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Byer                                      Lasers and Nonlinear Optics                                                     ...
Byer                          Fifty Years Lasers and Nonlinear Optics                                                     ...
Lightwaves                                       Byer                                                                     ...
Byer                                                                      GroupAir Force Office of Scientific Research   O...
Byer        Peter Franken – Frequency Doubling of the Ruby Laser 1961                                                     ...
Early advances in Lasers and Nonlinear Optics                              Byer                                           ...
Byer                                          The Ruby Laser                                                              ...
Professor Elsa Garmire                      Byer                            and husband Bob Russell at Laserfest 2010     ...
Byer                                 Arrived in Berkeley Autumn 1960                                                      ...
Byer        Spectra Physics 1964 – 1st successful commercial laser company                                                ...
Byer                 Introduction to Nonlinear Optics - Stanford 1964                                                     ...
Byer                                    Professor Anthony E. Siegman                                                      ...
Accepted at Stanford!                                Byer                           Assigned to work with Professor S. E. ...
Now at Stanford!                                   Byer                                    working with Professor S. E. Ha...
Decade of 70s – 80s: develop new nonlinear materials and test in                Byer                     OPOs and Harmonic...
Byer                                       Optical Parametric Oscillators                                                 ...
Byer         Kodachrome images of Parametric Fluorescence in LiNbO3                                                       ...
Visible Tunable Parametric Oscillator in LiNbO3                  Byer                         ( 17mm crystal, 150 C, DRO p...
Byer          Chromatix Nd:YAG Laser and Tunable OPO product ~1970                                                        ...
Byer            Spectra Physics – the world‟s first commercial laser company                                              ...
Lightwaves                                       Byer                                                                     ...
Byer                       Motivation: Scientific Applications of Lasers                                                  ...
Byer                                          Monitoring Air Pollution                                                    ...
Byer                                     Atmospheric Remote Sensing                                                       ...
Byer                     Remote Sensing Telescope at Stanford - 1980                                                      ...
Byer                    1.4 to 4.3 micron Computer Tuned LiNbO3 OPO                                                       ...
Required ~1J 10nsec 10Hz Nd;YAG Laser Pump for OPO                      Byer                      Unstable Resonator Conce...
Byer                            Unstable Resonator Nd:YAG Oscillator                                                      ...
Byer                    Quanta Ray pumped BBO OPO Spectra Physics                                                         ...
Efficient Single Pass Harmonic Generation in KDP                         Byer                                             ...
Quanta-Ray sold to Spectra Physics in 1982            Byer      All employee party held annually to celebrate a great smal...
Byer                               Global Wind Concept - Huffaker 1984                                                    ...
Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers – 1984                                   Byer                                             ...
Byer                                          Coherent Laser Radar                                                        ...
Byer                             The Non-Planar Ring Oscillator - 1984                                                    ...
Byer                             The Non-Planar Ring Oscillator - 1984                                                    ...
From Concept (Bloembergen 1962)                                                                                           ...
Green Laser Pointer –                                                Byer                    from a question in class to i...
Byer                                    Hail Stanford Hail – The Laser                  Group                             ...
Lightwave Electronics – the world‟s first Diode pumped Solid State                              Byer                      ...
Lightwave Electronics start-up to commercialize                   Byer                          Diode pumped solid state L...
Byer                               Ginzton Lab Alums in the real world                                                    ...
Byer                         Ginzton Lab Alumni Reunion May 17, 2010                                                      ...
Lightwaves                                       Byer                                                                     ...
Byer                                      The Laser – a Stealth Utility                                                   ...
Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers – 1984                                   Byer                                             ...
How did we progress from 2mW in 1984 to > 100kW in 2009?                                 Byer                        Where...
Byer                      Innovation: Progress in Laser Diodes - 1978                                                     ...
Laser Diode Cost & Output Power vs Year                              Byer                             Moore‟s Law applied ...
Byer                            Diode Laser Cost vs Production Volume                                                     ...
Byer                                Diode pumped Slab Lasers – 1990s                                                      ...
Innovation: Edge-Pumped, Conduction Cooled Slab Laser – 2000        Byer             (Predicted Power scaling to >100 kW w...
Byer                          Ceramic Research Group at JFCC - 2007                                                       ...
Byer                      Progress in Ceramic Fabrication and Characterization                                            ...
105 kW Nd:YAG laser demonstrated at                                    Byer                  DoD High Energy Laser Systems...
Realized & Projected Laser Power “Livingston Plot” for                                    Byer                            ...
Realized & Projected Laser Power “Livingston Plot” for                                    Byer                            ...
Realized & Projected Laser Power “Livingston Plot” for                                    Byer                            ...
Realized & Projected Laser Power “Livingston Plot” for                                    Byer                            ...
Lightwaves                                       Byer                                                                     ...
“Going where no laser has gone before…”            Byer                                                                   ...
Byer                                      The Laser – a Stealth Utility                                                   ...
Byer                                    Federal building - Philadelphia                                                   ...
Laser removal of rust and dirt from the Eagle                       Byer                                 Federal building ...
Byer                   Laser hardening of the leading edge of the wing                                                    ...
Laser Surface Treatments applied to Aircraft                              Byer                                            ...
Byer                              Aircraft and helicopters need fixing                                                    ...
Robotic Integration                    Byer                                                                             Gr...
Lasers can remove composite low observable coatings            Byer                                      with precision   ...
Color Selectivity Put to Use                                     Byer                                                     ...
Results                                                     Byer                                                          ...
Byer                                          On the Flightline                GroupAir Force Office of Scientific Researc...
FAA directs 100% classic                                                                             Byer                 ...
Federal Aviation Administration                                      Byer                                            Trans...
Lightwaves                                              Byer                                                              ...
Byer                                 SLAC: The two-mile accelerator                                                       ...
Byer                                           The Klystron tube                                                          ...
Byer                  April 10 2009 - LCLS: Coherent 8KeV X-ray source- 1mJ at 10Hz !!                                    ...
Byer               The Linac Coherent Light Source - SLACs X-Ray Laser                                                    ...
Undulator Girder with 5-DOF Motion Control + IN/OUT                               Byer                                    ...
Single Undulator Tests in February                Byer                          First Attempt to Observe Gain 10 April 200...
LCLS generates coherent hard X-rays – dawn of a new era            Byer                                                   ...
Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Science (AMO)                                                      Byer                    ...
Emergence of new technologies make                                                          Byer                          ...
Byer                                              Laser beam parameters for TeV scale accelerator                         ...
Laser Electron Accelerator Project – LEAP                                                     Byer                        ...
Byer                                   Participants in the LEAP Experiment                                                ...
LEAP Experimental Success- November 2004                               Byer                                               ...
Tomas Plettner and LEAP Accelerator Cell            Byer                                                                  ...
Byer                                          Move Experiment to SLAC: 1984 - 86                                          ...
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011
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Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011

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On Wednesday, 26 October, 2011, AFOSR hosted Prof. Robert L. Byer as the guest speaker at the first of our AFOSR 60th Anniversary Commemorative Seminar Series.

A professor at Stanford University since 1969, and a world leader in lasers and nonlinear optics, Prof. Byer has a significant legacy of contributions to the scientific community. His demonstration of the first tunable visible parametric oscillator, and the development of the Q-switched unstable resonator Nd:YAG laser, are among just a few of his accomplishments. At present, he is developing nonlinear optical materials and laser diode pumped solid state laser sources for applications to gravitational wave detection and to laser particle acceleration.

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Transcript of "Byer talk fnl afosr oct 26 2011"

  1. 1. Byer Lasers and Nonlinear Optics Group AFOSR 60th Anniversary 26 October 2011Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  2. 2. Byer Fifty Years Lasers and Nonlinear Optics Group Robert L. Byer Applied Physics Stanford University rlbyer@stanford.edu Abstract A look back at the early days of the laser and nonlinear optics will be contrasted to the recent breakthroughs in solid state lasers and the applications. AFOSR sponsored research in lasers has led often to un-anticipated applications that have important consequences to the future of the Air Force. Air Force Office of Scientific Research 950 North Glebe Rd #210 26 October 2011Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  3. 3. Lightwaves Byer Group Introduction Lasers: Making Lightwaves Scientific Applications of Lasers Riding Lightwaves Future Directions Surfing LightwavesCharlie is still contributing to Science atThe University of California at BerkeleyHe celebrates his 95th birthday this year. Francis and Charlie 2010 Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  4. 4. Byer GroupAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  5. 5. Byer Peter Franken – Frequency Doubling of the Ruby Laser 1961 GroupAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  6. 6. Early advances in Lasers and Nonlinear Optics Byer Group Concept of Optical Maser Schawlow & Townes 1958 Ruby Laser Ted Maiman 1960 Nobel Prize awarded in 1964 Townes, Prokhorov and Basov Hg+ Ion Laser Earl Bell 1965 Argon Ion Laser Bill Bridges Tunable cw parametric Laser Harris 1968 Diode bar 1Watt Laser Scifres 1978 Diode Pumped Nd:YAG (NPRO) Byer & Kane 1984 2009 a special year 105kW cw Nd:YAG Slab Laser NGST January 4 MJ IR, 2MJ UV NIF Laser LLNL March 1mJ 10Hz 1A Coh X-ray Laser SLAC April 2010 LaserFest 2011 50 years of Nonlinear OpticsAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  7. 7. Byer The Ruby Laser Group Retinal Attachment “If I had set out to invent a method of re- attaching the retina, I would not have invented the laser” Laser Eraser “The “Laser Eraser” may not find any near term application, but it is interesting.” Art Schawlow with Mickey Mouse Balloon and Ruby Laser The first Ruby laser was demonstrated in May 1960 by Ted Maiman Hughes Research Labs in Los AngelesAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  8. 8. Professor Elsa Garmire Byer and husband Bob Russell at Laserfest 2010 Group Student of Charlie Townes – first nonlinear optics experiments-1963 Inventor: Laser removal of graffiti- 1996 Garmire, Russell and Liu “Automated Apparatus for Removal of Laser Graffiti”Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  9. 9. Byer Arrived in Berkeley Autumn 1960 Group I met with young Assistant Professor Sumner P. Davis and asked if I could work in his laboratory. His reply: “Go read this book and when you understand everything in it, come back and see me.” I returned six months later. Sumner P. Davis I was asked to take some chalk and derive the grating equation and dispersion relations. I worked with Sumner through my senior year.Upon graduation, Sumner suggested that I visit a small company in Mnt. View..Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  10. 10. Byer Spectra Physics 1964 – 1st successful commercial laser company Group I arrived at a small start-up company in Mountain View, CA for an interview. I waited in the lobby but no one came to say hello. After what seemed like a half an hour I walked into the back where there was loud cheering and celebration. Earl Bell had just operated the first Ion laser that generated orange light. I took the job at Spectra Physics and worked with Earl Bell, Arnold Bloom, Herb Dwight for one year, then…. Earl Bell 1965 Mercury Ion Laser“If a laser can operate at 5% efficiency, it can do real work.” Earl Bell 1965Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  11. 11. Byer Introduction to Nonlinear Optics - Stanford 1964 Group Tony Siegman held brown bag lunches to discuss research topics of interest such as Second Harmonic Generation A Helium Neon laser visible across „Silicon Valley‟ from the Lick Observatory on John Bjorkholm and Tony Siegman Mount HamiltonAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  12. 12. Byer Professor Anthony E. Siegman GroupAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  13. 13. Accepted at Stanford! Byer Assigned to work with Professor S. E. Harris Group Learn about Nonlinear Optics read Bloembergen Boyd and Ashkin Calculate OPO threshold Locate suitable nonlinear crystals LiNbO3 1cm3 from Bell Labs ADP, KDP and others Build Argon Ion Laser for pump Stephen E. Harris (Spectra Physics helped) ~1963 RF induction coupled ion laser Stanford UniversityAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  14. 14. Now at Stanford! Byer working with Professor S. E. Harris Group Learn about Nonlinear Optics read Bloembergen Boyd and Ashkin Calculated threshold Locate suitable nonlinear crystal LiNbO3 1cm3 from Bell Labs Oops! Stephen E. Harris Dropped the LiNbO3 Crystal. ~1963 Stanford University Now what?The path to physics is neither paved nor well marked…Lev Kulevski – visitor from Moscow 1978Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  15. 15. Decade of 70s – 80s: develop new nonlinear materials and test in Byer OPOs and Harmonic Conversion devices Group Quasi Phasematching LiNbO3 and variations single crystal fiber - congruent periodic poled MgO doped Waver scale fabrication LiTaO3 BaNaNbO15 SBN Bob Feigelson Infrared Nonlinear Materials CdSe IR OPO Marty Fejer CdGeAs2 chalcopyrite IR xtal AgGaS2 AgGaSe2 IR Mixer Xtal Visible and UV crystals LiO3 LiNbO3 boule KDP, ADP and isomorphs BBO LBOAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  16. 16. Byer Optical Parametric Oscillators Group Stanford research 1965 – 1969 - The Harris Lab Larry Osterink and the FM argon ion laser Ken Oshman – OPO pumped by yellow Ion Laser Bob Byer and Jim Young Sync pumped LiNbO3 OPO Materials development (Bob Feigelson) *Parametric Fluorescence *CW OPO pumped by Argon Ion Laser Richard Wallace – studied the AO Q-switched Nd:YAG Laser OPO technology transferred to Chromatix - 1970Stephen E. Harris – Stanford University Path forward: study Parametric Fluorescence, improve crystals, then attempt cw OPO in LiNbO3. Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  17. 17. Byer Kodachrome images of Parametric Fluorescence in LiNbO3 Group Measured nonlinear coefficient Derived parametric gain Measured tuning curve Confirmed quality of the LiNbO3 crystals grown at Stanford (Feigelson) Observed Quantum Noise by eye!Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  18. 18. Visible Tunable Parametric Oscillator in LiNbO3 Byer ( 17mm crystal, 150 C, DRO pumped at 514.5nm) Group “I see red!” Ben Yoshizumi May 11, 1968Argon IonLaser pump LiNbO3 crystal in the oven Red tunableOPO cavity Output ~1mW Threshold 430mW. Available power at 514.5nm 470mW Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  19. 19. Byer Chromatix Nd:YAG Laser and Tunable OPO product ~1970 GroupRichard Wallace with Q-switched Doubled YAG pumped LiNbO3 OPO Chromatix Nd:YAG Laser First tunable laser product Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  20. 20. Byer Spectra Physics – the world‟s first commercial laser company Group Spectra Physics – 1962 Herb Dwight Jr. CEO Bob Remple, Ken Ruddick Earl Bell, Arnold Bloom (Bob Byer 13th employee) Coherent – 1966 Chromatix – 1969 Jim Hobart CEO Bob Remple CEO Gene Watson Steve Harris Dick Wallace Newport Milton Chang CEO Molectron Bruce McCall CEO Quanta Ray – 1974 Gary Klaumnitzer Gene Watson & Earl Bell Bob Mortensen CEO (Bob Byer)Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  21. 21. Lightwaves Byer Group Introduction Lasers: Making Lightwaves Scientific Applications of Lasers Riding Lightwaves Future Directions Surfing LightwavesAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  22. 22. Byer Motivation: Scientific Applications of Lasers Group “Don‟t undertake a project unless it is manifestly important and nearly impossible.” Edwin Land - 1982 Scientific Applications of Lasers Atmospheric Remote Sensing Quanta Ray Laser 1J Unstable resonator 1.4 to 4.3 micron Tunable LiNbO3 OPO Global Wind Sensing Diode pumped Nd:YAG Frequency stable local oscillator - NPRO Search for Gravitational Waves 10 W Nd:YAG slab MOPA LIGO 200W fiber laser MOPA Adv LIGO 1W Iodine Stabilized Nd:YAG LISA Laser Accelerators and Coherent X-rays TeV energy scale particle physics Coherent X-rays for attosecond scienceAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  23. 23. Byer Monitoring Air Pollution Group Helge Kildal and R. L. Byer “Comparison of Laser Methods for The Remote Detection of Atmospheric Pollutants” Proc. IEEE 59,1644 1971 (invited) Henningsen, Garbuny and Byer - 1974 Vibrational-Rotational overtone spectrum of Carbon Monoxide by tunable OPO. (Chromatix Nd:YAG pumped LiNbO3 OPO Product introduced as product in 1969)Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  24. 24. Byer Atmospheric Remote Sensing Group Motivation for tunable lasers at Stanford Atmospheric Remote sensing beginning in 1971 Unstable resonator Nd:YAG -- Quanta Ray Laser 1.4 - 4.4 micron tunable LiNbO3 OPO -- computer controlled Remote sensing of CH4, SO2 and H2O and temperature Sune Svanberg Early Remote Sensing 1960 - 1975 LIDAR Laser Detection and Ranging Inaba, Kobayashi and H. Ito Detection of Molecules Kidal and Byer Comparison of Detection Methods DIAL Differential Absorption Lidar Menzies CO2 laser Direct and Coherent DetectionHumio Inaba Walther & Rothe Remote sensing of pollutants Svanberg Remote sensing pollution monitoring Herbert WaltherResearch in tunable lasers, laser spectroscopy and remote sensing - InternationalAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  25. 25. Byer Remote Sensing Telescope at Stanford - 1980 Group Atmospheric Remote Sensing using a Nd:YAG Pumped LiNbO3 Tunable IR OPO. The OPO was tuned under Computer control continuously From 1.4 to 4.3 microns Atmospheric measurements Were made of CO2, SO2, CH4, H2O and Temperature.Sixteen inch diameter telescope on the roof of the Ginzton Laboratory, StanfordAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  26. 26. Byer 1.4 to 4.3 micron Computer Tuned LiNbO3 OPO Group Stephen J. Brosnan, R. L. Byer “Optical Parametric Oscillator Threshold and Linewidth Studies” Proc. IEEE J. Quant. Electr. QE-15,415,1979 Steve Brosnan observing atmospheric spectrum with OPO tuning under PDP-11 computer control Fig 19. LiNbO3 OPO Angle Tuning curve ( 45-50 deg) 1.4 – 4.3 micronsAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  27. 27. Required ~1J 10nsec 10Hz Nd;YAG Laser Pump for OPO Byer Unstable Resonator Concept – Siegman 1965 Group A. E. Siegman “Unstable optical resonators for laser applications” Proc. IEEE 53, 277-287, 1965 R. L. Herbst, H. Komine, R. L. Byer “A 200mJ unstable resonator Nd:YAG Oscillator” Optics Commun. 21, 5, 1977Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  28. 28. Byer Unstable Resonator Nd:YAG Oscillator Group R. L. Herbst, H. Komine, and R. L. Byer “A 200mJ Unstable Resonator Nd:YAG Oscillator” Opt. Commun. 21, 5, 1977 Quanta Ray 532nm output after SHG in KD*P crystal. Note “hole” in beam.Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  29. 29. Byer Quanta Ray pumped BBO OPO Spectra Physics GroupMy „optimistic‟ projection in 1975 was a total market of about 75 lasers. More than 10,000 Quanta Ray Lasers sold to date.Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  30. 30. Efficient Single Pass Harmonic Generation in KDP Byer Group KDP second, third and fourth Harmonic generation ~ 60% efficient Type I and Type II SHG in KDPWe will return to KDP later in this story. Extensive commercial use is a benefit. Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  31. 31. Quanta-Ray sold to Spectra Physics in 1982 Byer All employee party held annually to celebrate a great small company GroupAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  32. 32. Byer Global Wind Concept - Huffaker 1984 Group Global wind sensing Milton Huffaker proposed coherent detection of wind using eye-safe lasers. Applied Optics 22 1984Led to diode pumped solid state laser studies to meet laser in space requirements Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  33. 33. Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers – 1984 Byer Group Laser Diode Pumped Nd:YAG - 1984 Binkun Zhou, Tom Kane, Jeff Dixon and R. L. Byer “Efficient, frequency-stable laser-diode- pumped Nd:YAG laser” Opt. Lett. 10, 62, 1985 5mm Nd:YAG Monolithic Oscillator < 2mW output power for 8mw Pump 25% slope efficiencyNd;YAG < 2mW at 25% slope efficiency - 1984 Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  34. 34. Byer Coherent Laser Radar Group Coherent Laser Radar Local Oscillator Invention of the Nonplanar Ring Oscillator Power Amplifier Multipass 60 dB gain slab amplifier Heterodyne Receiver Fiber coupled heterodyne detection Goal: wind sensing from the laboratory using a coherent Nd:YAG laser transmitter-receiver Today coherent laser radar is a mature field with many applications including Hyperspectral analysis and 3D imaging capabilities.Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  35. 35. Byer The Non-Planar Ring Oscillator - 1984 Group Single axial mode, narrow linewidth, Nd:YAG local oscillator Tom Kane, R. L. Byer “Monolithic, unidirectional Single-mode Nd:YAG ring laser” Opt. Lett. 10,65,1985 NonPlanar Ring Oscillator Single frequency: <10kHzAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  36. 36. Byer The Non-Planar Ring Oscillator - 1984 Group Single axial mode, narrow linewidth, Nd:YAG local oscillator Tom Kane, R. L. Byer Invention motivated by science and global wind sensing goals “Monolithic, unidirectional Single-mode Nd:YAG ring laser” Opt. Lett. 10,65,1985 Applications show up laterPeter Lorraine, General Electric –Joint Strike Fighter compositeinspection Visited Fort Worth TX NPRO increased inspection rate of composite panels by 2xNPRO finds application in US submarines30 lasers per each sub for sensitive sonarsystemsNPRO selected to support LIGO project NonPlanar Ring OscillatorGoal: detect gravitational waves Single frequency: <10kHzAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  37. 37. From Concept (Bloembergen 1962) Byer Demonstration in the Lab (Stanford 1988) To Green Laser Pointers and Laser TV (2005 – 2010) Group Green Laser invention – question by student in class IEEE Spectrum March 2010 Mitsubishi green laser for TV using PPLN for second harmonic generationAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  38. 38. Green Laser Pointer – Byer from a question in class to invention and patent (1984) Group Stanford takes green laser invention seriously! Question in class from Jeff Dixon: Professor Byer, can we frequency double the cw diode pumped Nd:YAG laser with good efficiency? Answer: I don‟t know. If you do the calculations, I will do them as well and we can discuss the possibility of a green laser at class on Tuesday. Result: Demonstration of internal SHG of a diode pumped Nd:YAG laser with cw 532nm green output. (Patent issued in 1986 to Stanford) Applications: Lecture pointer (for color challenged males) Green laser pointer for astronomy Rescue flare for sailors at sea Green laser for color TVMy favorite invention and laser legacy because of widespread use by amateur astronomers Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  39. 39. Byer Hail Stanford Hail – The Laser Group Hail Stanford Hail – the LaserAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  40. 40. Lightwave Electronics – the world‟s first Diode pumped Solid State Byer Laser Company Group Lightwave Electronics - 1984 Bob Mortensen CEO MSNW Bob Byer Tom Kane, Dick Wallace Newport Milton Chang CEO Coherent Technologies – 1984 Sony JDS SRS Milton Huffaker CEO New Focus 1990 Boulder, CO Uniphase Milton Chang CEO Tim Day, R. Marsland TRW Frank Luecke Xerox PARCSpectra Physics Spectra Diode Labs 1983 New Wave Research (Herb Dwight) Don Scifres CEO Ralph Jacobs, David Welch Silicon Light Machine SLAC Lawrence Berkeley Lab Lawrence Livermore Lab Growing ecosystem of laser companies across the globe Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  41. 41. Lightwave Electronics start-up to commercialize Byer Diode pumped solid state Laser technology Group Milton Chang and Bob Tom Kane and Bob Mortensen Precise Light for manufacturing semiconductor and circuit electronicsAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  42. 42. Byer Ginzton Lab Alums in the real world Group John Willison, CEO 1980 Stanford Research Systems Kurt Weingarten and Ursi Keller Co-founders of Time Bandwidth Inc 1994 Zurich, SwitzerlandAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  43. 43. Byer Ginzton Lab Alumni Reunion May 17, 2010 Group More than 250 Phds graduated from Ginzton Lab 1957 - 2011Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  44. 44. Lightwaves Byer Group Introduction Lasers: Making Lightwaves Commercial Applications of Lasers Riding Lightwaves Future Directions Surfing Lightwaves Lasers – the STEALTH UTILITY Not visible to the general public but lasers are critical to every day life. What if all lasers stopped working NOW? What applications serve Air Force needs?Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  45. 45. Byer The Laser – a Stealth Utility Group Laser Cutting and Welding glass, ceramics, metals, semiconductors, LED manufacturing 20 different lasers are used to manufacture an automobile Laser sintering new materials laser sintering of metals, alloys, ceramics – 3D fabrication of „impossible‟ of objects from powders Laser strengthened materials laser peening – jet engine blades - Metal Improvement Company laser hardening leading edges of wings Laser ablation (laser eraser of Art Schawlow) laser de-painting of aircraft for inspection (FAA certified for Al skinned aircraft) laser removal of sealants in wing fuel tanks laser removal of mold release coating for 787 aircraft laser cleaning of composite materials for bonding laser cure of epoxies laser cleaning of jet engine turbine blades – removal of baked on red desert dirt without damage to the turbine bladesExample: 5kW laser can de-paint a 747 in one week – eyesafe and allows other work Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  46. 46. Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers – 1984 Byer Group Laser Diode Pumped Nd:YAG - 1984 Binkun Zhou, Tom Kane, Jeff Dixon and R. L. Byer “Efficient, frequency-stable laser-diode- pumped Nd:YAG laser” Opt. Lett. 10, 62, 1985 5mm Nd:YAG Monolithic Oscillator < 2mW output power for 8mw Pump 25% slope efficiencyNd;YAG < 2mW at 25% slope efficiency - 1984 Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  47. 47. How did we progress from 2mW in 1984 to > 100kW in 2009? Byer Where are we going in the future? Group Laser Diode Pumped Nd:YAG - 1984 Binkun Zhou, Tom Kane, Jeff Dixon and R. L. Byer “Efficient, frequency-stable laser-diode- pumped Nd:YAG laser” Opt. Lett. 10, 62, 1985 5mm Nd:YAG Monolithic Oscillator < 2mW output power for 8mw Pump 25% slope efficiencyAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  48. 48. Byer Innovation: Progress in Laser Diodes - 1978 Group Don Scifres, Ralph Burnham, and Bill Streifer - 1978 This was the first Watt level power output from a linear Laser Diode Array. Within one decade the output power would increase to greater than 100W from a one centimeter LD bar.1980: 1 Watt at 25% efficiency – 1cm bar Palo Alto Xerox PARC Invention2010: >100 Watt 70% efficiency – 1cm bar – competitive industryAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  49. 49. Laser Diode Cost & Output Power vs Year Byer Moore‟s Law applied to Solid State Lasers Group Moore noted that the number of transistors per chip was doubling every 18 months. He attributed this to experience and learning from improved production. The corollary was that the cost decreased as market size and production volume grew. Moore‟s Law was born. Byer‟s version of Moore‟s Law (1988 – 2004) Predicted $1/Watt in 2004 Delayed by 2 years – by Telecom boom and bust (Today diode bars cost $0.1/W)Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  50. 50. Byer Diode Laser Cost vs Production Volume Group Diode Electrical efficiency increases from 50% to 70%Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  51. 51. Byer Diode pumped Slab Lasers – 1990s Group TRW DAPKL* Nd:YAG Laser (1988 - 1993) Three stage MOPA with Phase Conjugation 10 J Q-switched pulses at 100 Hz 1 kW near diffraction limited laser SHG to green *Diode Array Pumped Kilowatt Laser 1 kW of average power –a 1st step. Stanford University R. J. Shine, A. J. Alfrey, R. L. Byer “40W cw, TEMoo-mode, Diode-laser-pumped, Nd:YAG miniature Slab laser” Opt. Lett. 20, 459, 1995 Face pumped, water cooled 25 - 10W fiber coupled laser diodes 250 W pump power Cost: $280k in 1995Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  52. 52. Innovation: Edge-Pumped, Conduction Cooled Slab Laser – 2000 Byer (Predicted Power scaling to >100 kW with High Coherence) Group Conduction cooled, low doping, TIR guided pump, power scaling as Area T.S. Rutherford, W.M. Tulloch, E.K. Gustafson, R.L. Byer “Edge-Pumped Quasi-Three-Level Slab Lasers: Design and Power Scaling” IEEE J. Quant. Elec., vol. 36, 2000Predicted 100kW output based on single crystal Yb:YAG – need sizes > 20 cm Difficult with single xtals, but possible with polycrystalline ceramic YAG! Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  53. 53. Byer Ceramic Research Group at JFCC - 2007 Group We initiated joint work on advanced laser ceramics with Dr. Akio Ikesue JFCC, Japan in 2004. This is photo of AFOSR sponsored Ceramic research Program joint with Japan.Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  54. 54. Byer Progress in Ceramic Fabrication and Characterization Group Professor Romain Gaume, University of Central Florida. Romain is now leading the ceramic program at the UCF Air Force Office of Scientific ResearchJTO Multi-Disciplinary Research Initiative Review October 26, 2011 October 11 - 13, 2011 Arlington, VA Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA
  55. 55. 105 kW Nd:YAG laser demonstrated at Byer DoD High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility (Helstf) Group Solid State Laser Test Experiment (SSLTE) to be set up in 2011 Establishing the SSLTE is a “monumental event” says Col James Jaworksi, Helstf Director. “But solid-state lasers are the way of the future. They will eventually generate megawatts.” Northrop Grumman diode-pumped Nd:YAG solid state laser - 2009 105kw cw output with M2 ~ 1.5 >4 hr operation to date ~ 20% electrical efficiency Adaptive Optics enabled coh beams < 1 sec turn-on time MOPA architecture for power scaling Solid State Lasers – a path to megawatt power with high efficiencyAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  56. 56. Realized & Projected Laser Power “Livingston Plot” for Byer Diode pumped Solid State Lasers Group 1 MW Ceramic * 1 MW Slab Laser MOPA?? 100 kW Gain * 100kW NGST Slab Laser MOPA – 2009 Media * 25 kW NGST Slab Laser MOPA - 2006 * 1 kW TRW DAPKL Slab Laser MOPA - 1995 •* 120W Adv LIGO •Nd:YAG slab MOPA “It is difficult to make predictions, especially about the future.” Neils Bohr -----10----------------------20 Why the interest in MW average power Lasers?Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  57. 57. Realized & Projected Laser Power “Livingston Plot” for Byer Diode pumped Solid State Lasers Group 1 MW Ceramic * 1 MW Slab Laser MOPA?? 100 kW Gain * 100kW NGST Slab Laser MOPA – 2009 Media * 25 kW NGST Slab Laser MOPA - 2006 * 1 kW TRW DAPKL Slab Laser MOPA - 1995 •* 120W Adv LIGO •Nd:YAG slab MOPA “It is difficult to make predictions, especially about the future.” Neils Bohr -----10----------------------20 Photon Weapons - for cutting metal at a distance – 1MW protects 10km2Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  58. 58. Realized & Projected Laser Power “Livingston Plot” for Byer Diode pumped Solid State Lasers Group 1 MW Ceramic * 1 MW Slab Laser MOPA?? 100 kW Gain * 100kW NGST Slab Laser MOPA – 2009 Media * 25 kW NGST Slab Laser MOPA - 2006 * 1 kW TRW DAPKL Slab Laser MOPA - 1995 •* 120W Adv LIGO •Nd:YAG slab MOPA “It is difficult to make predictions, especially about the future.” Neils Bohr -----10----------------------20 Laser Accelerators for TeV scale physics and coherent X-rays – 10MW/kmAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  59. 59. Realized & Projected Laser Power “Livingston Plot” for Byer Diode pumped Solid State Lasers Group 1 MW Ceramic * 1 MW Slab Laser MOPA?? 100 kW Gain * 100kW NGST Slab Laser MOPA – 2009 Media * 25 kW NGST Slab Laser MOPA - 2006 * 1 kW TRW DAPKL Slab Laser MOPA - 1995 •* 120W Adv LIGO •Nd:YAG slab MOPA “It is difficult to make predictions, especially about the future.” Neils Bohr -----10----------------------20And LIFE: Laser Inertial Fusion for Energy Generation – 35MW for energyAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  60. 60. Lightwaves Byer Group The path to Directed Energy Weapons (at a cost that can be afforded) is through the widespread commercial use of Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers Introduction Lasers: Making Lightwaves Commercial Applications of Lasers Riding Lightwaves Future Directions Surfing Lightwaves Lasers – the STEALTH UTILITY Not visible to the general public but lasers are critical to every day life. What if all lasers stopped working NOW? What applications serve Air Force needs?Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  61. 61. “Going where no laser has gone before…” Byer GroupLasers can cut metal at a distance - warfighter goal: Mach 300,000 photon torpedo Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  62. 62. Byer The Laser – a Stealth Utility Group Laser Cutting and Welding glass, ceramics, metals, semiconductors, LED manufacturing 20 different lasers are used to manufacture an automobile Laser sintering new materials laser sintering of metals, alloys, ceramics – 3D fabrication of „impossible‟ of objects from powders Laser strengthened materials laser peening – jet engine blades - Metal Improvement Company laser hardening leading edges of wings Laser ablation (laser eraser of Art Schawlow) laser de-painting of aircraft for inspection (FAA certified - Aluminum skinned aircraft) laser removal of sealants in wing fuel tanks laser removal of mold release coating for 787 aircraft laser cleaning of composite materials for bonding laser cure of epoxies laser cleaning of jet engine turbine blades – removal of baked on red desert dirt without damage to the turbine bladesExample: 5kW laser can de-paint a 747 in one week – eyesafe and allows other work Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  63. 63. Byer Federal building - Philadelphia GroupAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  64. 64. Laser removal of rust and dirt from the Eagle Byer Federal building - Philadelphia Group Q-switched Nd:YAG laser Used by an artist to Clean rust and dirt from the eagle. He worked over the summer and Completed the project. The laser operated reliably. A non-technical artist “laser de-painted” the statue.Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  65. 65. Byer Laser hardening of the leading edge of the wing GroupAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  66. 66. Laser Surface Treatments applied to Aircraft Byer Group Surface Treatments Coating Removal Selective Layering Contouring Cleaning & TexturizingAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  67. 67. Byer Aircraft and helicopters need fixing Group laser cleaning of jet engine turbine blades – removal of baked on red desert dirt without damage to the turbine blades laser cleaning of helicopter blades – No damage to composite blade material laser paint removal for inspection Certified procedure for aluminum skinned Aircraft – key is short pulse of light and color recognitionAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  68. 68. Robotic Integration Byer Group Automated Rotor Blade Stripping System Triple-laser ablation system for CH-53 fiberglass rotor blades Operational at Fleet Readiness Center-East, Cherry PointAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  69. 69. Lasers can remove composite low observable coatings Byer with precision GroupAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  70. 70. Color Selectivity Put to Use Byer Group • USAF SBIR AF011-123 in support of F-22 • Goal: Replace hand sanding for specialty coating maintenance • Phase I - 2001, Phase II- 2002 - 2004, US Patent Application - 2004 Top Coat Layer 2 Epoxy Primer Layer 3 Substrate Typical Stripping Setbacks: 0.5” 0.25” 1.0” 0.25” Figure 1 - Typical Stripping Requirements Figure 2 - SBIR- Developed WorkheadAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  71. 71. Results Byer Group Top Coat Layer 2 Layer 3 Epoxy Layers Substrate Typical Stripping Requirements Stripping Setbacks: 0.25” to 1.00”Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  72. 72. Byer On the Flightline GroupAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  73. 73. FAA directs 100% classic Byer Boeing 737 lap Group joint inspections QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.Requirement: Rapidly strip coatings to inspect for scribe marks or fractures Solution: GLC Color- Selective Stripper Results: Coating stripped leaving zero artifacts on the aluminum fuselage Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  74. 74. Federal Aviation Administration Byer Transport Airplane Directorate Group Aircraft Certification Services Approves the GLC Laser Process Initial Approval for B-737 July 21, 2006, ZA Process Approval for B-737 August 26 2009 Global Approval for ALL airframe structures May 2010 2006 - FAA approves the GLC Laser Process as Alternative Method of Compliance (AMOC) tosealant stripping procedures specified in Boeing Alert SB 737-53A1262 Appendix A required byparagraph (f) of AD (Airworthiness Directive) 2006-0712 - for Boeing 737 Classic aircraft. 2008 - FAA approves the use of the GLC Laser Process for the removal of paint, sealant, corrosionand rust on metal substrates listed in SAE MA4872 Annex D: 2024 T3 clad Aluminum 7140 T351 and T7351 T1 6AI-4V Titanium 2024 T3 bare Aluminum AZ31B Magnesium 4340 Steel 2009 - FAA approves the use of the improved GLC ZA Laser Process as an AMOC for the same AD“…since the GLC ZA Laser Process has demonstrated outstanding results in critical aerospace coatingremoval and surface-prep applications … “ 2010 - FAA clarifies and extends approval to all metallic aircraft structures, regardless ofmanufacturer, “… the Seattle Aircraft Certification Office has no objections to the use of the GLC ZALaser Process Specification … on airframe structure.Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  75. 75. Lightwaves Byer Group Prelude From Radio to Microwaves Introduction Lasers: Making Lightwaves Scientific Applications of Lasers Riding Lightwaves Future Directions Surfing Lightwaves Laser Accelerators and Coherent X-rays TeV energy scale particle physics Coherent X-rays for attosecond science Laser Inertial Fusion for Energy (LIFE) Current Status of NIF Fusion Laser design parametersAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  76. 76. Byer SLAC: The two-mile accelerator Group “Project M”1955 first brainstorming and informal discussions • $100M proposal First beam at SLAC, 1966 • numerous studies and reports • > 10 years of effortAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  77. 77. Byer The Klystron tube Group The “Microwave” Lab (Now HEPL and Ginzton Labs) played a crucialrole on the development of particle accelerators and the corresponding RF technology Ed GinztonMarvin Chodorow & Klystron W. W. Hansen – back right Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  78. 78. Byer April 10 2009 - LCLS: Coherent 8KeV X-ray source- 1mJ at 10Hz !! Group RF-accelerator driven SASE FEL at SLAC - April 2009 SASE-FEL 14 GeV T ~ 230 1 fsec LCLS properties  ~ 1.5 – 15 Å  ~ 1012 / pulse 100 m • 1 km-size facility• materials science• chemistry • microwave accelerator• atomic physics accelerator • RF ~ 10 cm 3 km • 4-14 GeV e-beam LCLS injector • 120 m undulator • 23 cm period undulator • 15-1.5 A radiation 120 m • 0.8-8 keV photons SSRL • 1014 photons/sec Experiment lines • ~77 fsec • SUCCESS – April 09 • 1mJ per pulse TTF: Tesla Test Facility; fsec EUV SASE FEL facility • 10 Hz XFEL: Proposed future coherent X-ray source in Europe… • 8 keV X-ray photons Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  79. 79. Byer The Linac Coherent Light Source - SLACs X-Ray Laser Group John N. Galayda Director, Strategic Projects Division Director, LCLS Construction September 14, 2009 From seconds to attoseconds … < 1/100 the light cycle From 10,000 atoms to < 1 atom in resolution scale E. Muybridge, Animals in Motion ed. L. S. Brown (Dover Pub. Co., New York 1957). E. MuybridgeAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  80. 80. Undulator Girder with 5-DOF Motion Control + IN/OUT Byer Group Beam Finder Wire (BFW) Cavity BPM (<0.5 m) sand-filled, 3.4-m thermally Quadrupole undulator magnet isolated magnet supports X-translation (in/out)Wire PositionMonitor cam-based 5-DOF motion control – Hydraulic Level 0.7 micron System backlash Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  81. 81. Single Undulator Tests in February Byer First Attempt to Observe Gain 10 April 2009 Group Note timeAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  82. 82. LCLS generates coherent hard X-rays – dawn of a new era Byer Group Note timeAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  83. 83. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Science (AMO) Byer Group This instrument, designed for photons in the 0.8-2.0 keV range, will investigate the effects of the x-ray beam on atoms and molecules: absorption, ionization and subsequent evolution of the electronic structure on femtosecond time scales, and also to investigate the behavior of atoms in excitation states previously impossible to study (e.g., stripped of all K-shell electrons).Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  84. 84. Emergence of new technologies make Byer Laser Acceleration Possible Group efficient pump high power diode lasers Leveraging fiber lasers investment in ALABAMA LASER telecom NUFERN ultrafast laser technology sodium yellow 30 W/bundle, 40% electr. efficiency IMRA mJ 500 60 W/bar, 50% < 10 fs fsec laser electr. efficiency nanotechnology new materials high strength magnets Nd:Fe New ceramics nano- tubes high purity optical materials and high strength coatingsAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA 84
  85. 85. Byer Laser beam parameters for TeV scale accelerator Group • Take advantage of high laser 2. Low bunch charge repetition rate problem • Multiple accelerator array architecture Laser pulse structure that leads to high electron bunch repetition rate 104 laser pulse trains per second laser pulse laser- SLC NLC SCA-FEL TESLA acceleratorlaser pulse train laser pulse optical cycle f RF (GHz) 2.856 11.424 1.3 1.3 3×104 f m (Hz) 4 120 120 10 4 10 Nb 4 1 95 10 4886 10 t b (nsec) - 2.8 84.7 176 3×10 -6 f b (Hz) 2 4 5 4 6 electron bunch 1.2×10 1.1×10 1×10 1.6×10 3×10 Ne 3.5×1010 8×109 3.1×107 1.4×1010 10 4 10 laser pulses per laser pulse train I e (sec-1) 4×1012 9×1013 3×1012 2×1019 3×1010 Requires 10kW/meter or 10MW/km and ~40% efficiency Laser Source! (~ 10 microjoules in 100fsec per micropulse) •electric field cycle frequency ~1014 Hz Dramatic increase of •macro pulse repetition rate ~1GHzAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  86. 86. Laser Electron Accelerator Project – LEAP Byer Goal: demonstrate physics of laser acceleration Group Laser driven particle acceleration collaborators ARDB, SLAC Bob Siemann*, Bob Noble†, Eric Colby†, Jim Spencer†, Rasmus Ischebeck†, Melissa Lincoln‡, Ben Cowan‡, Chris Sears‡, D. Walz†, D.T. Palmer†, Neil Na‡, C.D Barnes‡, M Javanmarad‡, X.E. Lin† Stanford University Bob Byer*, T.I. Smith*, Y.C. Huang*, T. Plettner†, P. Lu‡, J.A. Wisdom‡ ARDA, SLAC Zhiu Zhang†, Sami Tantawi† Techion Israeli Institute of Technology laser on Levi Schächter*FWHM energy spread (keV) UCLA J. Rosenzweig* laser off laser timing (psec) ‡ grad students † postdocs and staff * faculty Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  87. 87. Byer Participants in the LEAP Experiment Group Bob Siemann2 Chris Sears2 Ben Cowan2 Jim Spencer2 New students •Chris McGuinness2 •Melissa Lincoln2 •Patrick Lu1 Eric Colby2 Atomic Physics collaborationTomas Plettner1 Bob Byer1 •Mark Kasevich31 E.L. Ginzton Laboratories, Stanford University •Peter Hommelhoff32 Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) •Catherine Kealhofer33 Department of Physics, Stanford University Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  88. 88. LEAP Experimental Success- November 2004 Byer Group We have accelerated electrons with visible light! laser beam accelerating phase electron decelerating beam phase 8 m thick gold- tapecoated Kapton tape drive stepper motors Inverse laser FEL electron beam beamThe simplified single stage The LEAP experimental apparatus thatAccelerator cell that uses Includes the LEAP single stage acceleratorgold coated Kapton tape cell and the inverse FEL.to terminate the Electric field. Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  89. 89. Tomas Plettner and LEAP Accelerator Cell Byer Group The key was to operate the cell above damage threshold to generate energy modulation in excess of the noise level.Air Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
  90. 90. Byer Move Experiment to SLAC: 1984 - 86 GroupSLAC provided access to the NLCTA test accelerator – 360MeVAir Force Office of Scientific Research October 26, 2011 Arlington, VA
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