Hailu Tefera/Assefa Tofu: Poverty alleviation and environmental restoration using the Clean Development Mechanism – a case study from Humbo, Ethiopia
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Hailu Tefera/Assefa Tofu: Poverty alleviation and environmental restoration using the Clean Development Mechanism – a case study from Humbo, Ethiopia






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  • 420 km SSW of Addis Ababa 1979 air photo The project site is severely degraded areas and the community has depended on these lands for grazing and limited firewood collection. Data on the historical and current land use/land cover change has been collated from participatory rural appraisals (PRAs) in the Soddo and Humbo project. The It was further confirmed that carbon stocks are declining and will continue to decline if land management remains in the status quo. The available aerial photographs of the site confirm this.
  • 7 communities on the periphery of this 2700 ha of degraded forest
  • We were feeling our way – went slowly from a feasibility study in Oct 2004 to the project inception in Oct 2006 – 2 years before the area was closed and under community cooperative management
  • Official start in October 2006 – pictures taken at about 18 months – June 2008 Top left: Tesfaye and Bola community members involved in tree pruning. Bottom left: Regrowth on stumps responds positively to pruning by producing improved tree form and more rapid growth. Top right: Trees planted to fill gaps where there are no regenerating stumps in foreground (grevillia robusta) and FMNR managed trees in background. Centre: Hailu, then project manager showing trees which had been pruned 3 years earlier. Lower right: “What was really striking compared to earlier visits was the return of birds and their songs to the area. Villagers also reported sightings of various wild animals not seen in years. “

Hailu Tefera/Assefa Tofu: Poverty alleviation and environmental restoration using the Clean Development Mechanism – a case study from Humbo, Ethiopia Hailu Tefera/Assefa Tofu: Poverty alleviation and environmental restoration using the Clean Development Mechanism – a case study from Humbo, Ethiopia Presentation Transcript

  • Poverty alleviation and environmental restoration using the CDM A Case Study from Humbo Ethiopia Presentation to the World Congress of Agroforestry, Nairobi, Kenya, 23-28/Aug/2009 Douglas R. Brown – Glendon College, York University Paul Dettmann &Tony Rinaudo – World Vision Australia Hailu Tefera & Assefa Tofu – World Vision Ethiopia
  • Out line
    • Introduction
    • Process steps followed
    • Techniques used to implement
    • Early results achieved
    • Eventual results
    • The role of the project to adaptation to CC
    • Challenges and risks
    • conclusion
  • Introduction
    • Land degradation in Ethiopia is a major challenge mainly due to
      • Demand for Agricultural practices
      • Dependency on wood and biomass for household energy
      • Common pool resource with no tenure regime- specially on communal lands
      • About 83% of the population depend on agriculture
      • Currently less than 3.4% of its original forest is remained
    • Located south west of the country 380km away from the capital city
    The Humbo Community-based Natural Regeneration Project
    • About 2728ha of hills became barren due to lack of ownership (tragedy of common) this has led to distraction of forest due to
    • Fire wood collection and charcoal making
    • WV in consultation with the government and community launched a project to avert the situation in 2006
    The Humbo Community-based Natural Regeneration Project
  • The process steps followed
    • Series of consultation at all level and at level
    • Involving community in decision at all stage- participatory process
    • Involving multi stake holders (WV,WB,Gov’t, community
    • Securing tenure right/user right certificate provision
    • Organizing community into FDPC
    • Capacity building-community empowering
    • Formation of 7 community cooperative associations
  • The technique and associated practices
    • FMNR – Farmer Managed Assisted Natural Regeneration
      • Developed in Niger – adapted to the local context
    • Refilling by plantation where there is poor stumps and soil seed bank
    • Reasons for adoption of FMNR
      • Low cost
      • Simple
      • Replicable
  • The technique and associated practices
    • FMNR – Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration
  • Early results
    • Economical
    • Besides the obvious tree regrowth, people have benefited from
      • Pruned branches
      • Grass harvesting through cut and carry
      • Non-wood forest products
      • Income from Carbon revenue (34,184USD)
    • Environmental
      • Increase in vegetation
      • Decrease in soil and wind erosion,
      • increase infiltration
      • increase in biodiversity-wild lives have started to come back to home
      • Improved microclimate
    • Social benefits
      • Formal recognition of user rights of communities to manage the forest
      • Uptake of the FMNR technique
      • Awareness creation and increased knowledge
      • Legal recognition and written bye laws
    Early results
  • Early results
    • Partnership
      • Because of working in partners it became successful as a result,
      • It became a learning center for NGOs, Gov’t
      • Research center for universities and research institution both from local and international level
      • Different regional government visited the project and started to adopt FMNR technique. Eg. North Ethiopia- Tigray region
      • Government, World Bank and WV agreed to replicate Humbo across the country under the umbrella of sustainable land management project funded by WB and other multilateral agencies-
        • On the process of MOU development
        • On process of organizing National workshop by the 3 parties in the coming March 28-30, 2011
        • Already 11 watersheds have been identified to incorporate the Humbo experiences
  • Eventual results
    • CDM funding from carbon credits. WV signed with WB to buy 165,000tCO2 sequestered in the 1 st ten yrs out of estimated 880,295tC02 over the crediting period.
    • the communities are expecting to earn 726,000 USD in the 1 st ten yrs, the 1 st payment 34,184USD has already been released to community
    • Community-designated development projects to implement using the revenue
    • Improved resilience and adaptive capacity
  • The role of this project to CC adaptation
    • It is hardly possible to improve the resilience of agrarian community with out giving due attention to watershed/natural resource (forest, water, soil e.t.). So forests
      • Improves land productivity (improving soil fertility, water infiltration, reduced soil erosion)
      • Reduce flooding which is one effect of climate change
      • Diversifies income- -trees are more resistant to change of weather so can serve as food, fodder
      • Tress are assets for bad time( income from sale of fire wood, poles and construction materials)
      • Creat acces t6o carbon credit
      • Improve crop resistance to drought reducing evaporation through its mulching effect
  • Challenges and risks
    • High transactions costs
      • Community cooperatives reduced this some
    • Land demarcation disputes
      • Resolved through patient discussion
    • Slow initial adoption
      • Time and effort to help all understand
  • conclusion
    • Securing Land tenure certification for the community and establishment of socio cultural appropriate institution facilitated sense of community ownership
    • Initial investment on community participation process will help to bring significant benefits
    • It is possible to restore forest through simple technology and community empowerment
    • FMNR not only restore natural resources but also minimizes the negative consequence of exotic tree specious
    • Helping small holder farmers to access the carbon credit would be one means of improving their resilience capacity to climate change
    • It needs to employ trees that provide multiple benefits beyond the carbon income
  • Thank you
    • For more information contact:
      • Douglas R. Brown – [email_address]
      • Tony Rinaudo – [email_address]
      • Assefa Tofu – [email_address]
      • Hailu Tefera – [email_address]