Next generation online catalogs


Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Next generation online catalogs

  1. 1. CS3255 Information Organization Lecture 5: Library Catalogues: From Traditional to Next-Generation
  2. 2. References <ul><li>Breeding, Marshall, “Next-Generation Library Catalogs,” Library Technology Reports , v.43, n.4 (Jul/Aug 2007), available online at (accessed 11 Sep 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor, Arlene G., Introduction to Cataloging and Classification , 10 th ed. Westport, Conn. : Libraries Unlimited, 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Furrie, Betty, Understanding MARC Bibliographic: Machine-Readable Catalogs , 7 th ed. Washington, D.C. : Cataloging Distribution Services, Library of Congress, in conjunction with The Follett Software Co., c2003, available online at (accessed 11 Sep 2007) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Traditional Library Catalog </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scope of the Library Catalogue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose of the Library Catalogue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underlying Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems with TLC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Next-Generation Library Catalog </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federated Search or Metasearch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivering Content to the User </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enriched Content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faceted Navigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web 2.0: Enabling User Contributions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Putting Them All Together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Q&A </li></ul>
  4. 4. Traditional Library Catalogue
  5. 5. Scope of the Library Catalogue <ul><li>Books – includes print and electronic books </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia materials – CDs, DVDs, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers, magazines, and professional & scholarly journals – described at title level, not individual issues/articles </li></ul><ul><li>Others – such as musical scores, microfilms, etc. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Purpose of the Library Catalogue <ul><li>4 user tasks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To find entities that correspond to the user’s stated search criteria … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To identify an entity … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To select an entity that is appropriate to the user’s needs … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To acquire or obtain access to the entity described … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extracted from: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records, Final Report , IFLA Study Group on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (Munchen: K.G. Saur, 1998); also available: (accessed 6 Sep 2007). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Underlying Standards <ul><li>Descriptive Cataloguing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AACR2 (Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, version 2) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subject Cataloguing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Library of Congress Subject Headings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library of Congress Classification Scheme </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encoding: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MARC21 (MAchine Readable Cataloging) – Bibliographic, Authority, Holdings, Classification & Community </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Underlying Standards: Descriptive Cataloguing <ul><li>AACR2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part I – Description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 1 – covers description in general and is applicable to all types of materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chapters 2-12 – cover in detail various types of materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 13 – covers a special topic: analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part II – Headings, Uniform Titles, and References </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 21 – covers how access points are selected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chapters 22-25 – cover how headings & uniform titles are formed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 26 – covers how and when references are to be created to link headings </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Underlying Standards: Subject Cataloguing <ul><li>Subject Headings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled list of subject concept term or phrase used in catalogue records to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify pertinent material on a given subject </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enable user to find material on related subjects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., Library of Congress Subject Headings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides orderly access to the shelves by bringing related items together in a helpful sequence from the general to the specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., Library of Congress Classification Scheme </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Underlying Standards: Encoding (1) Extracted from MARC21 Formats - (accessed 6 Sep 2007) MARC = MAchine Readable Catalog
  11. 11. Underlying Standards: Encoding (2) <ul><li>Understanding MARC Bibliographic </li></ul><ul><ul><li> (accessed 6 Sep 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part III: MARC Terms and Their Definitions ( ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part VII: A Summary of Commonly Used MARC21 Fields ( ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part XI: A Sample Record in Various Formats ( ) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Problems with TLC <ul><li>Complex search interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not consistent with user interface conventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to rank results by relevancy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limited in scope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tied more to print materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to deliver online content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lack social network features </li></ul>
  13. 13. Next-Generation Library Catalog
  14. 14. Federated Search (1) or Metasearch <ul><li>Before – search individual information resources separately </li></ul><ul><li>Now – one interface to search multiple information resources simultaneously </li></ul>Taken from NISO’s website. Presentation by Andrew Pace: (date: 21 Mar 2007)
  15. 15. Federated Search (2) <ul><li>How it works? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Back-end communication through search protocols to send query and receive results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ANSI/NISO Z39.50 ( ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>XML </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Front-end processing and presentation of result sets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presenting results in a standard format and structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>De-duplication – i.e. consolidation of identical entries from multiple targets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sorting and display </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sample Site </li></ul>
  16. 16. Federated Search (3) <ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed of performance limited by slowest responding target </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time-outs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal no. of targets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limiting no. of items requested </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sorting & ranking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on initial set of records retrieved </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate from the Library Catalogue </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Delivering Content to the User <ul><li>Using a link resolver based on the OpenURL standard (ANSI/NISO Z39.88) ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide users with contents that they can actually access </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Site </li></ul>Taken from Serials Solutions’ website: (date: 21 Mar 2007)
  18. 18. Enriched Content <ul><li>Contents include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover art images, such as book jackets, movie cases, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Table of contents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MARC or Non-MARC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Searchable or Not </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reviews </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Syndetic Solutions ( ) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Faceted Navigation <ul><li>Using facets to narrow down results </li></ul><ul><li>Facets derived from bibliographic information in the Library Catalog </li></ul><ul><li>Visual appeal </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Sites </li></ul>
  20. 20. Web 2.0: Enabling User Contributions <ul><li>User ratings & reviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressing opinions regarding works in the catalog </li></ul></ul><ul><li>User tagging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assigning informal terms to items of interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Folksonomy” as a supplement to traditional subject headings provided by libraries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blogs & RSS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means to deliver information to users </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Other Features <ul><li>Keyword Searching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google-like simple search box </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relevancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important items appear first followed by those of diminishing relevancy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“Did you mean …?” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detect common spelling errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggest a term that will work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Users that borrowed X also borrowed Y” </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Putting Them All Together <ul><li>New discovery & delivery interface providing access to all of the content and services offered by a Library </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Through harvesting additional contents into local index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through incorporating federated-search into interface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interface characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple search box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AJAX technology to dynamically request and present additional information without having to redisplay the entire page </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incorporate features such as Relevancy ranking, Popular choices, Faceted navigation, Tag cloud, “Did you mean …?”, User-contributed content, Enriched content, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Site </li></ul>
  23. 23. Q & A Thank you! Alex Fraser Doctoral Student Graduate School of Library and Information Science Dominican University River Forest, Illinois