Gender perspectives in agriculture

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Presented by Annet A. Mulema (ILRI) at the Initiation Meeting of the Basona Worena “Strategic Innovation Platform”, Ethiopia, 31 January 2014 …

Presented by Annet A. Mulema (ILRI) at the Initiation Meeting of the Basona Worena “Strategic Innovation Platform”, Ethiopia, 31 January 2014


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  • Failure of past agricultural research and development practice to address the inequalities that limit women’s access to agricultural inputs, markets, resources and advice.Ignoring women’s role in agricultural sector including their productive, reproductive and community rolesWomen undertaking multiple rolesOver the years, there is a gradual realization of the key role of women in the field of agricultural development and the constraints that they face in earning a decent and sustainable livelihood.There is compelling evidence that increased gender equity can make a significant contribution towards alleviating poverty and increasing food security. But past efforts to integrate gender into agricultural research and development practice have failed to address the inequalities that limit women’s access to agricultural inputs, markets, resources and advice.Changing composition of rural society, increase in number of females engaged in Agriculture – Feminzation of AgricultureIncreased concerned about children’s education, the increasing costs of health care that is regarded as essential for achieving food and nutritional security apart from sustainable livelihood growth, shifts in government policies especially reductions in social and economic subsidies, increasing pressures on natural resources as a result of climate change but also competition from globalised markets.
  • roles and responsibilities within households are defined according to gender norms and this influences household members’ ability to participate in and control different forms of household decisions. Women mostly involved in up-stream activitiesMarginal involvement of women and marginalized groups in leadership positions
  • All this influences women’s capacity to fulfill their roles
  • Exclusion of women from participation in decision making by social norms and their own perceptions of lack of authority. Women are percived to have incomplete knowledge and little value is placed on their local knowledgeChallenge in getting men to understand the benefits of women participation and encouraging more effective engagement with community through female leaders.
  • Closing “gender gap” in agriculture–or increasing women’s contribution to food production and enterprise by providing equal access to resources and opportunities–could reduce the number of hungry people in the world by 12-17%, or by 100 to 150 million people (FAO, 2011).There is growing evidence suggesting that women’s underdevelopment has adverse bearing on growth and development of agriculture. Therefore, time has come for us to make concerted efforts to address gender issues and provide support for social, technological and economic empowerment of women. One of the important steps in this direction is integration of gender perspective in agricultural research, extension and policies so as to make women an important partner in sustainable agricultural development.
  • Women are expected to benefit directly in their separate production activities, and indirectly as members of joint activities. benefit for staple food yield, livestock and livestock products improvements; women are expected to benefit from value chains, extension advisory services and sustainable NRM and system based innovative labour saving technologies, and important gaps between men and women are reduced;(3) ) women and men receive the same benefits, i.e. both increase staple food yields above 60 percent but the gap between them remains constant at the pre-existing difference; and (4) the inequities in staple food yields, income and assets are eliminated
  • Ethiopia

Transcript

  • 1. Gender Perspectives in Agriculture Annet A. Mulema (ILRI) Initiation Meeting of the Basona Worena “Strategic Innovation Platform”, Ethiopia, 31 January 2014
  • 2. Introduction  Gender refers to socially constructed roles and responsibilities of women and men, and includes:  expectations held about the characteristics, and likely behaviors of both men and women,  the roles that we learn to fill from childhood onward,  These roles change over time and are cultural specific.  Limited consideration of women’s role in agriculture  Failure of past agricultural research and development practices to address gender inequalities
  • 3. Introduction  Changing composition of rural society - feminization of Agriculture  Gradual realization of the key role of women in agricultural development and the constraints that they face in earning a decent and sustainable livelihood.  Increased gender equity can make a significant contribution towards alleviating poverty and increasing food security.
  • 4. Roles and responsibilities  Variation in roles played by men and women in crop-livestock systems  Roles are defined according to gender norms and this influences:  Participation of women in and control of different forms of household decisions.  Types and nature of enterprises (crops and livestock) women engage with.  Opportunities available to women to increase productivity and income generation and descent livelihoods.  Women less involved in cash cropping  Women perform most of un-mechanized agricultural tasks and perform multiple tasks, which add more burden to them.
  • 5. Access to and control of resources and benefits  Unequal access to assets and services among men and women  Women’s limited access to agricultural extension, education and veterinary services  Limited access to profitable markets  Limited access to formal information networks and social networks
  • 6. Institutions and power dynamics  Constraining policies, norms and values limiting:  women’s involvement in decisions making  involvement of women and marginalized groups in leadership positions  ownership and control of resources  Lack of awareness about legal rights.  Weak macro-micro linkages due to limited access to public space.
  • 7. Implications  Women’s underdevelopment has adverse bearing on growth and development of agriculture.  Need to address gender issues and provide support for social, technological and economic empowerment of women  Integration of gender perspective in agricultural research, extension and policies  Consider women and marginalized groups as important partners in sustainable agricultural development.  Impact men and women equitably
  • 8. Gender goals in Africa RISING  Promote agricultural systems which improve food, nutrition, and income security, particularly for women and children, while conserving the natural resource base.  Increase women’s participation in production and marketing of high value crops  To develop technologies and market strategies that will be relevant to the needs of both men and women farmers, processors and traders.  Building gender awareness and capacity of staff and local partners to obtain and analyze gender-disaggregated data and diagnose gender related issues  To enhance the knowledge and skills of men and women farmers to foster uptake and dissemination of successful technologies  Increase women’s leadership in the community and capacity to participate in decision making on agricultural production
  • 9. Anticipated Benefits  Increased yield, livestock and livestock products improvement;  Improved nutrition  Reduced inequalities in income, access to and control of resources  Reduced gap between men and women through:  Improved value chains  Access to extension, education and veterinary services,  Access to labor saving technologies  Sustainable natural resource management  Reduction in poverty and global food security
  • 10. Bibliography  FAO. 2011. The State of Food and Agriculture: Women in Agriculture–Closing the gender gap for development, Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.  World Bank. 2009. Gender in Agriculture Source Book. D.C: The World Bank.
  • 11. Project partners in Ethiopia