Next generation online catalogs
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Next generation online catalogs Presentation Transcript

  • 1. CS3255 Information Organization Lecture 5: Library Catalogues: From Traditional to Next-Generation
  • 2. References
    • Breeding, Marshall, “Next-Generation Library Catalogs,” Library Technology Reports , v.43, n.4 (Jul/Aug 2007), available online at http://www.techsource.ala.org/ltr/ (accessed 11 Sep 2007)
    • Taylor, Arlene G., Introduction to Cataloging and Classification , 10 th ed. Westport, Conn. : Libraries Unlimited, 2006.
    • Furrie, Betty, Understanding MARC Bibliographic: Machine-Readable Catalogs , 7 th ed. Washington, D.C. : Cataloging Distribution Services, Library of Congress, in conjunction with The Follett Software Co., c2003, available online at http://www.loc.gov/marc/umb/ (accessed 11 Sep 2007)
  • 3.
    • Traditional Library Catalog
      • Scope of the Library Catalogue
      • Purpose of the Library Catalogue
      • Underlying Standards
      • Problems with TLC
    • Next-Generation Library Catalog
      • Federated Search or Metasearch
      • Delivering Content to the User
      • Enriched Content
      • Faceted Navigation
      • Web 2.0: Enabling User Contributions
      • Other Features
      • Putting Them All Together
    • Q&A
  • 4. Traditional Library Catalogue
  • 5. Scope of the Library Catalogue
    • Books – includes print and electronic books
    • Multimedia materials – CDs, DVDs, etc.
    • Newspapers, magazines, and professional & scholarly journals – described at title level, not individual issues/articles
    • Others – such as musical scores, microfilms, etc.
  • 6. Purpose of the Library Catalogue
    • 4 user tasks:
      • To find entities that correspond to the user’s stated search criteria …
      • To identify an entity …
      • To select an entity that is appropriate to the user’s needs …
      • To acquire or obtain access to the entity described …
    • Extracted from: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records, Final Report , IFLA Study Group on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (Munchen: K.G. Saur, 1998); also available: http://www.ifla.org/VII/s13/frbr/frbr.htm (accessed 6 Sep 2007).
  • 7. Underlying Standards
    • Descriptive Cataloguing:
      • AACR2 (Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, version 2)
    • Subject Cataloguing:
      • Library of Congress Subject Headings
      • Library of Congress Classification Scheme
    • Encoding:
      • MARC21 (MAchine Readable Cataloging) – Bibliographic, Authority, Holdings, Classification & Community
  • 8. Underlying Standards: Descriptive Cataloguing
    • AACR2
      • Part I – Description
        • Chapter 1 – covers description in general and is applicable to all types of materials
        • Chapters 2-12 – cover in detail various types of materials
        • Chapter 13 – covers a special topic: analysis
      • Part II – Headings, Uniform Titles, and References
        • Chapter 21 – covers how access points are selected
        • Chapters 22-25 – cover how headings & uniform titles are formed
        • Chapter 26 – covers how and when references are to be created to link headings
  • 9. Underlying Standards: Subject Cataloguing
    • Subject Headings
      • Controlled list of subject concept term or phrase used in catalogue records to:
        • Identify pertinent material on a given subject
        • Enable user to find material on related subjects
      • E.g., Library of Congress Subject Headings
    • Classification
      • Provides orderly access to the shelves by bringing related items together in a helpful sequence from the general to the specific
      • E.g., Library of Congress Classification Scheme
  • 10. Underlying Standards: Encoding (1) Extracted from MARC21 Formats - http://www.loc.gov/marc/marcdocz.html (accessed 6 Sep 2007) MARC = MAchine Readable Catalog
  • 11. Underlying Standards: Encoding (2)
    • Understanding MARC Bibliographic
      • http://www.loc.gov/marc/umb/ (accessed 6 Sep 2007)
      • Part III: MARC Terms and Their Definitions ( http://www.loc.gov/marc/umb/um01to06.html#part3 )
      • Part VII: A Summary of Commonly Used MARC21 Fields ( http://www.loc.gov/marc/umb/um07to10.html#part7 )
      • Part XI: A Sample Record in Various Formats ( http://www.loc.gov/marc/umb/um11to12.html#part11 )
  • 12. Problems with TLC
    • Complex search interface
      • Not consistent with user interface conventions
      • Unable to rank results by relevancy
    • Limited in scope
      • Tied more to print materials
      • Unable to deliver online content
    • Lack social network features
  • 13. Next-Generation Library Catalog
  • 14. Federated Search (1) or Metasearch
    • Before – search individual information resources separately
    • Now – one interface to search multiple information resources simultaneously
    Taken from NISO’s website. Presentation by Andrew Pace: http://www.niso.org/news/events_workshops/OpenURL-05-ppts/2-1-pace.ppt (date: 21 Mar 2007)
  • 15. Federated Search (2)
    • How it works?
      • Back-end communication through search protocols to send query and receive results
        • ANSI/NISO Z39.50 ( http://www.loc.gov/z3950/agency/ )
        • XML
        • Others
      • Front-end processing and presentation of result sets
        • Presenting results in a standard format and structure
        • De-duplication – i.e. consolidation of identical entries from multiple targets
        • Sorting and display
    • Sample Site
  • 16. Federated Search (3)
    • Issues
      • Speed of performance limited by slowest responding target
        • Time-outs
        • Minimal no. of targets
        • Limiting no. of items requested
      • Sorting & ranking
        • Based on initial set of records retrieved
      • Separate from the Library Catalogue
  • 17. Delivering Content to the User
    • Using a link resolver based on the OpenURL standard (ANSI/NISO Z39.88) ( http://openurl.info/registry )
    • Provide users with contents that they can actually access
    • Sample Site
    Taken from Serials Solutions’ website: http://www.serialssolutions.com/alOURL04.asp (date: 21 Mar 2007)
  • 18. Enriched Content
    • Contents include:
      • Cover art images, such as book jackets, movie cases, etc.
      • Table of contents
        • MARC or Non-MARC
        • Searchable or Not
      • Summaries
      • Reviews
    • Sources:
      • Syndetic Solutions ( http://www.syndetics.com )
  • 19. Faceted Navigation
    • Using facets to narrow down results
    • Facets derived from bibliographic information in the Library Catalog
    • Visual appeal
    • Sample Sites
  • 20. Web 2.0: Enabling User Contributions
    • User ratings & reviews
      • Expressing opinions regarding works in the catalog
    • User tagging
      • Assigning informal terms to items of interest
      • “ Folksonomy” as a supplement to traditional subject headings provided by libraries
    • Blogs & RSS
      • Means to deliver information to users
  • 21. Other Features
    • Keyword Searching
      • Google-like simple search box
    • Relevancy
      • Most important items appear first followed by those of diminishing relevancy
    • “Did you mean …?”
      • Detect common spelling errors
      • Suggest a term that will work
    • Recommendations
      • “Users that borrowed X also borrowed Y”
  • 22. Putting Them All Together
    • New discovery & delivery interface providing access to all of the content and services offered by a Library
      • Through harvesting additional contents into local index
      • Through incorporating federated-search into interface
    • Interface characteristics
      • Simple search box
      • AJAX technology to dynamically request and present additional information without having to redisplay the entire page
    • Incorporate features such as Relevancy ranking, Popular choices, Faceted navigation, Tag cloud, “Did you mean …?”, User-contributed content, Enriched content, etc.
    • Sample Site
  • 23. Q & A Thank you! Alex Fraser Doctoral Student Graduate School of Library and Information Science Dominican University River Forest, Illinois