Sustainable intensification of cereal-livestock based farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa: Research framework overview
Sustainable Intensification of Cereal-Livestock based Farming Systems in sub-Saharan Africa: Research Framework Overview Joseph Rusike (IITA) and Naomie Sakan (IFPRI) Africa RISING Monitoring & Evaluation Expert Meeting Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 5-7 September 2012
Research Design: Guiding Principles• Focusing on agricultural intensification• Applicable to all AfricaRISING countries• In line with the CRP 1.1 and 1.2 “systems” logic• Account for change at farm-level / “whole-farm productivity”• Integrate multiple stakeholders (innovation delivery and value chain linkages)• Focus on staple food intensification/productivity within major farming systems but with consideration of nutrition and diversification• Research that backstops other FtF investments• In line with USAID mission investments• Provide a logical structure for the AR research framework
Overview• Context: Opportunities and constraints• Purpose• Objectives and Outcomes• Guiding Principles and Conceptual Framework• Research Design
Constraints and OpportunitiesConstraints Limited access to: - improved technologies; - input and output markets; - pro-poor policies and effective intitutions; Low productivity - land and water resources Biodiversity & Environomental degradation Land cover loss Climate change/variability (rainfed production) Soil erosion Lack of knowledge and limited access to appropriate technologies; Overstocking and over-grazingIncreased food insecurity, risk, and vulnerability Viable Pathways toof household livelihoods Sustainable Intensification
Constraints and Opportunities (cont’d)Opportunities Community-based and participatory research: - identification and promotion of appropriate technological (production and post-harvest), Development of institutional, and policy options; - agricultural productivity improvement; sustainable - better resource management; livelihoods - alternative income generating activities; Community Growth in food/feed demand and food diversification capacity building Investment in input supply systems (seed and fertilizer); Export markets and multi-stakeholder partnershipsOwn-food security (self-reliance), improved Sustainably Intensifiednutrition, income security, conserved or Cereal-Livestock-basedenhanced natural resource base Farming Systems
PurposeProvide pathways out of hunger and poverty for smallholder families through sustainably intensified farmingsystems that sufficiently improve food, nutrition, andincome security, particularly for women and children,and conserve or enhance the natural resource base.
Research Objectives1. To identify and evaluate demand-driven options for sustainable intensification that accelerate progress toward rural poverty alleviation, improved nutrition and equity, and ecosystem stability [H1, H2, H3]1.2. To evaluate, document and exchange experiences on processes and mechanisms for integrating and delivering innovations for sustainable intensification to facilitate their uptake beyond the Africa RISING action research sites. [H4]
Development Objectives1. To improve smallholder farm households’ livelihoods so that they can move out of poverty and improve the nutritional status, especially of young children and mothers, while improving or maintaining ecosystem stability within Africa RISING action research sites. [H4]2. To facilitate partner-led dissemination of integrated innovations for sustainable intensification beyond the Africa RISING action research sites. [H4]
Research outcomes1. Integrated innovations used for intensifying farming practices of targeted types of households in a sustainable manner within identified development domains.2. Tools and approaches for identifying, evaluating and disseminating integrated innovations for sustainable intensification used for poverty alleviation and improving nutritional status of young children and mothers, while maintaining ecosystem stability.3. The aggregated impact of integrated, innovative farming practices at the household level is used to improve the understanding of ecosystem stability (at the landscape level).
Development Outcomes1. Small-holder farming households sustainably increase the overall productivity of their farms, and thus their agricultural output, income diversity, and improve nutrition and welfare especially young children and mothers, within the Africa RISING action research sites.2. Small-holder farming households experience increased resilience of their farming systems, and thus reduced vulnerability to adverse environmental and economic challenges within Africa RISING action research sites.3. The development community increasingly uses innovative outreach and support approaches, and related data & knowledge management systems to design integrated innovations for sustainable intensification at the farm household scale.
Guiding Principles & Conceptual Framework1. Farm household scale : Africa RISING investments and activities focal domain – Decisions scale: e.g. production, gender and nutrition issues, household welfare, soil health, and productivity issues; – Decisions conditions: assets (e.g. land, labor, livestock, and financial resource endowments), and livelihoods, production objectives and aspiration of households within a given regional and landscape context; – Research activities focus: understanding household needs and incentives in order to better support evaluation, adoption and adaptation of the most relevant interventions.
Guiding Principles & Conceptual Framework Geographic Stratification Farm/Landscape Stratification Ag. Potential (Rainfall) Intensification HHti Index (C) Hi-Lo Hi-Hi Hi-Lo Hi-HiDevelopment domains:Condition SI challenges,opportunities, and potential Lo-Lo Lo-Hi Lo-Lo (B) Lo-Hiimpacts HHt0 (A) Market Potential Sustainability Index Pop. density Annual rainfall Local Altitude Soil type Crops pattern groundwater Topography Soil fertility Livestock Annual rainfall Surface water Seasonality and Formal irrigation Temperature LGP scheme Soil Agricultural Moisture production availability Climatic Variability of Water water supply availability Agricultural Potential Physical accessibility Distance to roads Market Access Roads conditions Geographic Domains Availability of market institutions Population density Potential market integration
R4D Platforms: Trials DesignDegree of intervention/ methodLimited /observation National LevelLimited /observation Regional Level District DistrictSome /exploration Platforms: SI No intervention “Counterfactual” innovationsHigh/Fisher orclassical experiment-ation: Village Village Village Village Village Village TF1 TF2 NoMother-Baby; RCTS intervention
Research HypothesesH1. Adoption and integration hypothesesAdoption hypothesis: Demand-driven innovations are adopted in preference to supply- driven innovations.Integration hypothesis: Innovations that mutually reinforce whole farm performance/productivity produce greater and more sustained benefits than the joint adoption of equally effective single use/purpose innovations.H2. Trade-off hypothesisTailoring sets of innovation options to the constraints and opportunities encountered inspecific development domain-by-household type strata enhances the win-win outcomes ofinnovation use (e.g. reduces the scale of negative trade-offs between farm productivity andenvironmental integrity).H3. Innovation sequencing and sustainable intensification pathways hypothesisThe likelihood of innovation adoption resulting in sustainable intensification pathways overtime is conditioned by the sequence in which those innovations are integrated and applied.H4. Scalability hypothesisA stratified approach to targeting and evaluating SI-related innovations will increase therelevance and scalability of findings from action research sites to similar strata elsewhere.
Research OutputsRO 1: Situation Analysis and Programme-wide Synthesis: activities include site characterisation and stratification as well as identification of promising technologies.RO 2: Integrated Systems Improvement: participatory technology development and / or identification for wide propagation and adaptation.RO 3: Scaling and Delivery of Integrated Innovation: generation of integrated technology combinations that are more effectively targeted on farmer’s real development needs.RO 4: Integrated M and E Process: wrapping the three process-oriented outputs in a firm M and E framework that will ensure first two components will generate integrated technology.