The contribution of Urban Agriculture to climate change FanaAbay and BisratAlayu Enda Ethiopia Africa Adapt 2011
Outline Effect of Climate change on urban setting Urban Agriculture as a climate adaption mechanism. Facts on Urban Agriculture The role of Urban Agriculture in society. ENDA Ethiopia’s experience with UA. techniques that can be used to promote Urban Agriculture. Conclusion
Hundreds of millions of Urban dwellers in low and middle income nations are at risk from direct and indirect impacts of climate change. Around 1 billion urban dwellers live in poor quality, overcrowded housing in “Slums” or informal settlement, and high portion of these settlements are on sites at risk from flooding or landslides (Mehrotra et. Al. 2009). That Climate Change poses a threat to water sources is already apparent through threats from increasing incidents of storms, flooding, drought, and the overloading water and drainage systems in many regions (IWA, 2009; IPCC, 2007). Effect of Climate Change on Urban Setting
Effect of Climate Change on Urban Setting At Global level, IPCC identified four major aspects of climate change relevant for urban settings:
Heavy precipitations and increase in frequency, posing challenges for physical infrastructure, water quality and quantity.
Increase in area affected by drought, which has impact on food production, water supply, energy supply and health.
According to National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA), the most vulnerable sectors to climate variability and changes are agriculture, water and human Health. ENDA WILL COMMISSION A STUDY soon FOR THE IMPACE OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN ADDIS ABABA!
Urban Agriculture as a climate adaption mechanism. Climate Change adaptation and mitigation are global and local concerns. Adaptation to climate change refers to adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects. it is important to advocate innovative, low cost, and community based climate change adaptation measures. Fisaha I (2010) recommends Urban Agriculture, Vegetable farming/gardening, Fruit production, Composting, and Tree Planting as Adaptation mechanisms to climate change.
Urban Agriculture Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) defined urban agriculture as: “ [A]n industry that produces, processes and markets food and fuel, largely in response to the daily demand of consumers within a town, city, or metropolis, on land and water dispersed throughout the urban and peri-urban area, applying (bio)intensive production methods, using and reusing natural resources and urban wastes to yield a diversity of crops and livestock.”
Facts and figures indicating that UA should take a pivotal role in alleviating Urban poverty couple with climate change. 50% of the world’s population lives in cities. 800 million people are involved in urban agriculture world-wide and contribute to feeding urban residents. Low income urban dwellers spend between 40% and 60% of their income on food each year. By 2015, about 26 cities in the world are expected to have a population of 10 million or more. To feed a city of this size – at least 6000 tonnes of food must be imported each day. Nearly all of the world’s population growth between now and 2030 will be concentrated in urban areas in developing countries, so that by then almost 60 % of people in developing countries will live in cities. 250 million hungry people in the world live in cities.
UA today urban agriculture has been recognized as a means of community based approach to enhance food supplement, income and employment by NGOs and the relevant governmental offices. A number of poorer households have been involved in urban agricultural practices. UA already supply food for about 700 million city dwellers (1/4 of the urban population).
Urban Agriculture as a climate adaption mechanism. The need for UA will increase with the anticipated population growth and increased urban density. Multifaceted benefits of UA Promote Nutrient cycling Enhance Food Security Minimize greenhouse gases Emission Enhance Urban environment Promote Energy Efficiency Promote Waste Management
Fertilizers, pesticides and other agricultural chemicals increased loss of nutrients from the soil and litter level of ecosystems, thus affecting nutrient cycle
UA emphasizes closed nutrient cycles, biodiversity, and effective soil management providing the capacity to mitigate and even reverse the effects of climate change. UA decreases fossil fuel emissions and sequesters carbon in the soil.
The elimination of synthetic nitrogen in organic systems decreases fossil fuel consumption by 33 % and carbon sequestration takes CO2 out of the atmosphere by putting it in the soil in the form of organic matter which is often lost in conventionally managed soils.
Soil carbon data show that UA practices are among the most effective strategies for mitigating CO2emissions.
enhance Food Security UA as a means to diversify the income source of poor and to mitigate the nutritional as well as food insecurity gap. UA provides food security for urban residents by promoting self-sufficiency. UA as affordable food response to urban poor food demand increase due to Rural - urban migration.
Diverse & multidimensional agricultural systems will allow for the adaptation of crop and farming practices in response to rapidly changing climate conditions and will help to ensure food security (SHIVA).
Increase concentration of greenhouse gases Emission Gases that trap heat in the atmosphere are called greenhouse gases.
Minimize greenhouse gases Emission UA reduces the effects of climate change by decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike industrial farms, ua is cultivated and harvested with minimal mechanization and do not use oil-based fertilizers. food that is grown and sold locally eliminates the need for wasteful plastic packaging and fossil-fueled transport to market.
Enhance Urban environment Urban greening and Forestry. Promote simple Soil and water conservation practices. increasing the amount of vegetation in urban areas would reduce surface temperatures during hot months and improve urban air quality. Beautification of Urban neighborhoods Clean up of contaminated vacant space.
Promote Energy efficiency minimizing transportation cost and the fossil fuel use. fresh local food production minimizes the energy used to store and process food. having fresh food available locally would reduce carbon emitting transportation.
Promote Waste Management (WM) With continuous urbanization the bulk of urban waste increases (Partial view of Addis Ababa waste disposal site, pictures from ENDA Ethiopia)
Promote WM …. landfill gas coming from organic solid waste that produce a variety of gaseous products. Gaseous products produces pollutants and toxins that in turn trap heat and intensify global warming. UA plays a key role in this respect as it effectively addresses trouble by giving value to waste through composting. 17
Urban Agriculture and Urban poor (Phase I) ENDA targeted the Urban Poor, youth groups, Iddirs (Local traditional neighborhood associations), schools, and relevant government organizations in Addis Ababa. Objective: Improve the livelihoods of the urban poor in the project area through the promotion and intensifying of Bio-Intensive Gardening (BIG), Small Scale Dairy Production (SSDP) and poultry production. Result: Created employment and income generating opportunities, and ensured availability and access to food nutrient. 19
Urban Agriculture to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS. ENDA Ethiopia targeted HIV/AIDS infected and/or affected urban dwellers in Addis Ababa. Objectives: Improve the livelihoods, nutrition, health and income of the urban poor households challenged by HIV/AIDS in the project area through the promotion and intensifying of Bio-Intensive Gardening (BIG) and small scale poultry production. Results: Improved nutrition and health; social inclusion through overcoming fear of stigma, discrimination, and building self-confidence; improved household income; and Encouraged Innovation & entrepreneurship 20
Urban poverty and migration The global level of urban poverty, currently estimated at 30%, is predicted to grow to 50% by 2020, with nearly all of this growth taking place in the world’s less developed countries (UN-HABITAT 2004). climate change will “intensify” preexisting migration by the rural poor households. (UN-HABITAT 2004). Across Africa desertification and a consequent decline in agricultural output is displacing increasingly large amounts of people. An estimated 10 million people within Africa have been forced to migrate over the last two decades due to desertification or environmental degradation. 21
Urban Agriculture as a climate adaption mechanism. UA CAN address the problem of increasing urban poverty, rural-urban migrant poor, and climate change BY USING BIOINTENSIVE METHOD. Biointensive method is an organic agricultural system which focuses on maximum yields from the minimum area of land, while simultaneously improving the soil. Following Simple, low cost and applicable technologies from locally available materials , one can maximize production and productivity from UA in the city. 22
Difficulties of practicing ua ENDA is aware of the difficulties faced when trying to promote UA in urban setting. Difficulties Land Water compost Knowledge 23
Land materials like barrel, sacks, tires, ceramic containers, etc. are possible solutions at local level for the ‘common’ and increase efficiency. urban space problem (Different container gardening techniques, picture ENDA Ethiopia) Sacks Barrel Tyer 24
Water Unlike the rain fed rural agriculture, most UA activities are small scale and the moisture requirement per initiative and the soil moisture lose through evaporation is minimum.
almost all members of the vegetable cooperatives come from the Gurage area (Davis: 2005) the Gurages traditionally rural Agriculturalists (O’Connor 1983, cited in Davis:2005) continue to farm in the city because this is the trade and life style they know.
(Practical training, picture ENDA Ethiopia) To start the UA initiative minimum agricultural equipment supports training on improved agricultural practices Minimum supervision 27
Conclusion UA can be adapted to mitigate the impact Climate change maintaining Nutrient cycling, enhancing Food Security, Minimize greenhouse gases Emission, enhancing Urban environment, Energy Efficiency and Waste Management. Thank you! 28