Sustainable tree-crop-livestock intensification as a pillar for the Ethiopian climate resilient green economy initiative
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Sustainable tree-crop-livestock intensification as a pillar for the Ethiopian climate resilient green economy initiative

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Presented by Aster Gebrekirstos (World Agroforestry Center, Nairobi) at the Africa RISING Planning Meeting, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 17-18 September 2012

Presented by Aster Gebrekirstos (World Agroforestry Center, Nairobi) at the Africa RISING Planning Meeting, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 17-18 September 2012

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Sustainable tree-crop-livestock intensification as a pillar for the Ethiopian climate resilient green economy initiative Sustainable tree-crop-livestock intensification as a pillar for the Ethiopian climate resilient green economy initiative Presentation Transcript

  • Sustainable tree-crop-livestock intensification as apillar for the Ethiopian climate resilient greeneconomy initiative Aster Gebrekirstos, et al. World Agroforestry Center, NairobiSep 17-18Addis Ababa
  • outline • Introduction • Project objectives (what and where) • Important findings/ activities • Lessons learnt / • Summary •
  • Introduction Major development challenges in Ethiopia?• Land degradation• low and erratic rainfall• Deforestation• Scarcity of fuel wood compels farm households to burn manure and crop residues for household energy, decreasing yields and limiting the supply of animal feed• Limited access to external inputs (fertilizer, seed, pesticides, specialized machinery and appropriate technologies)
  • Overcoming the challengesCan agroforestry contribute to overcome some of thechallenges of Ethiopian development? YES! •Sustainable intensification of mixed tree-crop- livestock systems on farms and within farming landscapes can reverse land degradation, and improve crop productivity, livestock feed availability and food security (Garrity et al., 2010).
  • Overcoming the challenges (Cont’d)Ethiopian government initative• The Ethiopian Government has launched innovative approaches that include a “Climate Resilient Green Economy” (CRGE 2012).• Faidherbia Program (to establish 100 million Faidherbia albida trees on cereal cropland during the next four years).• Reforestation of 15 million hectares of land (on farm & communal land)
  • Role of ICRAF • ICRAF to be deeply engaged in supporting the CRGE (underpinning the government’s programs on watershed management and agroforestry). • customising species and management options to sites and farmer circumstances • This requires making effective use of a combination of local ecological knowledge, farmer preferences and science-based understanding of component interactions.
  • Major objectives of the project• To document local knowledge about integrating trees in fields, farms and landscapes• Best bet tree species and management options identified• Needs for development of the tree seed and seedling supply sector assessed• Effective partnerships for promoting tree-crop- livestock integration to underpin the climate resilient green economy initiative established A basis for the Africa Rising and other ongoing projects
  • Study sites Factors considered in site selection• Degree of intensification: Wolaita Tigray Arsi• Ecology and climate• Successful and unsucessful sites• Farming practices
  • Study sites Tigray: Intermediate intensification Abreha Wa Atsbeha in northern Tigray : very successful Why these sites?????? Adigudom in southern Tigray: not successful
  • Arsi (Bekoji: low intensification, highlandStudy sites Cereal crop based Mixed cereal-livestock basedLivestock based
  • 1-Local knowledge about integrating trees in fields, farms and landscapes
  • Methodology • The AKT5 software- a knowledge based systems approach was employed in this research (Sinclair and Walker, 1998) • A framework for designing a knowledge elicitation strategy (Dixon et al., 2001)
  • Data collection• Stakeholder analysis• Scoping (8 farmers, Development Agents Extension officers and village leaders)• Definition(redefining research questions)• Stratified random sampling to select informants from DA’s farmer lists.• Compilation phase involved repeated interaction with key informants,• Build trust
  • Results Local knowledge training using the AKT5 software and methodology at Mekelle University The training team discussing with local administrators and extension workers of Abreha We Atsibha village (12th of June, 2012) • Training for two weeks (class, field , interview and feedback) AKT5 local knowledge acusition • Capacity building of seven local experts • One MSc student defended her thesis
  • Results What do farmers know and explain well? Farmers can explain complex process  Major causes for loss of tree cover  Drivers and challenges of tree planting  Positioning of trees on farms, their livelihood uses and impacts on the environment  processes of change (what works well)  etc
  • Results ABREHA WA ATSBEHA BASELINE LOW LEVELS OF ADOPTION OF TREES ON FARM Free grazing Over Loss of vegetation cover harvesting REDUCED SCARCITY OF SOIL EROSION WATER WOOD PRODUCTS INFILTRATION LOSS OF SOIL REDUCED LACK of LACK OF FERTILITY WATER TABLE CONSTRUCTI FUELWOOD ON TIMBER REDUCTION IN AGRICULTURE PRODUCTIVITY POVERTY FOOD INSECURITY FARMERS INNOVATIONS
  • Results Figure : Farmers’ perception of factors constraining integration of trees in farming systems (Arsi)
  • Results Impact of free grazing
  • Results The process to change FARMERS INNOVATIONS CONSTRUCTION CHECK TREE PLANTING ZERO GRAZING COLLECTION OF TREE SEED FOR DAMS, WATER PONDS IN GULLIES AND INDEGENOUSE SPECIES FOR ONFARM PLANTING IN THE NURSERY NATURAL TREE TREE SEEDLING AVAILABILITY REGENERATION WATER EROSION HARVESTIN CONTROL G WATER AVAILABILITY FOR IRRIGATION INCREASED NUMBERS OF TREES ADOPTED ONFARM CURRENT SCENARIO
  • Results Tree species good and bad for intercropping ABREHA WA ATSBEHA ADIGUDOM Species good for intercropping with cereals Species good for intercropping with cereals Faidherbia albida (Momona) Sesbania sesban (mono) Sesbania sesban (Sesbania) Leucaena leucocephala (mono) Leucaena leucocephala (Lucinia) Acacia etbaica(p/n) Acacia saligna (Akacha) Acacia senegal(Qenteb) Acacia spp Acacia saligna (Akacha)* Faidherbia albida (Momona)* Species which are not good for intercropping Acacia seyal (Chea) Species which are not good for intercropping Olea europea var.africana (Awlie) Parkinsonia aculeate (Shawit hagai) Acacia etbaica(p/n)Seraw Eucalyptus spp Carissa edulis (Egam) Psidium gaujava (Guava) Eucalyptus spp
  • Results What does the current system look like? Tigray (Abrha Wa Astbaha) Arsi (Bekoji)  Improved vegetation cover  Native tree cover (both in forest  decrease sediment deposition and as AF) has been continuously declining  increase water infiltration  Loss of soil is apparent in many  improve land stabilization locations within the landscapes  improve fertility of the soil  Rain starts late and ends early  production of grasses for  Eucalyptus is the dominant tree fodder/livestock species in the system, boundary  species diversity both on planting of few native species farm and home stead improved (fruit, fodder, )  Enclosures (communal lands)  Strong and determined community leader mobilizes the community
  • Results Common Drivers Drivers to planting trees on farm • Income generation • Ownership • Government policy • Direct benefits Drivers to planting trees in the landscape • Government Policy • Soil and water conservation • Land reclamation • Aesthetics or beauty
  • Results Challenges • Lack of knowledge on tree management • Renting of land for farming • Lack of access to seedlings of appropriate tree species • Long bureaucratic chains to utilize native species of trees (tenure) •Community initially resisted until model practices were done with volunteers and demonstrated to the rest of the farmers • Need for incentives initially but awareness creation work continued and later on people realized that the long term benefit is for all  Farmer to farmers visit (to create awareness)
  • Farmers attending a feedbacksession
  • Recomendations The approach • Characterize variation across scaling domain – acquire local knowledge – identify strengths and weaknesses (knowledge gaps) • Design scaling so that promising options are tested across sufficient range to refine our understanding of what works where and for whom – measure performance of options • Establish participatory approach with farmers in which uncertainty and risk are understood, acknowledged and progressively reduced – leave to farmers what they do best but – learn collectively and systematically from experience
  • 2: Seed and seedling supply system assessment
  • Results 2- Tree seed and seedling system Wolaita Arsi • Highly populated area • Less populated area • Predominantly food insecure • predominantly food secure • Traditional agroforestry is • Primarily cereal based dominant (high potential perennial crop agriculture (high potential cereal zone) zone) • Fruit trees and agroforestry • Recently promotion of species promoted fodder species given priority • Several (over 20) licensed tree • No licensed tree seed seed vendors available suppliers • Shortage of seed not a major • Shortage of seed a major problem problem • Predominantly good quality • Less quality seedlings in seedlings many cases
  • Results Quality is the problem: Increase the technical capacity of seed suppliers in Sodo town and devise mechanisms for ensuring fair trade, and evaluate changesFigures: Partial view of Simons seed shop and seed store in Sodo
  • Recomendations General Recommendations • Creating enabling • Areka Nursery environment for tree seed supply sector • Improving seedling quality and seedling survival • Ensuring genetic quality in seeds under distribution • Developing proper forestry and agroforestry information system •
  • Recomendations Specific recommendations • Boost fruit trees • Bekoji Nursery production in the highlands, and evaluate their adoption • Increase the technical capacity of seed suppliers in Sodo town and devise mechanisms for ensuring fair trade, and evaluate changes
  • 3- National dialogue on sustainable agricultural intensification and its role on the climate resilient green economy initiative in Ethiopia 23-24 July 2012, ILRI campus, Ethiopia Number of participants - 68 Number of institutions - 42Ethiopian platform on land and water management acts as soundingboard of tree-crop-livestock intensification ‘early win’ project : http//
  • Topics discussed during the workshopKey note Presentations :A national platform for institutional learning and policy action on NRM inEthiopia Sustainable tree-crop-livestock intensification as a pillar for the Ethiopianclimate resilient green economy initiative The status of forestry development in Ethiopia: Challenges andopportunities Importance of biodiversity for agricultural intensification and climatechange adaptation in Ethiopia Contribution of traditional agroforestry (TAF) to climate changeadaptation and mitigation in Ethiopia Forest policy, strategies and laws of Ethiopia: Opportunities andchallenges to developing the sector Genesis of climate resilient highlands transformation Information needs for adaptation to and mitigation of climate variabilityand changeSustainable agricultural intensification in the Ethiopian highlands
  • • Group work: • Current status, gaps and suggestions for improvement on -  Seedling system  Incentives for integrating trees into crop and livestock systems  Interventions/post-plantation management/niches  Open grazing and collective action/ by-lawsPanel discussion: Sustainable agricultural transformation in Ethiopia: What should be done inthe coming 5 years?”
  • Some of the cross-cutting issues that came out from the workshoppresentations, group and panel discussions are:  The issues of lack of quality data and data sources  Absence of strong forestry institution that coordinate forestry research and development in Ethiopia  Lack of systematic documentation of indigenous knowledge  Lack of proper valuation of forests/biological resources ecosystem services  Weak cross-sectoral integration/collaboration among various institutions  Poor community participation in the decision making  The need for out/up-scaling of best NRM practices  The need for strengthening capacity building at all levels  Lack of tree related germplasm both in quality and quantity  Challenges of livestock free grazing system for integrating high value tree species in the outfields  The need for making available technological options, and devise policies that help smallholders adapt climate variability/change and improve their livelihoods Joint policy brief will be prepared
  • 4- Best bet tree species and management options identified technical note preparation• Review of exsisting literatures on Agroforestry• Synthesis lessons from the early win activities MSC thesis on local knowledge in Tigray Report on local knowlgedge in Arsi and Areka Report on seed and seedling supply system Journal article• Visit for reports and news http://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/21198
  • Summary• Embed research within development• Action required now but knowledge is imperfect• Fit options to sites and farmer circumstances• Build on what we (scientists and farmers) already know• Use an iterative, structured learning, approach to refine matching and reduce risk• Deliver results as methods, tools and a community of practice that makes a difference on the ground• Awareness creation and community mobilization
  • Contributors Dr Aster Gebrekirstos (ICRAF) Dr. Kiros Hadgu (MU) Dr. Abayneh Derero (FRC)Thank you for your attention!!! Ato Tesfaye Sida (Ambo univ)Amesegenaleu! Dr Ermias Aynekulu (ICRAF) Dr Fergus Sinclair (ICRAF) Ms Emelda Hachoofwe Dr Dennis Garrity (ICRAF) Dr Tilahun Amede (ILRI) Dr Yitebitu Mogus (FRC) Our thanks to USAID for funding & ILRI & our national partners for their collaboration