Quantum Electronic Solids                                                                                                 ...
QUANTUM ELECTRONIC SOLIDSNAME: Dr. Harold WeinstockBRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PORTFOLIOPhysics and electronics at the nanoscale:...
Seekers of New SuperconductorsMURI: 1. Stanford, Princeton, Rice, Rutgers (Beasley)      2. UCSD, UCI, UW-Milw, Complutens...
Guidance for New Superconductors• To obtain Tc = 300K, not of great concern  whether it is a 2D or 3D superconductor, but ...
Supersearch Methodology                     Ivan Schuller - UCSD                                        Materials         ...
Sensitive & Selective  Mag. Field Modulated Microwave Spectroscopy     Oscillate H field, scan T,       detect absorption ...
Results                   Ivan Schuller – UCSD•    SYSTEMATIC studies    1.   RE5Si3+dopants            Pr5Si3 +C, 85K Fe...
Empirical Search for New SCs           U Maryland-Iowa State-UC San Diego MURI (PI-R.L. Greene)40+ K Superconductivity in ...
Integrated MBE – ARPES     Kyle Shen, Cornell U.    DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...
SC Power Transmission for DE                              A. Dietz, Creare Inc., L. Bromberg, MIT•   Two-stage current lea...
Light Funneling into Deep Sub-λ Slits                                    L. Jay Guo and R. Merlin, U. of Michigan      Reg...
Spontaneous Faster than Stimulated Emission                Eli Yablonovitch & Ming Wu, UC BerkeleyNew Science: Changing th...
Nonlinear Metamaterials                                       D. R. Smith, Duke University                                ...
Nonlinear Optical Metamaterials                        D. R. Smith, Duke UniversityFour wave mixing in anoptical metacryst...
Ultra-Subwavelength 2D Plasmon Electronics                Donhee Ham, Harvard University2D Plasmonic Nanoguide & Cavity   ...
Newtonian Route to Gigantic Neg. Refraction              Donhee Ham, Harvard University2DEG electron-inertia-based        ...
MM-Inspired Optical Nanocircuits                                         Nader Engheta, U PennGraphene Metamaterials, Grap...
Patterned Graphene Grows into Thin Heterojunctions                           Jiwoong Park, Cornell University             ...
Electrical Properties of Polycrystalline Graphene                    Jiwoong Park, Cornell University               Small-...
Atomic Structure & Electronic Properties of Low-D Mat’ls                    Abhay Pasupathy, Columbia University          ...
Graphene Production Tool - STTR Phase II               Structured Materials Industries: Nick Sbrockey, Bruce Willner, Gary...
Sketched Oxide Single-Electron TransistorFY10 SuperSemi MURI – J. Levy, U. of Pittsburgh                                  ...
Discovery of Spin Qubits in SiC                  D. D. Awschalom, University of California – Santa BarbaraBased on existin...
Fab. for Oxide Film Hetero Devices                                                                                        ...
CRYOGENIC PELTIER COOLING – FY10 MURI                       J. P. Heremans, Ohio State U.      •   Goal: develop science t...
CPC MURI Accomplishments Year 1                                      J. Heremans, Ohio State U.     1.00              BiSb...
Interactions with Other AgenciesAgency/Group    POC                                                           Scientific A...
Thank youDISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.   28
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Weinstock - Quantum Electronic Solids - Spring Review 2012

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Dr. Harold Weinstock presents an overview of his program -Quantum Electronic Solids at the AFOSR 2012 Spring Review.

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Weinstock - Quantum Electronic Solids - Spring Review 2012

  1. 1. Quantum Electronic Solids 07 March 2012 Dr. Harold Weinstock Program Manager AFOSR/RSE Integrity  Service  Excellence Air Force Research Laboratory15 February 2012 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 1
  2. 2. QUANTUM ELECTRONIC SOLIDSNAME: Dr. Harold WeinstockBRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PORTFOLIOPhysics and electronics at the nanoscale: superconductivity,metamaterials and nanoelectronics - exploiting quantum phenomenato create faster, smarter, smaller and more energy efficient devicesSUB-AREAS IN PORTFOLIOSuperconductivity: find new, more useful materials for high magneticfields, microwave electronics, power reduction and distributionMetamaterials: microwave, IR & optical sensing and signalprocessing with smaller sizes and unique propertiesNanoelectronics: NTs, graphene, diamond, SiC for sensing, logic &memory storage DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 2
  3. 3. Seekers of New SuperconductorsMURI: 1. Stanford, Princeton, Rice, Rutgers (Beasley) 2. UCSD, UCI, UW-Milw, Complutense (Schuller) 3. Maryland, Iowa State, UCSD (R. Greene)Plus: 1. Houston, TAMU, Academia Sinica Taiwan (Chu) 2. UT-Dallas, Clemson, Aoyama Gakuin (Zakhidov) 3. Stony Brook, UCSD, Rutgers, (Aronson, Basov, Kotliar) 4. Florida International (Larkins, Vlasov) 5. Brookhaven, Stanford (Bozovic, Geballe) 6. Tel Aviv, Stanford, Twente (Deutscher, Geballe, Koster) 7. PECASE: TAMU, Rice, Cornell (Wang, Morosan, Shen) 8. AFRL/RZPG (Tim Haugan) 9. IoP of CAS + Chinese universities (Zhao et al.) DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 3
  4. 4. Guidance for New Superconductors• To obtain Tc = 300K, not of great concern whether it is a 2D or 3D superconductor, but for most applications desire 3D.• Alternately, could be either s-wave or d-wave pairing of electrons in achieving Tc = 300K, but for applications prefer s-wave pairing.• No known reason why the el-ph interaction can’t work well at 300 K.• Hope for large density of states, especially for applications. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 4
  5. 5. Supersearch Methodology Ivan Schuller - UCSD Materials Candidate INITIAL Parallel Synthesis Inhomogeneous SCREENING Samples IDENTIFICATION OF KNOWN Fast Screening SUPERCONDUCTORS (MFMMS)Superconductors Structural Refinement (X-ray, Neutron) SQUID, Transport NEW Superconducting Phases Single Phase Synthesis New Superconducting Material DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 5
  6. 6. Sensitive & Selective Mag. Field Modulated Microwave Spectroscopy Oscillate H field, scan T, detect absorption Nb Stripe on Sapphire Substrate Absorption, a.u., 200 Microwave Absorption, a.u 150 -8 3 VNb ~ 6.10 cm 100 50 0 5x10-12 cm3 5 6 7 8 9 10Detection limit Temperature, K Temperature, K DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 6
  7. 7. Results Ivan Schuller – UCSD• SYSTEMATIC studies 1. RE5Si3+dopants  Pr5Si3 +C, 85K Ferromagnet  Eu5Si3 27K Superconductor ?  YBCO preformed superconducting pairs at 180K 2. AlB2-high pressure synthesis Tc~ 7K ? 3. Th5Ni4C- Tc~5K 4. CaCeIr- Tc~3K 5. ZrNbxB, ZrVxB- Tc~9K 6. ZrVxS2, ZrVxSe2, ZrVxTe2- Tc~7-9K• MFMMS - Open for business• Collaborations- 3 MURIs+Wen+Zhou+Risbud• 16 papers, 4 PhD theses, 38 invited talks DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 7
  8. 8. Empirical Search for New SCs U Maryland-Iowa State-UC San Diego MURI (PI-R.L. Greene)40+ K Superconductivity in rare earth-doped Ca1-xRxFe2As2• substitution-controlled lattice collapse• high-Tc superconducting phase S.R. Saha et al, arXiv: 1105.4798 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 8
  9. 9. Integrated MBE – ARPES Kyle Shen, Cornell U. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 9
  10. 10. SC Power Transmission for DE A. Dietz, Creare Inc., L. Bromberg, MIT• Two-stage current leads with integrated heat Cryocooler Performance exchangers cooled by cycle gas from a two-stage turbo-Brayton cryocooler• Current lead design minimizes cold heat load and ensures even current distribution• Cryocooler design offers high efficiency with low weight• Advantages over copper cables – 90% less weight – 40% less power consumed Current Lead Design System Configuration DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 10
  11. 11. Light Funneling into Deep Sub-λ Slits L. Jay Guo and R. Merlin, U. of Michigan Region II: Region I: Region II: Reflecting Funneling Reflecting 2.6 Effective Funneling Range Effective Funneling Range (um) 2.4 Linear Fitting 2.2 2.0 Ez + + + - - - + - 1.8 Hy Ex + - + - 1.6 Gold Gold 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 Resonance Wavelength (um) Electric Field Poynting VectorExperimentally determined that light can be efficiently funneled into a nanoslit with an effective lateralrange on the order of one wavelength. Effect can be explained in terms of electrostatic model. Alsostudied coupling effects for more than one slit. 86 2.8 84 Experimental 2.7 Dip Reflection Value (%) Dip wavelength (um) Model 82 2.6 80 78 2.5 Experimental Model 76 2.4 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Distance (um) Distance (um) 11
  12. 12. Spontaneous Faster than Stimulated Emission Eli Yablonovitch & Ming Wu, UC BerkeleyNew Science: Changing the rules, spontaneous faster than stimulated!New Technology: LED is faster than Laser! BW of THz possible. LC matching circuit Enables ultra-low power interconnects. Without Antenna 300 With Antenna Antenna Arms Counts (arb.)LC matching circuit Active 200 Volume: InGaAsP Gold 100 Antenna Arms InP Cladding 0 1440 1460 1480 1500 1520 1540 Wavelength (nm) • Optical-antenna-based nanoLED demoed. –Very small size. 0.015 (λ/2n)3 Mode Volume –Spontaneous Emission Rate enhancement of >8xRidge Height: 35nm –Semiconductor based - allow for high speed mod.Ridge Width: 24nmMetal Thickness: 40 nm DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 12
  13. 13. Nonlinear Metamaterials D. R. Smith, Duke University MetaCrystal as “Nonlinear Mirror” Low Frequency Nonlinear MetaCrystals Nonlinear crystals play dominant E-(2ω1) role in optical systems as sources, wavelength shifters, amplifiers, etc. E(ω1) Artificially-structured MetaCrystals can improve on nature.1st experimental demo of phasematching: neg. index nonlinearmetacrystal produces 2nd harmonicreflected wave! DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13
  14. 14. Nonlinear Optical Metamaterials D. R. Smith, Duke UniversityFour wave mixing in anoptical metacrystalAt IR and visible wavelengths,metals are extremely nonlinear andare a natural match for opticalnonlinear metamaterials.Field enhancement can play acritical role!Simulation showing huge enhancement ofFWM light, (>8 orders of mag.) using bothlocalized & propagating surface plasmons! DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 14
  15. 15. Ultra-Subwavelength 2D Plasmon Electronics Donhee Ham, Harvard University2D Plasmonic Nanoguide & Cavity 2D Plasmonic Crystal • lp ~ l/300 (drastic subwavelength confinement) • 2D plasmon manipulation to create circuits DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 15
  16. 16. Newtonian Route to Gigantic Neg. Refraction Donhee Ham, Harvard University2DEG electron-inertia-based Gigantic negative indexnegative index metamaterial (up to -460) H. Yoon et al, Nature (under review) 16 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  17. 17. MM-Inspired Optical Nanocircuits Nader Engheta, U PennGraphene Metamaterials, Graphene Metatronics, and Graphene TransformationOptics Thinnest (i.e. one-atom-thick) IR waveguide IR waveguide splitter using Graphene One-Atom-Thick Optical Fourier Transforming with Graphene One-Atom-Thick Luneburg lens, as an example of Graphene Transformation Optics One-Atom-Thick IR Metamaterials DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 17
  18. 18. Patterned Graphene Grows into Thin Heterojunctions Jiwoong Park, Cornell University New technique produces heterojunctions in single-atom-thick graphene Patterned regrowth process TEMElectrical continuity of synthesized i-n graphene heterojunctions M.P.Levendorf, et al. in preparation FA9550-10-1-0410: LOW DIMENSIONALDISTRIBUTION MATERIALS FOR NANO-OPTICS AND NANOPLASMONICS CARBON A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 18
  19. 19. Electrical Properties of Polycrystalline Graphene Jiwoong Park, Cornell University Small-Grain Graphene shows excellent electrical performancesHigh electrical conductance of grain boundaries in polycrystalline samplesPolycrystalline graphene can have similar (as much as 90%) electrical properties (conductance andmobility) as in single-crystalline exfoliated graphene. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 19
  20. 20. Atomic Structure & Electronic Properties of Low-D Mat’ls Abhay Pasupathy, Columbia University The local electronic structure of graphene doped with nitrogen Above: X-ray measurements of a nitrogen-doped graphene film (top) show a strong resonanceAbove: Left – Large area STM image of N dopants in a graphene monolayer and Right – due to graphitic nitrogen that isatomic scale image of a single dopant showing the nitrogen dopant (red) in the graphene not present in pristine graphenelattice (silver and blue) (bottom) Published in: Zhao et al, Science 333, 999 (2011) DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 20
  21. 21. Graphene Production Tool - STTR Phase II Structured Materials Industries: Nick Sbrockey, Bruce Willner, Gary Tompa Cornell University: Jeonghyun Hwang, Michael SpencerProcess development at Cornell and at SMI forgraphene films by Si sublimation, and by CVD onmetal and dielectric substrates. (A) Graphene film deposition tools are being designed, built and Sold by SMI. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 21
  22. 22. Sketched Oxide Single-Electron TransistorFY10 SuperSemi MURI – J. Levy, U. of Pittsburgh H    i ni  i ,  t  c  c   h.c.  U n  ij  , ij † i j i n i i i j tij Ui DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 22
  23. 23. Discovery of Spin Qubits in SiC D. D. Awschalom, University of California – Santa BarbaraBased on existing technology: Basal divacancy orientation • commercial wafers Ramsey Fringes Hahn Echo • GHz quantum control • room temperature • telecom wavelengths • robust T2 ~ 300 μsDifferent divacancy defect orientations C-axis divacancy orientation Ramsey Fringes Hahn Echo Nature 479, 84 (2011)Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DISTRIBUTION A: 23
  24. 24. Fab. for Oxide Film Hetero Devices STTR Phase II Structured Materials Industries: Nick Sbrockey, Gary Tompa Drexel University: Jonathan Spanier 300 STO (100) STO (200) 250 LAO (100) LAO (200) 200Intensity ( AU ) 150 LAO/STO 100 STO 50 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Angle 2 Theta SMI and Drexel University have developed an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for epitaxial LaAlO3 films on SrTiO3 substrates. XRD and TEM verify epitaxy. Electrical characterization shows conductivity, similar to LaAlO3 / SrTiO3 heterojunctions prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Recent work focused on scaling-up process technology & hardware to large wafer sizes & high volume production tools. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 24
  25. 25. CRYOGENIC PELTIER COOLING – FY10 MURI J. P. Heremans, Ohio State U. • Goal: develop science to enhance thermoelectric performance of solid-state coolers in the 150 K – 10 K range (cooling of IR, XR and -ray sensors); need zT > 1-1.5 • Approach 2 S • Two scientific tools zT  T  (1) band engineering to enhance thermopower (2) nanostructuring to decrease lattice thermal conductivity • Four material systems (1) Bi1-xSbx Starting point (2) Tetradymites Bi2Te3-like (3) sp/d hybridized semiconductors FeSb2-like 1.00 Bi Sb (H = 0.5 Tesla) 91 9 (4) sp/f hybridized metals CePd3-like Bi90Sb10 Resonant 0.10 zT impurities Tetradymite p-typeDOS YbAl3 0.01 Calculated Band structure nm-sized FeSb2 engineering precipitates in BiSb- E As reduce thermal 10 10025 conductivity T(K) DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 25
  26. 26. CPC MURI Accomplishments Year 1 J. Heremans, Ohio State U. 1.00 BiSb:K MURI result Bi83Sb17 Overall progress: 0.10 Tetradymite • 40% increase in zT 50K <T < 300K p-type in BiSb using K as resonant levelzT FeSb1.96 • 3x-increase in zT in FeSb2 using MURI result nanostructuring 0.01 FeSb2 10 100 T(K) DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 26
  27. 27. Interactions with Other AgenciesAgency/Group POC Scientific AreaARO Rich Hammond Metamaterials Pani Varanasi GrapheneARL Paul Barnes SuperconductivityDoE Laura Greene, UIUC (EFRC) Superconductivity Yvan Bozovic, BNL SuperconductivityONR Mark Spector Metamaterials Chagaan Baatar GrapheneInternational Taiwan Nanoscience Korea Nanoscience Israel Metamaterials, NS, SC Netherlands Superconductivity Brazil Magnetic Materials, SC Chile Magnetic Materials DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 27
  28. 28. Thank youDISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 28

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