AFOSR<br />Progress and Challenges in Foundational Hypersonics ResearchApril 2011<br />John D. Schmisseur<br />Program Man...
Hypersonic Flight:<br />Challenging Science & Integration<br />Hypersonic:  High-speed flow regime where energy transfer b...
Foundational Research:“Building Blocks of a Technology Base”<br />National Aeronautics R&D Plan<br />Goals of Basic/Founda...
 3 Science Centers
 1 MURI</li></ul>Fundamental  Aero Hyp<br /><ul><li> Tools and Technologies
Airbreathing Space       </li></ul>   Access<br /><ul><li> High-Mass Planetary </li></ul>   Entry<br /><ul><li> 3 Science ...
 Focus is on Advanced Numerics
 Academic research addresses aerothermo. & high-temp materials</li></li></ul><li>Outline<br /><ul><li> Major collaboration...
 Challenges and opportunities
 Recent accomplishments
 Emerging game-changers</li></li></ul><li>A Coherent National Scientific Vision and Coordinated Research Investments<br />...
 Ensure the long-term availability of an expert knowledge base
Prepare for planned future hypersonic capabilities
Adopted by the JTOH as the basic research roadmap</li></ul>Objective:  Advance Science to Address Critical Phenomena in 6 ...
Near Term (2010)<br />Semi-Empirical (Calibrated) Methods for 3-D Flows on Idealized Surfaces<br />Far Term (2030)<br />Ph...
Hypersonic Academic Research Partnership (HARP)<br />Network of Academic Hypersonic Research Centers<br />Uncertainty Quan...
Collaboration via NATO <br />Research and Technology Organisation<br />A Rich History of International Collaboration in Hy...
AVT 136: Assessment of Aerothermodynamic Flight Prediction Tools </li></ul>	     through Ground and Flight Experimentation...
 “race” of instability growth for laminar- </li></ul>   turbulent transition<br /><ul><li>  excitation/relaxation of inter...
 material response in extreme environments</li></ul>Access to the Hypersonic Environment remains exceptionally difficult<b...
 a few come close…
 Flight Research seems to be a lost art
 a few programs seek to provide scientific flight data</li></ul>Technology priorities have shifted<br /><ul><li> The Cold ...
 Current interests:  cyber-tech, socio-cultural, efficiency</li></ul>Simulation from H. Fasel, U. Az.<br />Glass-Forming A...
Opportunities<br />Unprecedented Insight Into Critical Phenomena<br /><ul><li> driven by large-scale computing and optical...
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Progress and Challenges in Foundational Hypersonics Research

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  • NOTE: Limited space requires brief, but precise statements.Purpose of this chart: Document Tools &amp; Technology Portfolio of Hypersonics Project in FY12Objective: State of the Art: Could refer to operational system, or flight test, or TRL 5,6 work. What seems most appropriate to you?Technical Approach: Must build off SOTA statement. How will this work advance the state of the art?Major accomplishment to date: Most important accomplishment so far you want known.Milestones; 2 or 3 sufficient. Include brief title.FTEs &amp; WYEs identified by Center.$: total procurement $ including cost of WYEs but not FTEs.
  • Progress and Challenges in Foundational Hypersonics Research

    1. 1. AFOSR<br />Progress and Challenges in Foundational Hypersonics ResearchApril 2011<br />John D. Schmisseur<br />Program Manager<br />AFOSR/NA<br />Air Force Office of Scientific Research<br />Thanks:<br />Mike Wright, Jim Pittman, and Deepak Bose - NASA <br />
    2. 2. Hypersonic Flight:<br />Challenging Science & Integration<br />Hypersonic: High-speed flow regime where energy transfer between the flow and thermodynamic and chemical processes becomes significant<br />Development of Hypersonic Capabilities Requires the <br />Integration of Contributions from a variety of Disciplines<br />Advanced Sensors and<br />Communications<br />High-Temperature,<br />Light, Durable <br />Materials<br />Enhanced Ignition<br />and Combustion<br />Innovative <br />Flowpaths<br />Advanced Numerical Simulations and Diagnostics<br />Image Courtesy <br />Kei Lau, Boeing<br />Thermal <br />Management<br />Optimized Aerodynamics<br />and Flow Control<br />Advanced Flight Controls,<br />Closed-Loop Optimization Control <br />
    3. 3. Foundational Research:“Building Blocks of a Technology Base”<br />National Aeronautics R&D Plan<br />Goals of Basic/Foundational Science– requires balanced investment<br /><ul><li>Foster scientific innovation to radically change the status quo</li></ul> – the “basic” part<br /><ul><li>Develop and utilize essential science to overcome technology show-stoppers – the “foundational” part</li></ul>AFOSR – Basic<br /><ul><li>Aerothermo. & </li></ul> Turbulence<br /><ul><li> Combustion & </li></ul> Diagnostics<br /><ul><li> High-Temp. Materials
    4. 4. 3 Science Centers
    5. 5. 1 MURI</li></ul>Fundamental Aero Hyp<br /><ul><li> Tools and Technologies
    6. 6. Airbreathing Space </li></ul> Access<br /><ul><li> High-Mass Planetary </li></ul> Entry<br /><ul><li> 3 Science Centers</li></ul>~ $20 M<br />In current FY<br /><ul><li> 2 PSAAP Centers with Hypersonic Topics
    7. 7. Focus is on Advanced Numerics
    8. 8. Academic research addresses aerothermo. & high-temp materials</li></li></ul><li>Outline<br /><ul><li> Major collaborations and plans
    9. 9. Challenges and opportunities
    10. 10. Recent accomplishments
    11. 11. Emerging game-changers</li></li></ul><li>A Coherent National Scientific Vision and Coordinated Research Investments<br />Unknown Program Directions<br />???<br />Shuttle<br />X-43<br />volatile history <br /> = eroding skill base<br />People<br />ASSET, PRIME<br />Program Resources<br />Stable Base of Expertise<br /> Foundational Research Base<br />Inspired by AF SAB-TR-00-03<br />1963<br />1978<br />2008<br />1993<br />The National Hypersonic Foundational Research Plan<br /><ul><li> Provide a consistent science and technology base
    12. 12. Ensure the long-term availability of an expert knowledge base
    13. 13. Prepare for planned future hypersonic capabilities
    14. 14. Adopted by the JTOH as the basic research roadmap</li></ul>Objective: Advance Science to Address Critical Phenomena in 6 Thrust Areas<br />Nonequilibrium Flows<br />Shock-Dominated Flows<br />High-Temperature Materials & Structures<br />Environment-Structures & Material Interactions<br />Supersonic Combustion<br />Boundary Layer Physics<br />
    15. 15. Near Term (2010)<br />Semi-Empirical (Calibrated) Methods for 3-D Flows on Idealized Surfaces<br />Far Term (2030)<br />Physics-Based (Uncalibrated) Estimation for Actual Systems<br />Mid Term (2020)<br />Extend Semi-Empirical Methods to Account for Realistic Surface Conditions<br />NHFRP Goals: Boundary Layer Physics<br />Orbiter experiments facilitate characterization of real surface effects<br />AFRL HIFiRE 1- March 2010<br />Axisymmetric<br />Experiment<br />NASA HyBoLT – 2008-<br />Flat with crossflow on sides – lost during launch<br />Simulation <br />– artificially tripped<br />Increasing 3-D Complexity<br />HYTHIRM: Near IR Image of Shuttle Orbiter ~ Mach 9<br />AFRL HIFiRE 5 – <br />3-D Geometry with significant crossflow<br />Responsive Space Access<br />Continuous transition to tech maturation<br />Prompt Global Strike<br />Planetary Entry<br />
    16. 16. Hypersonic Academic Research Partnership (HARP)<br />Network of Academic Hypersonic Research Centers<br />Uncertainty Quantification & Verification and Validation (NNSA)<br />Application-Oriented (NASA ESMD)<br />Multidisciplinary Science and Transitioning 6.1<br />Basic Science<br />(AFOSR/NASA)<br />AFRL/RB Midwest Structural Sciences Center at U. Illinois<br />NHSC: Hypersonic Materials and Structures, Teledyne Scientific and Imaging<br />Joint AFOSR-NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Sponsored National Hypersonic Science Centers Extend Collaboration Initiated Under the Foundational Research Plan<br />Total of $30M in invested over 5 years<br />U. Texas - Predictive Engineering and Computational Sciences (PECOS) Atmospheric Reentry<br />Coordinating over $20M in Annual Investment Across DoD, NASA, DoE/NNSA and ASRP<br />CUIP Reentry Aerothermo-dynamics Portfolio<br />MURI: Fundamental Processes in High-Temperature Gas-Surface Interactions<br />NSSEFF: Candler Thermophysics<br />Scientific Disciplines<br />Stanford University: The Center for Predictive Simulations of Multi-Physics Flow Phenomena with Application to Integrated Hypersonic Systems <br />NHSC: Hypersonic Laminar-Turbulent Transition, Texas A&M<br />AFRL/RB Computational Hypersonics Center at U. Michigan<br />HIFiRE<br />NHSC: Center for Hypersonic Combined Cycle Flow Physics, UVa<br />ASRP: Scramjet-Based Access to Space – UQ consortium<br />Research Objectives<br />
    17. 17. Collaboration via NATO <br />Research and Technology Organisation<br />A Rich History of International Collaboration in Hypersonics<br /><ul><li>WG 18: Hypersonic Experimental and Computational Capability, </li></ul> Improvement and Validation (1991-1997)<br /><ul><li> WG 10: Technologies for Propelled Hypersonic Flight (1998-2002)
    18. 18. AVT 136: Assessment of Aerothermodynamic Flight Prediction Tools </li></ul> through Ground and Flight Experimentation (2005-2009)<br /><ul><li>Research community responds to opportunity to report </li></ul> RTO contributions in international forum<br /><ul><li>Excerpts from Final Report to appear in </li></ul>Journal of Progress in Aerospace Sciences<br />New Opportunities to participate in RTO Collaborations<br /><ul><li>AVT 205: Assessment of Predictive Capabilities for </li></ul>Aerothermodynamic Heating of Hypersonic Systems (2012- )<br /><ul><li> Led by Doyle Knight (Rutgers U.) and Olivier Chazot (VKI)</li></li></ul><li>Challenges<br />Reactions<br />Micro-scale phenomena significantly impact macro-scale properties, <br />i.e. the small stuff matters<br /><ul><li> Rate-dependent processes
    19. 19. “race” of instability growth for laminar- </li></ul> turbulent transition<br /><ul><li> excitation/relaxation of internal energy states
    20. 20. material response in extreme environments</li></ul>Access to the Hypersonic Environment remains exceptionally difficult<br /><ul><li> No ground test facility duplicates every aspect of flight
    21. 21. a few come close…
    22. 22. Flight Research seems to be a lost art
    23. 23. a few programs seek to provide scientific flight data</li></ul>Technology priorities have shifted<br /><ul><li> The Cold War was driven by aerospace
    24. 24. Current interests: cyber-tech, socio-cultural, efficiency</li></ul>Simulation from H. Fasel, U. Az.<br />Glass-Forming Ablator in Shear<br />Courtesy Mike Wright, NASA Ames<br />hn<br />Vibrational<br />Rotational<br />Electronic<br />
    25. 25. Opportunities<br />Unprecedented Insight Into Critical Phenomena<br /><ul><li> driven by large-scale computing and optical diagnostics</li></ul>DNS of SBLI<br />P. Martin, U. Maryland<br />W. Rich, W. Lempert, and I. Adamovich Ohio State<br /> Point measurement of vibrational and rotational/translational temperatures in less than 200 psec sampling time<br />M=3 Nozzle With Hemisphere Body<br />Fletcher and Chazot, VKI<br />There is No Mature Industry Base for Hypersonic Systems<br /><ul><li>opportunity to rapidly transition science breakthroughs for integration into emerging systems!</li></ul>Spectroscopic Measurement of Transient Material Response<br />
    26. 26. Coming Soon?: Flying the <br />Mission – In Silica<br />Large-Scale Numerical Simulations Provide Unprecedented Insight Into Detailed Flow Physics<br /><ul><li> Massively parallel processing has dramatically shortened run time – possible to “fly” mission
    27. 27. 230M element solution in 12-24 hours on 288 nodes
    28. 28. 0.5B element solution in ~12 hours on 4k nodes</li></ul>HYTHIRM: Near IR Image of Shuttle Orbiter ~ Mach 9<br />Surface Heat Flux and Instantaneous Flow Structure on an Elliptic Cone<br /><ul><li>32M elements</li></ul>Experiment<br />81 million element, shock-tailored grid<br />Simulation <br />– artificially tripped<br />Simulations Courtesy G. Candler, U. Minnesota<br />
    29. 29. International Partnership Provides Opportunity for Scientific Flight Research<br />Integrating All Resources<br />HIFiREHypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation<br />Risk reduction<br />Demonstrated flight software<br />Flight Research<br />$56M AFRL/Australian DSTO Collaborative Effort for Flight Research Exploring Critical Fundamental Phenomena<br />Experiment<br />Computation<br />HIFiRE-0<br />May 2009<br />HIFiRE-1<br />Mar 2010<br />BLT<br />SBLI<br />TDLAS<br />HIFiRE-5<br />3D BLT<br />9 Flights Exploring Critical Science<br />
    30. 30. International Partnership Provides Opportunity for Scientific Flight Research<br />HIFiRE Flight 1 provides unprecedented insight into unsteady phenomena<br />R. Kimmel and D. Adamczak, AFRL/RB<br />Shock/Boundary Layer Interaction<br />Laminar-Turbulent Transition<br />Co-ax TC<br />< 10 Hz<br />VatellHT<br />1 kHz<br />Wind Tunnel Schlieren<br />Preliminary Results: Both transition and SBLI data reveal intermittent signals. Believed to be first such flight measurements for both phenomena.<br />Tunnel Expt- Dolling and Murphy<br />Note: Dissimilar Scales<br />
    31. 31. Aeroheating Uncertainty Assessment<br />1. Compression Corner<br /><ul><li>Turbulent Flow
    32. 32. Mach 7 and14</li></ul>2. Impinging Shock<br /><ul><li>Turbulent Flow
    33. 33. Mach 7 and14</li></ul>Four Mission Relevant Problems<br />Uncertainty assessed by a Panel of NASA Subject Matter Experts<br />Details will be presented at the 42nd AIAA Thermophysics Conference, Jun 27-30, Honolulu, HI<br />4. High Speed Return To Earth<br /><ul><li>Turbulent Flow
    34. 34. Speed: 15-16 km/s</li></ul>3. High Mass Mars Entry<br /><ul><li>Turbulent Flow
    35. 35. Speed: 7 km/s</li></li></ul><li>Exploring the Effect of Roughness on Laminar-Turbulent Transition<br />Joint Experimental-Computational Effort Yields First Detection of Roughness-Induced Instability at High Mach Numbers<br />B. Wheaton and S. Schneider / Purdue U. - NASA/OSR<br />M.Bartkowicz and G. Candler / U. Minn - OSR/NSSEFF<br />DNS of Cylinder in Tunnel Wall Boundary Layer<br />- Uses new low-dissipation numerical scheme<br />Measurements in thick laminar wall boundary layer allow increased spatial resolution, Mach 6 freestream<br /><ul><li> 21 kHz signal first seen in experiments
    36. 36. Computations reproduced instability and identified source
    37. 37. Later experiments verified presence of instabilities predicted by computations at source</li></li></ul><li>Exploring the Effect of Roughness on Laminar-Turbulent Transition<br />Numerical Schlieren image on centerline<br />Numerical Simulations Identify Source of Roughness-Induced Instability<br />M.Bartkowicz and G. Candler / U. Minn<br />B. Wheaton and S. Schneider / Purdue U. <br />Supersonic flow impacts the upper edge of the roughness<br />Pressure gradient causes fluid to accelerate away from the high pressure region<br />Experiment confirmed prediction of 21 kHz disturbance upstream of roughness element<br />Disturbances created upstream then travel downstream and grow<br />Unsteady jet forms, creating unsteadiness in upstream vortex structure<br />Temperature contour on centerline<br />
    38. 38. Creating New Testing Capabilities<br />Recent-Developed Basic Research Methods Rapidly Transitioned to Revolutionize Ground Test of Major National Programs<br />J. Lafferty/ AEDC, <br />G. Candler/ U. Minn. <br />and S. Schneider / Purdue<br />Falcon HTV-2<br />Low-Frequency Acoustic Pitot Probe<br />High-FrequencyAcoustic Pitot Probe<br />Focused schlieren image of BL transition obtained on 7° transition cone <br />at Mach 10, Re/L = 2.0×106/ft <br />Temperature Sensitive Paint<br /> Integrated Computations and Experiments provide unprecedented insight into sources and impact of critical aerothermodynamic phenomena<br />PrimaryTest Article<br />Auxiliary Model Support<br />High-Fidelity Numerical Methods yield detailed insight into physics<br />Innovative fluctuation measurements - Purdue<br />Temperature-Sensitive Paint provides global heating<br />Hemisphere Heat-Transfer Probe<br />Purdue /SandiaTransitionCone<br />AEDC<br />U. Minn.<br />AEDC Tunnel 9<br />
    39. 39. High-Fidelity Ablator Modeling<br />High-fidelity Ablator Modeling<br />Multi-scale, Multidisciplinary Modeling Advances Ablator Simulations <br /><ul><li>Fundamental studies: Monte-Carlo simulation of the ablation at the fiber scale
    40. 40. High-fidelity ablator model formulated at the macroscopic scale
    41. 41. Implementation in PATO-modular 3D CFD toolbox
    42. 42. state-of-the-art already reached and passed; high-fidelity model 50% implemented</li></ul>Next steps<br /><ul><li>First release of PATO: October 2011
    43. 43. Second release of PATO with UQ module: October 2012
    44. 44. Coupling to hypersonics CFD tools: Oct. 2013
    45. 45. Full release of the high-fidelity PATO suite in Oct. 2014.</li></ul>Monte-Carlo simulation : Oxidation of the char layer of a low density carbon/phenolic composite (Stardust’s peak heating conditions)<br />PATO simulation : Ablation of a PICA cylinder, 1MW/m², 30 seconds, NASA Ames X-Jet (off-centered)<br />
    46. 46. Advanced Ablators<br />NASA Program Advances Mission-Tailored Ablator Families<br />6-inch radius<br /><ul><li>Utilize commercially available constituent materials
    47. 47. Incorporation of additives for tailored properties
    48. 48. Extensive arcjet testing required for TPS maturation</li></ul>3-inch radius<br />Technical Considerations<br /><ul><li>Utilize flexible fibrous substrate systems
    49. 49. Modify polymer resin systems for increased flexibility
    50. 50. Incorporate endothermic additives and radiation inhibitors
    51. 51. Utilize multi-scale modeling to inform processing and design approaches for advanced TPS</li></ul>Conventional Configurations<br />
    52. 52. MURI: Fundamental Processes in High-Temperature Hypersonic Flows<br />Graham V. Candler, Don Truhlar, Adri van Duin, Tim Minton, Deborah Levin<br />Tom Schwartzentruber, Erica Corral, Dan Kelley and Paul DesJardin<br />MURI Explores Molecular scale Kinetic Processes to Advance Simulation of Vehicle Scale Phenomena<br />Integration of Aerothermodynamics, Chemistry and Materials Research to develop advanced models for gas-surface interactions<br />Reaction Dynamics Experiments<br />Molecular Dynamics<br />Approach<br /><ul><li>Use detailed quantum mechanics to develop accurate force fields for key processes
    53. 53. Train reactive force field for MD simulations of post-shock wave flows and gas-surface interactions
    54. 54. Extend to continuum models with DSMC models and state-specific simulations
    55. 55. Perform experiments at all scales to provide validation data for model generation</li></ul>Reactive <br />Force Fields<br />Material Surface Effects<br />High-Fidelity, Large-Scale CFD<br />University of Minnesota, Penn State University, Montana State University, University of Arizona, and University of Buffalo<br />
    56. 56. Rethinking the Approach to Turbulence<br />Spark-Ignited Methane-Air<br />Non-Kolmogorov Turbulence: “Injecting energy into critical scales of the reactive-flow<br />system must alter the system’s behavior ...”<br />E. Oran, Naval Research Laboratory<br />Randomly Forced Broadband Turbulence<br /><ul><li>Energy spectrum can have a number of envelopes, including k-5/3 typical of Kolmogorov spectra
    57. 57. Higher moments, such as vorticity or enstropy can behave differently
    58. 58. Intermittancy is suppressed</li></ul>Orion Nebula<br />
    59. 59. Changing the Technology Paradigm<br />An Opportunity for Transformation<br />Surface Heat Transfer Equation<br />diffusive transport of chemical energy <br />transport of<br />thermal energy <br />Improve models for energy transfer<br />Control T via energy management<br />Reliable models for Gas-Surface Interactions <br />Control the gradient via boundary layer management<br />Instability<br />Acoustic Absorption<br />How can we actively control energy transport to optimize system performance?<br />
    60. 60. Exploring Transition Control Via Energy Transfer to Internal Modes<br />Transition Delay Resulting from CO2 Injection in Boundary Layer Provides Potential Mechanism for Control <br />CO2 Injection<br />I . Leyva, AFRL/RZ <br />J. Shepherd and H. Hornung, Cal Tech<br />CO2 Transition Re* is about 4X that of Air and N2<br />For CO2 internal energy and acoustic instability modes overlap<br />CO2<br />Curves for 3 total enthalpy values<br />Acoustic Absorption<br />CO2<br />Air & N2<br />2nd Mode Instability (Acoustic)<br />Air<br />From Hornung, H.G., Adam, P.H., Germain, P., Fujii, K., Rasheed, A., “On transition and transition control in hypervelocity flows,” Proceedings of the Ninth Asian Congress of Fluid Mechanics, 2002<br />
    61. 61. Exploring Transition Control Via Energy Transfer to Internal Modes<br />Porous Injector Results (10 MJ/kg): CO2 Delays Transition <br />CO2 injection at 11.6 g/sec<br />Laminar Flow past<br />Re = 5.22 x 106<br />Zeroinjection<br />Transition at <br />Re = 4.12 x 106<br />Ar injection at 11.6 g/sec Transition at <br />Re = 2.88 x 106<br />Turbulent Heating Correlations<br />Non-dimensional Heat Transfer(St)<br />Measured Heat Transfer<br />Transition<br />Transition<br />Laminar<br />Laminar Heating<br />Reynolds Number based on distance from nose tip<br />
    62. 62. Summary<br /><ul><li>Hypersonic flight requires advancement of critical scientific disciplines
    63. 63. Agencies and countries are actively collaborating
    64. 64. National Hypersonic Foundational Research Plan
    65. 65. HIFiRE
    66. 66. NATO RTO working groups
    67. 67. High-fidelity, large-scale numerical simulations and laser-based diagnostics are changing the game
    68. 68. Breakthrough science is impacting technology maturation
    69. 69. Look for the exploitation of rate-dependent energetic processes</li></ul>Thank You!<br />

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