of an African Small-scale Farmer
  • Measuring Household Vulnerability
    • Measure the vulnerability of households and communities to the impact of shocks:
      • Natural assets such as land, soil and water;
      • Physical assets such as livestock and equipment;
      • Financial assets such as savings, salaries, remittances or pensions;
      • Human capital assets such as farm labour, gender composition and dependents; and
      • Social assets such as information, community support, extended families and formal or informal social welfare support
    http://www.fanrpan.org/documents/d00217/
  • Typology Of Vulnerable Households Capital Low vulnerability Moderate vulnerability High vulnerability Human
    • Headed by an economically active household member
    • Very low dependency ratio (less sick members and no orphans)
    • Several economically active members
    • Tertiary level education
    • Headed by an economically active household member
    • Dependency ratio is low, less sick members and no orphans
    • At least two economically active members
    • Secondary school level education
    • Headed by an economically inactive person, e.g. elderly, sick or child
    • Dependency ratio is high, more orphans and sick members
    • Economically active members are few
    • Illiterate, or educated to primary level
  • Typology Of Vulnerable Households Capital Low vulnerability Moderate vulnerability High vulnerability Natural  
    • Mostly rely on inorganic fertilizer
    • High agriculture productivity
    • Utilize land for mostly commercial farming
    • Manages the environment very well
    • Household use both inorganic and organic fertilizers
    • Medium agriculture activity
    • Utilize much land for subsistence and some for commercial farming
    • They can fairly manage the environment
    • Organic fertilizers are the main sources of fertilizers
    • Low agriculture productivity
    • Utilize less land for subsistence farming
    • They cannot manage the environment well
  • Typology Of Vulnerable Households Capital Low vulnerability Moderate vulnerability High vulnerability Social
    • No support from NGOs and govt
    • Well-informed on agric and HIV/AIDS - Owns a TV and radio
    • House electrified
    • Uses an improved latrine or
    • Water from private borehole or standpipe
    • Some means of support from NGOs and govt
    • More knowledgeable on agric and HIV/AIDS - Owns a radio
    • Uses solar energy for lighting
    • Uses a pit latrine
    • Water from protected source
    • Support from NGO ’ s and govt - food and health
    • Poor access to information on agric and HIV/AIDS
    • Dependant on firewood for household energy
    • Uses the bush for toilet
    • Water from unprotected source, e.g. dam, river
  • Typology Of Vulnerable Households Capital Low vulnerability Moderate vulnerability High vulnerability Physical
    • Own important livestock in large numbers
    • Contracted labour for farm and off farm work
    • Own major farm implements
    • Receive and able to buy agricultural advisory services
    • Affords more than three meals per day
    • Own important livestock in sustainable numbers
    • Labour for farm and off farm work
    • Owns basic farm implements
    • Receive some agricultural extension services
    • At least three meals per day
    • Own very little or no livestock
    • No labour for farm and off farm work
    • Do not own farm implements
    • Do not regularly eat three times a day
  • Typology Of Vulnerable Households Capital Low vulnerability Moderate vulnerability High vulnerability Financial
    • Diversified income source
    • Income is used on a balance of needs (farming inputs, education, health, recreation etc), investments and savings
    • Fairly diversified income source
    • Income is used on a balance of needs (farming inputs, education, health, recreation etc)
    • No basic source of income
    • Social grant is used on food and medicines
  • Results from HVI Assessments in Pilot Countries year 2010 Country No. of households surveyed Household vulnerability levels (%) Low Moderate High Lesotho 2,581 1.3 94.5 4.1 Swaziland 3,212 1.2 93.9 4.9 Zimbabwe 6,089 8.2 90.6 1.2 Average 3.6 93.0 3.4
  • Understanding the Policy Context
  • The Policy Environment: A Confused Arena Source: John Young, Networking for impact. Experience from CTA supported regional agricultural policy networks, 2007 Monitoring and Evaluation Agenda Setting Decision Making Policy Implementation Policy Formulation Civil Society Donors Cabinet Parliament Ministries Private Sector
  • Fig 1: A framework for linking research, policy and practice The Policy Environment: The Key Players
    • RESEARCH SYSTEM
    • ACTORS
    • Research
      • Public (universities and research centre)
      • Private
      • Civil Society
      • Policy makers
    • POLICY SYSTEM
    • ACTORS
    • politicians & political system
    • Civil servants
    • Universities
    • Civil societies and groups
    • PRACTICE SYSTEM
    • ACTORS
    • Producers of goods and services
    • Input providers
    • Organized groups of interest
    • LINKING ENVIRONMENT ACTORS
    • Education, Institutions,
    • Incentives, Innovation policy,
    • Political systems and channel
    • Stakeholder platforms
        • Egypt
    EAC Reunion Tanzania Burundi Rwanda CEPGL Swaziland SACU IOC
        • Comoros
    SADC COMESA Mauritius Madagascar Seychelles Zambia Zimbabwe Malawi DRC Angola Algeria Morocco Mauritania Tunisia Botswana Lesotho Namibia South Africa
      • Libya
    UMA
        • Djibouti
        • Ethiopia
        • Eritrea
        • Sudan
        • Kenya
        • Uganda
    Somalia IGAD Cape Verde Liberia Gambia Ghana Guinea Nigeria Sierra Leone Benin Burkina Faso Ivory Coast Mali Niger Senegal Togo UEMOA ECOWAS Cameroon Central Africa Republic Chad Congo Equatorial Guinea Gabon CEMAC CFA Mozambique Sao Tome and Principe ECCAS Regional Integration-Africa
  • The Policy Environment: Challenges in Policy Development
    • Plethora of actors
      • African policy environment is crowded, and involvement demands flexibility and responsiveness
    • Lack of empirical data to validate assumptions
      • Reliance on external information & databases
    • Insufficient resources for continuous engagement
    • Engagement in policy processes is the preserve of government and the literate…YET
      • Africa has some of the world’s lowest literacy levels in some countries rates as low as 40 %
  • The Policy Environment: Challenges in Policy Development
    • Plethora of actors
      • African policy environment is crowded, and involvement demands flexibility and responsiveness
    • Lack of empirical data to test assumptions
      • Reliance on external information & databases
    • Insufficient resources for continuous engagement
    • Engagement in policy processes is the preserve of government and the literate…YET
      • Africa has some of the world’s lowest literacy levels in some countries rates as low as 40 %
  • The Research Challenges
    • Lack of multi-and trans-disciplinary and research teams
    • Research agenda not ALIGNED to
      • community needs
      • policy concerns and government agenda
    • Lack capacities to communicate research results to policymakers
      • Language
      • Medium / channels
  • The Policy Challenges
    • Lack of capacities to integrate knowledge into policy
    • Absence of foresighted policy targeted at the existing problems using research result
    • Weak demand for research input by African policymakers
      • Over reliance on external knowledge at the expense of local knowledge
  • Research & Policy Into Use: The Challenge
    • Lack of information to enable engagement in the policy and research processes
    • Disconnect between Researchers, Policy Makers & Community:
      • Little support from research and policy
      • Suspicious of research and policy
    • When the bull elephants fight – it’s the grass that suffers
    Scientific Knowledge Indigenous Knowledge Rural Communities!!! Local Community vs. Researchers
  • Innovations in Linking Local to Global
  • Africa’s Oral Culture
    • ORAL CULTURE has been used for 1000’s of years to
      • pass on knowledge across generations without a writing system.
    • An important role in Africa's history
      • stories of the old times and the history of the continent preserved this way
    • Encompassed stories, songs and folklore
      • sometimes performed to give a richer and more expressive way of communication
  • Why Theatre for Policy Advocacy
    • Theatre makes use of Africa’s traditional ORAL CULTURE :
      • Song, dance, narrative and ceremonial rituals a part of African tradition
      • Defines a community’s identity
    • Theatre is a powerful medium for communicating ideas
      • Levels the field,
      • Breaks barriers and
      • Addresses topics that are deemed “taboo”
    • The TPA process
      • Is developed and refined by various development agents, researchers, social scientists and theatre specialists
      • Stimulates dialogue and action - a theatrical performance is a major social event in rural Africa
      • Provides a holistic enactment of the community's responses to the challenges of daily existence and development
      • Works through community based processes
  • The FANRPAN Model: Theatre for Policy Advocacy Policy Change through Theatre for Policy Advocacy Rural Women Farmers ISSUES Researchers and Policy Analysts EVIDENCE - DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT
  • The Theatre for Policy Advocacy Process
    • Community entry and mobilization
    • Secure the community’s buy-in for developing their own theatrical performance
    • Identification of appropriate performers, stakeholders and influencers
    • Engagement of policy researchers and development experts
    • Theatre company, policy researchers and communities develop a script capturing
    • key issues
    • Policy makers provide “expert” at the same time they gain community knowledge
    • that only villagers and farmers have
    • Building local capacity to communicate key messages through theatre
    • Community performers equipped with skills to package their own livelihoods
    • stories and mobilize their own communities towards a solution
    1 2 3
  • The Theatre for Policy Advocacy Process
    • Community dialogue platform
    • Theatre performance provides a platform for researchers and policy makers
    • to engage in dialogue with different community groups
    • Performances serves as an icebreaker and sensitizer
    • Facilitated discussions are conducted to develop community based and
    • community supported solutions to women’s challenges
    • Identification of champions for community issues
    • Communities together with the professional theatre team identifies opinion leaders
    • The identified champions are individuals who are passionate about the issue and
    • willing to advocate on specific interventions
    • Community Voices taken to National & Global levels
    • Trained local talent and issue champions become a permanent community voice
    • They access and incorporate broader policy data to add weight to their advocacy
    • messages
    • They communicate their needs in a language that makes sense to relevant decision
    • makers
    4 5 6
  • Theatre in Action: Women Farmer Voices Malawi, Everlyn Machete asked: “ we no longer have agricultural extension service workers in our communities and visiting us everyday, so how do you expect small holder farmers like us to learn new farming technologies or to learn how to improve our agricultural enterprises” In response, Mrs. Alice Kishombe, the Agriculture gender Roles and Extension Support Services Officer (AGRESSO) says the “Government has a shortage of Extension workers and hence no officers are assigned to villages. Extension services were provided on a demand basis ”.
  • REGIONAL: Advocacy – Women Farmer Advocates
    • Name: Mrs. Nevelesi Maliseni
    • District: Lilongwe North, Malawi
    • Land Size: 5Acres
    • Farming Activities: Grows Tobacco; Maize and Soya beans
    • Level of Education: She holds a Junior Secondary certificate
    N ame: Miss Alice Kachere District: Lilongwe North, Malawi Land Size: 2.4 Hectares Farming Activities: Grows Maize; Tobacco; Soya and Groundnuts Level of Education: She holds a Junior Secondary Certificate http://www.fanrpan.org/themes/eachproject/?project=6
  • From Community to National Level
    • Innovative Strategies – Theatre for Policy Advocacy
      • Community dialogues
      • Support of oral culture and transcribe to written communication that is far reaching
      • Action research
    • Amplifying local voices
      • Widen decision making process
      • Training of women advocates
    • Success Stories
      • Document good practices- local secondary schools aided by tertiary institutions
    • Validating local knowledge
      • Tertiary Institutions-Local, colleges, Universities
  • Multi-Stakeholder Trans-boundary Engagements
  • REGIONAL: Linking Policy Demand & Supply Policy Advice/Options/Evidence to support policy development Enabling policies – Production to Trade and Markets (Value Chain) Enabling policies – Production to Trade and Markets (Value Chain) Validation, analysis and dissemination POLICY HORMONISATION VALUE FOR $ Rallying point for FANR news SUPPLY Government/Policy Makers Farmers Organisations Private Sector Researchers/Policy Analysts Technical Partners Development Partners Media Youth NGOs Enabling environment for their active engagement in the value chain Enabling policies - advocacy
  • REGIONAL - Multi – Stakeholder Policy Dialogues POLICY ADVISORY NOTES-TO GOVERNMENT (Node Host Institution submits, follows up and reports back at next stakeholder engagement Ongoing Research Studies Emerging Issues and FANR Policies Tracking National Policy Dialogues (Periodic) NATIONAL LEVEL Policy Advisory Process Agenda for Policy Engagement REGIONAL LEVEL
    • Coordination of multi-country studies
    • Synthesis of research evidence
    • Into Agenda for Policy engagements
    • Networking, sharing
    • of information, regional and
    • global representation
    • Africa Region
    • Representatives from:
    • Farmers’ Organisations
    • Governments
    • Private Sector
    • Researchers
    • Development Partners
    • Media
    • Youth
    • NGOs from all FANR Stakeholder Groups
  • REGIONAL: Knowledge Dissemination Platforms
    • Information Dissemination to Strengthen Policy Advocacy
      • Multi-stakeholder Policy Dialogue platforms – i.e. CAADP round tables
      • Media Training on documenting best practices in the region
      • Training women scientists in Policy Development-AWARD Programme
      • Engagements with Regional Economic Communities – harmonization of policies
  • REGIONAL: Advocacy - Wise Elders Group 60+
    • WHO -Former Presidents/ Prime Ministers, Head of key Institutions, Chiefs, Parliamentarians
    • ROLES- ADVOCACY Engagement with Regional economic secretariats, Ministers, Donors
    • Seed Elders:
    • Former Prime Minister of Swaziland and Advisor to the King
    • Chairman, Civil Society of Agriculture Network
    • Executive Director, African Centre for Fertilizer Development
    • Former Deputy Permanent Secretary Ministry of Agriculture, Zimbabwe
    • Former Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture Zambia
    • Former Permanent Secretary for Energy, Zimbabwe
    • FANRPAN HaSSP Seed Elders with SADC FANR Secretariat Director at the technical meeting preceding the SADC Ministers of Agriculture Meeting in Windhoek, Namibia- November
    http://www.fanrpan.org/themes/eachproject/?project=6
    • FANRPAN Food Security Policy Leadership Awards
    REGIONAL - Recognizing African Success 2008 2009 H. E. Dr. Bingu wa Mutharika President – Republic of Malawi H.E. L. DIEGO, Prime Minister – Mozambique On behalf of President Emilio Guebuza 2010 Hon. Abraham Ivambo, Minister of Education – Namibia On behalf of President Hifikepunye Pohamba http://www.fanrpan.org/about/annual_dialogues/
    • Inaugural FANRPAN Civil Society Policy Movers and Shakers Award
    • Ms. Cellina Cossa, 2009
    • Presented by Hon. Sindiso Ngwenya, FANRPAN Board of Governors Chairman & COMESA Secretary-General
    REGIONAL - Recognizing African Success Madame Celina Cossa founded the General Union of Agricultural Cooperatives, an organization of 10,000 peasants, 95 percent of whom are women. The 200 cooperatives under UGC produce food for their members and their families. The surplus they have generated is supplied to markets in Maputo, Mozambique http://www.fanrpan.org/about/annual_dialogues/
  • At Global Level
    • UNFCCC Engagements
      • “ no agriculture, no deal”
      • ARDD
      • ACCID newsletters
    • Policy advocacy tools
      • Newsletters
      • policy briefs
      • FANRPAN Website
    • Ministerial briefings
      • AU
      • COMESA
      • SADC
    • Smart Partnerships
      • MOUS with partners-Shared vision
    • High-level Policy Engagements
      • Interview with H.E. Ngwazi Dr. Bingu wa Mutharika
      • Interviews with CNBC, BBC, Voice of America
    • Communities participate in global engagements
      • Linking local CBOs-International NGOs
      • Building community confidence to value their
    • Climate Change Research and Policy Practice
      • Home grown research and data – HVI
      • Review of NAPAs and NAMAs, CAADP
  • GLOBAL: Exclusive Interview with His Excellency Ngwazi Dr. Bingu wa Mutharika “ MALAWI SHALL NEVER GO BEGGING FOR FOOD AGAIN” 2004 “ IN 5 YEARS NO AFRICAN CHILD SHOULD DIE OF HUNGER AND MALNUTRITION” January 2010 State President of the Republic of Malawi & Minister of Agriculture and Food Security, Malawi Chairman of the African Union http://www.fanrpan.org/documents/d00935/
  • GLOBAL - Mobilising the Global Community to support Africa’s Position COMESA- Partners with Researchers and Advocacy Teams http://www.fanrpan.org/documents/d00623/
  • Communication Tools
    • PRINT
      • Policy Brief Series
      • Newsletters
      • Policy Advisory Notes
      • Project Brochures
      • Country Studies
  • Electronic/Digital Media www.fanrpan.org
  • www.fanrpan.org - Hits , Visits , Sites Nov 2010-1,313,040 Hits
  • USE AND LINK TRANSBOUNDARY Institutions and Networks
  • FANRPAN Structure: Network of Networks DRC FANRPAN Regional Secretariat Malawi Namibia Mozambique Tanzania Mauritius South Africa Swaziland Lesotho Angola Botswana Zimbabwe Zambia Government Researchers CSOs Madagascar Farmers Private Sector Commercial Farmers Small-scale farmers associations Commodity Associations
  • FANRPAN Node Hosting Institutions Angola: Government Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MINADER) Botswana: Policy Research Institute Botswana Institute for Development Policy Analysis (BIDPA) DR Congo: CSO/NGO Center of Dialogue for Legal and Institutional Reforms (Centre d’Echanges pour des Reformes Juridiques et Institutionnelles (CERJI)) Lesotho: Policy Research Institute Institute of Southern African Studies (ISAS) Madagascar: Government Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries: Department of Rural Development Policies Malawi: CSO/NGO Civil Society Agriculture Network (CISANET) Mauritius: University University of Mauritius: Faculty of Agriculture Mozambique: University Eduardo Mondlane University. Faculdade de Agronmia e Engenharia Florestal Namibia: Policy Research Institute The Namibian Economic Policy Research Unit (NEPRU) South Africa: Policy Research Institute National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) Swaziland: CSO/NGO Coordinating Assembly of NGOS (CANGO) Tanzania: Policy Research Institute Economic and Social Research Foundation (ESRF) Zambia: CSO/NGO Agricultural Consultative Forum (ACF) Zimbabwe: Policy Research Institute Agricultural Research Council (ARC)
  • FANRPAN Structure: Membership Size
    • Totals include other membership groups within associations
    Country Government Farmers Research NGOs Donors Private for profit Other Total Angola 5 6 9 3 23 Botswana 27 9 unions 3 1 5 6 18 74 Lesotho 6 ministries 1 5 7 6 2 27 Madagascar 5 5 unions 3 2 2 2 1 20 Malawi 3 6 unions 5 60 8 12 94 Mauritius 6 ministries 5 federations 6 2 apex 5 12 12 Parastatals 48 Mozambique 4 2 unions 12 2 12 3 35 Namibia 2 2 unions 4 3 4 2 17 South Africa 1 4 6 23 34 Swaziland 7 5 12 Tanzania 13 4 unions 10 5 1 2 35 Zambia 12 4 1 7 6 16 45 Zimbabwe 30 3 unions 25 20 4 50 132
  • REGIONAL - FANRPAN Board of Governors FANRPAN CEO PS Ministry of Agriculture, Swaziland USAID COMESA Secretary-General National Depart of Agriculture, South Africa Ministry of Agriculture Zimbabwe Former PS Ministry of Agriculture, Zambia Professor University of Pretoria
  • Levers for Scaling-up from Local To Global?
  • Way Forward: The Building Blocks
    • Seek out and scale up innovative solutions by
      • incorporating communities’ aspirations into policy processes
      • Document and validate successful interventions
      • Train policy “champions” who can spread the word
      • Media is key in spreading the word
    • Collaborate across disciplines
      • More collaboration in multi- and trans-disciplinary teams
      • Look for ways to work together, while not losing the advantages of deep sectoral expertise.
  • Way Forward: The Building Blocks
    • Create an environment in which cooperation can thrive by
    • Building effective regional and global partnerships
    • developing mutual accountability mechanisms
    • using communication and advocacy to promote change
    • Build the evidence base
    • Collect relevant data in timely fashion, improve tools and methods, and invest in monitoring and evaluation.
    • Rope in African Universities to be custodians of knowledge and partners in development
  • Lessons Learned
    • Context is important to drive the environment in which science operates; communities should set research agendas to improve relevance and uptake
    • Multi- and trans-disciplinary research teams are important to tackle complex issues of Climate Change
    • There must be a systematic way of communicating policy recommendations to policy making and practice
    • Create a network of like-minded institutions to sustain research knowledge brokerage
    • There is need for trust and credibility; openness and continuous communication is very important
  • REGIONAL - FANRPAN High-level Food Security Policy Dialogue, Maputo 2009 Hon S. Ngwenya, SG – COMESA, FANRPAN Board Chair H.E. L. DIEGO Prime Minister Mozambique Hon. C. Pajune Vice Minister - Agriculture Mozambique Hon S. Holland, Minister - National Healing Zimbabwe Prof. H. Amani FANRPAN Board Chairman (2004 – 2007) Madame C. Khupe USAID Dr. S. Mundia, Member - FANRPAN Board Dr. L. M. Sibanda, CEO FANRPAN Prof, Mucavele Former CEO NEPAD Madame C. Cossa Winner – FANRPAN Civil Society Award Winner Pro. Filipe J. Cuoto Vice-Chancellor UEM
  • FANRPAN 2011 Annual High-level Food Security Policy Dialogue Theme : Looking to the future: Advocating for Active Engagement of the Youth in the Agricultural Value Chain Host Country: The Kingdom of Swaziland Venue: The Royal Swazi Spa Hotel, Mbabane Dates: SEPTEMBER 2011
  • Message for CoP17, Durban, South Africa