• Save
Evidence for scaling-up evergreen agriculture to increase productivity and resilience of maize mixed and agro-pastoral farming systems in Tanzania and Malawi
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Evidence for scaling-up evergreen agriculture to increase productivity and resilience of maize mixed and agro-pastoral farming systems in Tanzania and Malawi

  • 986 views
Uploaded on

Presented by Anthony Kimaro (ICRAF) and Elirehema Swai (ARI-Hombolo) at the Africa RISING East and Southern Africa Research Review and Planning Meeting, Arusha, Tanzania, 1-5 October 2012 ...

Presented by Anthony Kimaro (ICRAF) and Elirehema Swai (ARI-Hombolo) at the Africa RISING East and Southern Africa Research Review and Planning Meeting, Arusha, Tanzania, 1-5 October 2012


More in: Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
986
On Slideshare
495
From Embeds
491
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 491

http://africa-rising.net 491

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • Only names of Presenters are shown in this slide as per the template we received.
  • Evergreen Agriculture (EGA) EGA, is a new term for existing environmental friendly/Conservation agricultural practices that integrates production function and ecological/environmental benefits of agriculture to sustain food production and improve rural livelihoods. It is NOT limited to F. albida-based farming systems alone. Examples include:--- The “green” is coined to reflect that tree component remain alive through out the year, and emphasize the enviromental benefits of this systems. What distinguish agroforestry from other land use systems? (AFTA, http://www.aftaweb.org). Attributes of AF (Intentional, Integration, Interactions and Intensive). Intentional : Agroforestry components are intentionally designed, established, and managed to work as a whole unit rather than separate entities Intensive : Agroforestry practices are intensively managed to maintain productive and protective functions Integrated : Structural and functional integrations of components optimize use of land resources for sustained productivity and economic benefits. Interactive : Agroforestry actively manipulates and utilizes biophysical interactions among components to yield multiple products and ecosystem services
  • Maize-pigeonpea
  • For Tanzania : make a table of all four villages and show: Farm size, HH income (Agric. & off-farm), energy source, Food insecure population status (as defined by those respondents with 1-9 number of months without sufficient food supply), fertilizer use, land use conflicts, Main HH labour? Socio-economic indicators for Tanzania and Malawi : These includes- wealth status of farmers, HH size and population, HH food availability, HH income & sources, Land tenure System, extent of fertilizer use, source of fuel wood (energy), fodder and grazing area availability, crops yields , livestock ownerships, gender analysis, household assets ownerships, source of training (access to extension workers, market), knowledge base of farmers on soil enhancement technologies (e.g. striga weed, and knowledge on other indicators of land degradations), Locality of the HH head, farmers’ tree species preference Report for Malawi
  • Food Availability in Kiteto and Kongwa Districts About 40% of the population is food secured (with at least food for ¾ of the year) The AfricaRISING project will have the challenge to provide pathways out of food insecurity for 60% of the population
  • Issues : Better management of land and agricultural water is required for the success of SI
  • Soil degradation and Farm productivity Agricultural intensification has greatly increased the productive capacity of agroecosystems, but has had unintended environmental consequences including degradation of soil and water resources, and alteration of biogeochemical cycles. As a result, agricultural ecosystems are maintained in a state of nutrient saturation and are inherently leaky because chronic surplus additions of nitrogen and phosphorus are required to meet yield goals” ( Drinkwater and Snapp, 2007 ). Excessive fertilizer inputs in developed countries Little to no inputs in developing countries degradation of soil and water resources
  • Why concerned about fuelwood/Significance of on-farm wood supply/outcomes of declining soil fertility ? 80% of population in developing countries lives in rural areas. Wood fuels contributes about 80% of cooking energy in Tanzania and other developing countries Considerable amount of productive time is diverted to firewood collection Accelerate to tropical deforestation – Both commercial and subsistence use of firewood & charcoal in rural & cities: 4-26% (Tobacco, SSA), 50 % (Dsm, Tz.)
  • Nice points from Sileshi : The average maize yield has stagnated at around 1–2 t ha -1 despite the crop’s genetic potential to yield up to 10 t ha -1 and the availability of improved cultivars and mineral fertilizer. Bridging the yield gap needs more than just improved varieties and fertilizer. The solution is sustainable land management Yield gap at Kiteto, which is the high potential district compared to Kongwa Average maize yield is 4-6 hags/acre or 0.4-0.6t/acre, which is equivalent to 1-1.5t/ha BUT potential yield is 18 bags/acre or 1.8t/acre, which is equivalent to 4.5t/ha Challenge is how to close the gap in a sustainable and environmentally friendly manner? Bridging the yield gap is a major focus of our evergreen agriculture.
  • Except South Africa, the main strategy is agricultural expansion, accelerating into native forests (i.e. Extensive Agriculture instead of Intensive) Environmental cost: soil and forest degradation Trends in average grain yield and area of maize harvested in different regions of Africa, with average annual yields for 1961–2007 in each region obtained from FAO (2008). Policy Brief No. 02, 2009. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/downloads/publications/PDFs/BR09042.PDF
  • Note the the Extent of Land Degradation in Kongwa and Kiteto Districts Add Kayeye Maps Vegetation changes to quantify the extent of land degradation in Kiteto and Kongwa It should have some figures of how much land has been converted to cultivation over time, in numbers/percentage inserted in the Maps
  • Note the the Extent of Land Degradation in Kongwa and Kiteto Districts Add Kayeye Maps Vegetation changes to quantify the extent of land degradation in Kiteto and Kongwa It should have some figures of how much land has been converted to cultivation over time, in numbers/percentage inserted in the Maps
  • Ecological Benefits of EGA This slide set a stage for evidences that our project provides to rationale that evergreen agriculture can be used to intensity (increase productivity of) maize-mixed and agro-pastoral farming systems in E&SA. I have included only those evidences which I expect can be supported by our primary data and/or secondary information from previous ICRAF works. Add your comments in the bulleted list below. Provide permanent soil cover Rehabilitate degraded lands Improve soil health and crop yields, leading to better food supply and rural livelihoods Improve fertilizer and water use efficiencies Stabilize crop yields against climate variability (Agro-ecosystem resilience) Adaptation and mitigation benefits (C sequestration, reduced emission etc.) Enhance household income
  • Fertilizer trees reduce land degradation and increase water use efficiency RUE was measured as yield per raindrop; it is the “crop per drop”. RUE is defined here as the mass (kg) of grain dry matter produced per unit area per mm of precipitation received during the rainy season. This is the same definition used in dry land ecology. Lower RUE indicates higher land degradation. Mechanisms : Fertilizer trees restore soil health, capture rainfall and improve moisture retention capacity of soils, thus make rainwater available for crops growth and yields. Source of information: ( Sileshi GW , unpublished) See also Sileshi, W. G., Akinnifesi FK, Ajayi OC, Muys B (2011) Integration of legume trees in maize-based cropping systems improves rainfall use efficiency and crop yield stability. Agricultural Water Management 98: 1364-1372.
  • Dear Sileshiwe, More information needed : What is the study site/agro-ecological zone, What AF practices are these results reflecting? Improved Fallow and Relay intercropping? I think this is a nice slide as Tephrosia & Glicidia are candidate species for soil fertility improvement; we need more for fruits & timber/fodder which are adapted to targeted site (Acacias, Baobab, Tamarindus e.t.c – add to this list from the indigenous fruits tree domestication programmes in the miombo) Source of information: Sileshi GW , unpublished), Akinnifesi FK, Ajayi OC, Muys B (2011) Integration of legume trees in maize-based cropping systems improves rainfall use efficiency and crop yield stability. Agricultural Water Management 98: 1364-1372.
  • Sileshi : I need brief explanations of the SHAMBA model, what is it all about and how does it establishes the emission reduction? If this a model under development or approved for use? Etc. Just insert them here for my personal use, if asked during the discussion sessions. S mall H older A griculture M onitoring and B aseline A ssessment (SHAMBA) model (Berry, 2012; Edinburgh University) Baseline: 36 t CO 2 equivalent 95% ci: 95% confidence interval
  • Issues : Suitability, availability and access to improved planting materials by farmers are major constraints to increased agricultural productivity
  • Seed Sources for Major Crops in Kongwa and Kiteto Districts ( I put here to show that we also looked at Crops seed source limitations ) Majority of farmers use local seeds and only a few, less than 10%, use improved seeds purchased from agro-dealers or produced locally as quality declared seeds.
  • Key Message (Nyoka please help to shape something that can be said in less than a minute) Not one systems fits all. In Malawi where this systems has been experimentally test, we have noted that community nursery are better at introductory stage??; Nyoka, please give a big picture of your results here as per the statement you made during the workshop and I have started it here but I can not finish. The ideas here is to give an overall assessment of what works where and under which conditions, if one would need to take the recommendation from your work/this output. What is a sustainable germplasm supply system? A sustainable germplasm supply system is one in which farmers have access to adequate high quality seed of the desired type (species and seed source) at the right time. Why sustainable germplasm supply systems? Lack of high quality tree planting material was identified as a major constraint to the success of agroforestry enterprises. Poor quality tree seed result in poor tree growth, low tree survival due to maladaptation resulting in unproductive agroforestry enterprises. Low seed replacement rate for trees and the small seed requirements of smallholder farmers provides challenges to Germplasm Dealers. National Tree Seed Centres/Agency that were established in in MW and TZ to supply quality tree seed have challenges in reaching many farmers due in part to their central location. Resource-constrained farmers cannot afford to travel long distances to the seed centre, only to buy small amounts of tree seed There is a need to develop and apply better methods of forecasting germplasm needs, and to establish effective, low-cost, sustainable, germplasm production and distribution systems.
  • Issue : Improved access and use weather information will help farmers to make decisions which helps to adapt to the risk associated with climate variability
  • Major issues relating to Climate farming decisions Few villagers are aware of climate forecast by TMA through RADIOs, TVs Farming communities rarely use TMA forecasts to plan farming activities, they use local knowledge i.e. phenology of trees (miombo and michumbu) , which is increasingly undermined by unpredictability of weather. Climate forecast information issued by TMA is not informative due to low level of understanding of the users and also their ability to use climate (forecast) information for supporting farming activities. TMA forecasts are not that accurate spatially and temporally (75% accuracy) The adaptive capacity of villagers to climate change in Kiteto and Kongwa is low due to combination of factors: endemic poverty, limited alternative livelihood activities, environmental degradation, , farmer herder conflicts, tree and crop damage by livestock, inadequate technical capacities, poor infrastructure, poor access to markets and weak local institutions. These factors, in combination with climate change effects, undermine the community’s capacity to adapt successfully.

Transcript

  • 1. Africa RISING East and Southern Africa Research Review and Planning Meeting, Arusha, Tanzania, 1-5 October 2012Evidences for Scaling-up Evergreen Agriculture toIncrease Productivity and Resilience of Maize mixed andAgro-pastoral Farming Systems in Tanzania and Malawi Anthony Kimaro (ICRAF) and Elirehema Swai (ARI-Hombolo)
  • 2. Evergreen Agriculture (EGA)?• A form of more intensive farming that integrates trees with annual or perennial crops, maintaining a green cover on the land throughout the year. − Faidherbia albida farming system − Gliricidia-Maize intercropping system − Improved fallow & Relay intercropping• Evergreen Agriculture: one of several types of agroforestry.
  • 3. Examples of Evergreen Agric. Maize-pigeonpeaFaidherbia albida-Miaze Glicidia-Maize
  • 4. Research Outputs1. Analyze socio-economic, cultural, and policy factors influencing the success of EGA2. Document biophysical factors underpinning the success of EGA3. Evaluate models for sustainable supply of tree seeds and seedlings4. Analyze capacity of farmers to collect and use weather information for farming activities
  • 5. OUTPUT 1: SOCIO-ECONOMICFACTORS
  • 6. Socio-economic indicators for Kongwa andKiteto Percent of respondent by VillagesIndicator High Potential Low Potential Mean Lenjulu Matui Manungu NjoroHH size: 5 - 8 people 25 56 34 45 51HH Farm size: 1 - 4ha 62 63 65 51 61Ox-plough (land prep.) 70 58 6 1 34Tractor (land prep.) 38 80 3 66 47Fertilizer use 28 4 29 6 17Livestock keeping 81 37 71 54 61
  • 7. Food Availability in Kiteto and Kongwa 41 % 23 % 22.7 % 60% of the population 14 % is food insecure 7
  • 8. OUTPUT 2: BIOPHYSICALFACTORS Better management of land and agricultural water is required for the success of SI
  • 9. Soil Fertility Rating for Kiteto andKongwaSoil Parameter Range (Min – Max) Remark (Landon)pH 4.6 – 8.3 Strongly acidic to moderate alkalineTexture Sandy Clay Loam, Sandy LoamOC (%) 0.14 – 1.97 Very low to lowNitrogen (%) 0.02 – 0.21 Very low to lowBray 1-P (mg/kg) 0.20 – 24.6 Low to highOlsen-P (mg/kg) 1.16 – 27.0 Low to highExch. K+ 0.17 – 1.58 Medium to highExch. Ca2+ 0.59 – 12.7 Very low to very highExch. Mg2+ 0.4 – 6.13 Low to very high
  • 10. Causes and Effects of Land Degradation Degraded soilCauses of Land Degradation•Soil erosion (34%)•Overgrazing (25%)•Declining soil fertility (11%) Declining farm productivity•Deforestation (3%)•Poor farming practices•Noxious weed invasion, e.g. striga (1%)•Sand deposition on farm (18%)
  • 11. Unsustainable Wood fuel SupplyCauses of Wood fuel Scarcity Percent of RespondentSettlement expansion 18.4Agricultural expansion 42.7Lack of community woodlots 6.3Deforestation 23.0Drought effects 2.7 11No tree planting 5.8Violation of Forest by-laws 1.1
  • 12. Yield potential of USA = 10t/ha Maize yield in Kiteto (farmer estimate) • Average yield = 1 - 1.5t/ha • Potential yield = 4.5 t/ha Yield gap Agricultural intensification, including sustainable land management, is needed to bridge the yield gapTrends in maize yields in Malawi and Tanzania compared with USA(Data: FAO STAT 2012)
  • 13. Trends in Maize Production in SSA: Extensivefarming 13 Sileshi et al. 2009. ICRAF Policy Brief No. 02 http://www.worldagroforestry.org/downloads/publications/PDFs/BR09042.PDF
  • 14. Landuse changeMap for Kongwaand Kiteto: 1987
  • 15. Land use change Map for Kongwa and Kiteto: 2010Land use Cover change(%) 1987 2010Cultivated Area 7.3 32.7 +25.4Forest 65.0 18.0 -47.0Shrubs/Thickets 10.1 21.5 -14.0Water 6.9 0.01 +6.8Woodland 10.6 0.00 +10.6Settlements 5.70 +5.7Seasonal river 22.0 +22.0Total 100 100
  • 16. The Potential of Tree-based Technologies to Intensify Agriculture• Provide permanent soil cover• Rehabilitate degraded lands• Improve soil health and crop yields• Increase water and fertilizer use efficiency• Stabilize crop yields against climate variability• Supply woodfuel, reducing the use of manure and crop residues as a source of cooking energy• Adaptation and mitigation benefits (C sequestration, reduce emission etc.)• Provide fodder for livestock
  • 17. Fertilizer trees reduce land degradation and increase water use efficiencySee also Sileshi et al. (2011). Agricultural Water Management 98: 1364-1372
  • 18. Fertilizer trees significantly increase maize yields over the de facto resource-poor farmers’ practice of growing maize without external inputsSpecies Country Number of Yield Yield Percentage sites (t ha-1) increase increase (t ha-1)GliricidiaMalawi 5 3.9 2.9 346 Tanzania 2 2.3 0.8 56 Zambia 4 2.8 1.8 350Sesbania Malawi 7 2.5 1.3 161 Tanzania 2 1.2 0.7 171 Zambia 9 3.2 2.2 480 Zimbabwe 4 3.0 1.9 583Tephrosia Malawi 9 2.0 1.1 233 Tanzania 2 2.0 0.9 80 Zambia 8 1.7 0.8 198
  • 19. Mitigation benefits of Tephrosiavogelii and Gliricia sepium• Using the Small Holder Agriculture Monitoring and Baseline Assessment (SHAMBA) model, net emission removal over 20 years was estimated at: − Gliricidia : -33 t CO2 equivalent (95% ci: -27, -47) − Tephrosia: -70 t CO2 equivalent (95% ci: -48, -91)• Baseline condition: 36 t CO2 equivalent
  • 20. OUTPUT 3: SUSTAINABLE TREESEEDS AND SEEDLING SUPPLYSYSTEMSSuitability, availability and access to improvedplanting materials by farmers are majorconstraints to increased agricultural productivity
  • 21. Seed Sources for MajorCrops in Kongwa and KitetoDistricts < 10% of farmers, use improved seeds from agro-dealers or produced locally as quality declared seeds
  • 22. OUTPUT 4: ACCESS AND USE OFWEATHER INFORMATION BYFARMERS Improved access and use weather information will help farmers to make decisions which helps to adapt to the risk associated with climate variability
  • 23. Capacity Building for EGA• Low awareness by farmers on weather forecast from TMA − Farming communities rarely use TMA forecasts − Farmers use local knowledge such as tree phenology• Climate forecast information issued by TMA are generalized. − Less accurate and not useful for planning activities• The adaptive capacity of villagers to climate change in Kiteto and Kongwa is low − Extreme poverty, − Limited alternative livelihood activities, − Environmental degradation.
  • 24. Conclusion: Tree-BasedAgricultural IntensificationOptions• Integrating fertilizer trees, manure and micro-dosing technologies, which fits very well into farmers’ socio- economic conditions• Integrated soil and water management to address land degradation and moisture limitation to crop growth• Participatory land use planning to minimize land use conflicts and improve farm productivity• Design and implement sustainable seed and seedling (trees and crops) supply systems• Capacity building for Climate-smart Agriculture to enhance the resilience of farming systems and farmers
  • 25. Thank you