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Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development
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Fatima Denton: Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or climate compatible development

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  • Rates are based on the changes in cover of all forests, including forest plantations. See how the highest rates of deforestation appear to be in the semi-arid tropical belts and this has not changed between 1990-2000 and 2000-2005.Taken from Ecostudies: http://pvanb.wordpress.com/2010/02/27/a-map-of-deforestation-in-africa-using-r-2/
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    • 1. Links between adaptation, mitigation and low carbon, or ‘climate compatible’ development<br />Fatima Denton<br />The Climate Change Adaptation in Africa Program - Team Leader<br />
    • 2. Outline <br />Messages - Key messages and assumptions<br />Definitions - What do we mean by climate resilient development?<br />Adaptation &amp; Mitigation -What are the intersections between adaptation and mitigation?<br />
    • 3. Outline <br />4. Transitions<br />- Vulnerability to resilience <br />- adaptation to adaptation and mitigation <br />- piecemeal adaptation – to a transformational process adaptation and mitigation within a sustainable development context<br />5.Questions– Key Questions<br />6.Conclusion – Concluding Remarks<br />
    • 4. Key Messages <br />Climate is a key ‘resource’ and a key ‘hazard’ -– but it is 1 exacerbating factor within a complex mix of current vulnerabilities<br />Poverty reduction is still the overriding challenge for most countries in Africa<br />
    • 5. Key Messages <br />Processes that are necessary to build both adaptive and mitigative capacity are strongly correlated with sustainable development<br />Responses to CC will continue in many parts of Africa to be un-cordinated – a process of ‘muddling through’ <br />Making the transition from planned incremental responses to a transformative process of social change takes time<br />
    • 6. Definitions <br />Climate Resilient Development<br />R= to (1) buffer disturbance, (2) self-organize, and (3) learn and adapt<br />Recovery potential, Opportunity/adaptive capacity<br />Resilience development has several strands – socio-economic resilience ( income, knowledge, technology), institutions, governance, ecosystems and communities <br />What does a climate ‘resilient’ development means ?<br /><ul><li>Development that minimises harm triggered by CC and exploits development opportunities associated with low carbon emissions
    • 7. Sustainability element – climate risk management as important for the enhancement of sustainable development practices
    • 8. Silo treatment – adaptation cannot be done in a silo – but should include both present and future risks</li></li></ul><li>1st Transition – Vulnerability to Resilience<br />Agriculture remains a key growth and strategic sector<br />1st Challenge – enhancing the adaptive capacity of the smallholder farmer (understanding the drivers of vulnerability)<br />2nd Challenge – Improving soil fertility and productivity and how this underpins issues relating to food security and poverty (ecosystems resilience)<br />3rd Challenge – Weak institutions – enhancing the capacities of local institutions to enable local communities to adopt improved technologies and innovations<br />4th Challenge – Diversifying options and thinking in terms of surpluses<br />5th Challenge – work with demand groups i.e. communities and decision makers on their response capacities.<br />
    • 9. 1st Transition - Vulnerability to Resilience <br />Human vulnerability and food insecurity – rainfall and economy in Sub-Saharan Africa. <br />For Sub-Saharan Africa, patterns in economic growth follow precipitation patterns closely. <br />As rainfall has decreased over the last 30 years, so has economic development.<br />Rainfed agriculture represents a major share of the economy of countries in Africa as well as for domestic food supply.<br />Improved water resources management and a wider resource base are critical to the stability and security that is required for economic development –<br />Sources Barrios, Salvador, LuisitoBertinelli &amp; Eric Strobl. 2003. Dry Times in Africa: Rainfall and Africa&apos;s Growth Performance, 2008. <br />
    • 10.
    • 11. Food needs / Soil fertility<br />Food insecurity in Africa remains unacceptably high (27%); agricultural production has to increase by at least 4 to 6%yrs to meet growing food needs of the continent<br />This will require urgent increase of soil fertility of cropland, reduction of deforestation and grassland conversion<br />10<br />
    • 12. 2nd Transition – Adaptation to Adaptation and Mitigation <br />Agricultural Sector <br />Carbon sequestration = enhances adaptation and sustainability of crop production <br /><ul><li>by increasing carbon concentration in the soil through better management practices = multiple benefits
    • 13. For biodiversity, soil fertility and productivity, and soil water storage capacity </li></li></ul><li>2nd Transition – Continued.<br />2. Soil Management - practices that reduce fertiliser use and tend to increase crop diversification<br />3. Integrated crop rotation and diversification, and zero or reduced tillage have potential to improve soil carbon sequestration and reduce GHG<br />4. Compensation – paying off resource dependent communities for carbon sequestration and funds used towards adaptation practices<br />5. Carbon Trade + REDD = huge potential for forestry and agriculture<br />
    • 14. 2nd Transition Adaptation to Adaptation and Mitigation<br />Carbon sequestration / Biomass improvement <br />Reforestation  Increasing of plant litter  carbon sequestration and increasing of soil organic matter; <br />
    • 15. Jatropha is<br /><ul><li>adapted in arid, semi-arid and sub-humid conditions
    • 16. yield oil seed for decades after planting
    • 17. used as a medicinal plant
    • 18. used as a living hedge to prevent soil erosion
    • 19. associated with rainfed agricultural system
    • 20. used traditionally by women to make soap
    • 21. Source of energy</li></ul>MFC<br />14<br />MFC<br />
    • 22. Landavailability<br />FAO study based on soils and climate (2000)<br />15<br />HIGH POTENTIAL FOR BIOFUEL DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA<br />
    • 23. 2nd Transition Adaptation – Adaptation and Mitigation <br />Water Sector <br />- Reduction in water supplies in the large rivers in Sahel will affect agriculture and energy production <br />1. Conservation tillage = increase soil water retention in drought conditions whilst also sequestering carbon below ground<br />2. Irrigation potential - Small scale irrigation facilities can conserve water in and also increase crop productivity and soil carbon<br />
    • 24. 59 transboundary river basins<br />And 38 transboundary aquifers<br />Transboundary waters in Africa<br />Africa counts:<br />
    • 25. Energy resource of Africa<br />Energy Sector <br />Diverse and good share of global fossil and renewable energy resources<br /> 6.2% of coal <br />7.7% of oil<br />7.2% of Natural Gas <br />Few Geothermal sources <br />Large potential of biomass, hydro, solar and wind<br />Nearly all the resources are under exploited<br />18<br />
    • 26.
    • 27.
    • 28. 2nd transition – A- A&amp;M<br />Promotion of low energy production systems <br />Promotion of efficient energy use by commercial agriculture and agro-industries<br />Efficient use of biomass, shells, peanuts, bagasse = mitigative benefits reduction in the use of charcoal and fuel <br /><ul><li>Adaptive benefits– reduction of likelihood of deforestation
    • 29. Wind Pumps = crop processing, irrigation, water pumps– mitigative = decrease in dependence on biomass, avoidance of CO2
    • 30. Biogas Plant -= production of sludge for fertilisers </li></ul>Adaptive benefits = adaptation to soil erosion, aridity and environmental degradation <br />Mitigative benefits = avoided emissions<br />
    • 31. 3rd Transition – piecemeal adaptation to transformational process <br />Adaptive management¨= a viable option for for climate resilience development <br />The development of alternative hypotheses, <br />identifying knowledge gaps <br />Assessing the usefulness of knowledge prioritizing research questions.<br />Resource stakeholders must (1) be fully engaged in developing management strategies as a means of building a constituency for the resource management problem, (2) agree upon and fully understand the consequences of making decisions, and (3) agree upon the processes for making decisions in a context of deliberative democracy (Brown 2002). <br />
    • 32. 3rd Transition – piecemeal adaptation to a transformative process of SD.<br />Adaptive management is essential to building socio-ecological resilience <br />Innovations – Using ISFM as an entry point - Zimbabwe<br />Social learning - establish learning centres as a platform for co-learning and testing ideas and technologies (Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Malawi, Benin)<br />Improved agricultural practices using learning centres saw a sharp rise in the production of key staples - production of maize and groundnuts to support HIV/AIDS home based programmes in Zambia <br />Understanding what works – What crop species do farmer prefer? (long duration sorghum varieties in Zimbabwe<br />How do farmers make decisions? – less than 25% farmers have access to seasonal weather information – rely on IK<br />
    • 33. 3rd Transition -small scale adaptation to SD - transformational <br />Zimbabwe<br />Using planning – action- reflection cycles in PAR to build weak local food security systems in Zimbabwe<br />Using PAR to strengthen community cohesion for collection action <br />Building consensus amongst different stakeholder and building consensus amongst social groups<br />Creating learning centres and learning hubs as a platform for increased and effective adaptation <br />Using ISFM technologies soil and water conservation techniques and improved crops and varieties as a way of revitalising local safety nets<br />
    • 34. 3rd Transition – continued <br />Building low-lyingearthdams to improve water availability for agriculture in Senegal<br />Promoting drip irrigation technology for water conservation in Morocco’s Saiss Basin<br />Developing resistant cover crops as Mucuna or Zai/trenches to protect soils moisture in Benin<br />Develop tools for early prediction of and prevent malaria epidemics in East African Highlands<br />
    • 35. 3rd Transition<br />Institutional Strengthening <br />Institutions are the lubricant that keeps society moving <br />Institutions acting as custodian for knowledge generation, development and sharing <br />Institutions that are able to intersect climate needs and development priorities<br />Institutions cultures, values and norms guide behaviour within organisations and mediated environmental policies<br />Adaptation cannot operate in an institutional vacuum<br />Institutions define roles and provide a social context for action<br />
    • 36. 3rd Transition – Instituional setting<br /><ul><li>Functioning institutions capable of bridging the numerous gaps between communities, policy and scientific spheres</li></ul>Overall research performance ranking across institution type, East Africa<br />IRIs: International Research Institution; RPs: Research Partnerships ; RRNGOs: Regional Research NGOs; NRIs: National Research Institutes; Dual: government and other development orgs with some research going on.<br />Parameters: Planning, Implementation, Engagement/Communication, Partnership.<br />Source: CCAA. Institutional Mapping for Climate Change Adaptation in Eastern Africa. 2008.<br />
    • 37. 3rd Transition - Continued<br />Knowledge sharing as a strong foundation for building adaptive capacity<br />Expanding research communities to farmers – Benin; Senegal<br />multi-stakeholders committees playing a key role in sharing met data and forecasts in Tanzania and Benin<br />Local committee were linked to national committee that could channel met information and alerts from the national met. Agency - Benin<br />Knowledge sharing mechanisms can bring together key stakeholders, and both channel information and support the development of adaptation options – Tanzania; Malawi; Benin ; Senegal<br />Social learning processes - sources of learning, innovation and interaction – Malawi<br />
    • 38. 3rd Transition – Bridging the research to policy interface<br />Using information to build consensus with policy makers and met. officials - Infoclim Project (Senegal), Nganyi project (Kenya)<br />Consensus forecast meetings in Kenya is receiving institutional support from local civil servants<br />Local management Units were given mandates by local authorities<br />Including policy makers in diagnosing the research problem have deepened their understanding of climate change – Morocco<br />Using climate information to develop an appropiate water management in the Berg River – South Africa<br />Integrating climate information to guide policy making for fisheries management in Senegal; Guinea; Gambia and Cape Verde<br />
    • 39. 3 rd Transition <br />Financial Landscape <br /><ul><li>Difficulties in financing adaptation through current streams of ODA
    • 40. Separate and or additional caveat
    • 41. Burden sharing approach = viable way to go amongst regional institutions with similar problems
    • 42. Funds needed to strengthen the delivery mechanism of African institution to strengthen response capacities
    • 43. Adaptation funding is complex and messy - need more innovative funds and strong institutions to absorb these funds </li></li></ul><li>Key Questions <br />How can we exploit synergies between Adaptation and Mitigation within a development first paradigm?<br />How do we mobilise resources to do both adaptation and mitigation and who will pay for this?<br />How do African scientists and communities define their own agendas with regard to A&amp;M – what is their degree of ownership in such projects?<br />How can successful A&amp;M projects be scaled up and out and who does this?<br />What kindsof metric evaluation systems do we put in place to measure adaptive and mitigative capacity <br />
    • 44. Conclusion<br />Poverty reduction remains a nagging problem <br />A&amp;M can be pursued in parallel with adaptation work and based on perceived risk, stakes and interests and opportunities for development <br />A&amp;M need to be done with vulnerable communities = respecting their need for growth, equity and security<br />It is about understanding the factors that exacerbate social vulnerability and putting in place measures that will resonate with communities and their aspirations<br />Building networks of reciprocity – alliances an creating safety nets <br />

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