Bradshaw - Sensory Information Systems - Spring Review 2013
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Bradshaw - Sensory Information Systems - Spring Review 2013

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Dr. Patrick Bradshaw presents an overview of his program, Sensory Information Systems, at the AFOSR 2013 Spring Review. At this review, Program Officers from AFOSR Technical Divisions will present ...

Dr. Patrick Bradshaw presents an overview of his program, Sensory Information Systems, at the AFOSR 2013 Spring Review. At this review, Program Officers from AFOSR Technical Divisions will present briefings that highlight basic research programs beneficial to the Air Force.

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Bradshaw - Sensory Information Systems - Spring Review 2013 Bradshaw - Sensory Information Systems - Spring Review 2013 Presentation Transcript

  • 1DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.26 February 2013 Integrity  Service  Excellence Patrick Bradshaw AFOSR/RTE Air Force Research Laboratory Sensory Information Systems Program 8 March 2013
  • 2DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 2013 AFOSR SPRING REVIEW PORTFOLIO OVERVIEW BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PORTFOLIO: •Auditory modeling for acoustic analysis •Biological polarization optics & vision •Sensori-motor control of bio- flight & navigation SUB-AREAS IN PORTFOLIO: Sensory Information Systems (3003/L) Program Officer: Patrick Bradshaw
  • 3DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Program Trends and Strategy: TOPIC AREA OVERVIEW Polarization Vision & Optics: Sensorimotor Control of Flight & Navigation: Scientific Question: How do natural photoreceptors detect and how do animal brains interpret polarization information? How is it used for nocturnal navigation or recognition of obscured targets? Can these unique bio-optical systems be emulated? Scientific Question: How does neural control make natural, low-Reynolds No. flight autonomous, efficient, and robust? Discover principles of multisensory fusion, distributed sensors and actuators. Develop control laws for emulation in MAVs. Advanced Auditory Modeling: Scientific Question: How does the auditory brain parse acoustic landscapes, bind sensory inputs, adapt its filters, hear through noise and distortion? Could autonomous listening devices emulate neurology to match or exceed human auditory analysis, e.g., to detect and identify speech targets in noise and reverberation? 40% 12% 47% Strategy: Forge useful connections between math and biology AFOSR BioNavigation Research Initiative
  • 4DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. TO: Navy: Bio-inspired method to classify acoustic sources, e.g., vehicles, humans, marine animals etc., using cortical auditory model. Dr. Sam Pascarelle, Advanced Acoustic Concepts, Inc. TO: AFIT: Techniques in electrophysiology and neuroanatomy for mechanical engineering projects to emulate flapping wing flight. Dr. Mark Willis, Case Western U., Dr. Anthony Palazotto, AFIT TO: DARPA: System for adaptive, autonomous control of robotic movement, based upon hierarchical neural model of biological control. Roger Quinn &. Roy Ritzmann, Case West. U.; G. Pratt, DARPA. TO: Bloedel Hearing Institute: New, patented method to improve auditory coding in cochlear implants. Developed by Dr. Les Atlas, U. Wash. Dr. Jay Rebenstein will develop commercial applications. TO: AFRL-- Eglin: Measurements and data on biological wide-field-of-view optical systems to enable 6.2 and 6.3 efforts in vision-based guidance and navigation. D. Stavenga, U. Groningen, N. Strausfeld, U. Arizona, M. Wehling, et al. Recent Transitions
  • 5DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Subprogram: Auditory Modeling for Acoustic Analysis AIMS Understand how neural signal processing in the auditory brain can advance the design of acoustic techniques for noise suppression, directional hearing, and speech analysis ACCOMPLISHMENTS (Previously Reported} • Mathematical and experimental analysis of acoustic propagation via skull, middle ear, and soft tissue • Hybrid feed-forward, feed-back adaptive noise cancellation • Restoration of 3D spatial hearing via headphones CURRENT PROJECTS Dynamic response of cochlear hair cells. Bozovic, UCLA Advanced methods for binaural synthesis. Hartmann MSU Neural Oscillations in Auditory Cognition. Large, Circular Logic Spectral, & contextual constraints on 3D hearing. Iyer, Simpson, AFRL/RH Analysis & control of Informational Masking. Kidd, Boston U. = REPORTED IN 2012 SPRING REV.
  • 6DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A Speech Analysis Breakthrough Speech intelligibility improves markedly for normal-hearing (NH) listeners and for hearing- impaired (HI) listeners FIRST TECHNIQUE TO APPLY COMPUTATIONAL AUDITORY SCENE ANALYSIS TO IMPROVE MONAURAL INTELLIGIBILITY Unpublished data. Status Report 1, STTR Phase II Project: "An Auditory Scene Analysis Approach to Speech Segregation” Dr. DeLiang Wang, Ohio State University Individual Speech Hearing Performance against Multitalker Babble
  • 7DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. An Auditory Modeling Transition for Acoustic Analysis Key stages of hypothesized auditory processing, from detection of an acoustic signal to recognition of its source in ambient noise. AFOSR Sensory System Program grants: FA9550-07-C-0095, 0017, FA9550-12-1-0388 to Dr. Edward Large, Circular Logic, LLC.. SIBR: John Hall, Michael Spottswood 711HPW/RHCB Unique dynamical system model for auditory scene analysis, based upon neural gradient frequency networks & Hebbian adaptation AFOSR 6.1 Research SBIR Topic AF112-024 Listener Performance Modeling in Urban Environments
  • 8DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Polarization Biology Sub-Program AIMS HIGHLIGHTS (Previously Reported) NEW DEVELOPMENTS A CURRENT FOCUS Discover biological mechanisms for sensing, control, and analysis of polarized light….Derive new optical information techniques. • Mapped genetic landscape for opsins in polarization vision. • Discovered photoreceptor for circular polarization detection. • Discovered achromatic 1/4 wave retarder membrane & deduced its unique optical structure. • Transitioned bio- polarization principles for optical scene analysis. Discover neural information-processing principles that achieve successful multiplexing & integration of spectral and polarization signals. …Model and emulate this in computational systems. A multidisciplinary, coordinated grant. BRISTOL, UK, QUEENSLAND, UMBC, & WUSTL • Natural Dichroic Polarizer • Polarization-Neutral Reflector • High Resolution Pol Vision
  • 9DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A Natural Dichroic Polarizer Used for Visual Signalling Animal (Mantis Shrimp) uses dichroic carotenoid molecule (astaxanthin) in a movable antennae to produce time- varying polarization signals in specific directions. UMBC, U. Queensland, UC Berkeley: Chiou, et al., J. Exp. Biology 2012. Broadband polarization transmission depends on antenna orientation Polarization-active layer in antennal scale, Odontodactylus scyllarus First-reported biological dichroic polarizer
  • 10DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Discovered: Mechanism of Biological Non-Polarizing Reflectors • T. M. Jordan, J. C. Partridge & N.W. Roberts. Univ. of Bristol. • Nature Photonics 2012. Unique optical reflectors: Suppress polarization at all angles • Layers of guanine cytoplasm crystals are broadband birefringent. • No refractive index mismatch between crystal layers and the external medium. • Each crystal optical axis aligns with its long axis or orthogonal to its plane. • Optical design could be exploited in synthetic devices. Silvery fish avoid the Fresnel effect (loss of reflectivity, gain of polarization at Brewster’s angle): They maintain polarization camouflage in all directions
  • 11DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Discovered: High-Resolution Polarization Vision Mourning Cuttlefish, Sepia plangon In most polarization-sensing animals, acuity for polarization orientation (the “e-vector” angle) ranges from about 10 to 20 degrees. This cuttlefish, which lacks color vision, shows (via a change in skin coloration) that it can discriminate between targets and backgrounds based on only a 1 degree difference in e-vector angle … the highest biological resolution yet known. Research continues on how high-resolution polarization sensory systems are employed In covert signaling and camouflage. S. E. Temple, et al., Current Biology (2012) supported by AFOSR Sensory Information Systems Program
  • 12DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Bombus terrestris Megalopta genalis (Nocturnal Bee) Hawks & Falcons Echolocating Bats Dragonfly Hawk moth Span of Natural Flier Research: A Few Program Participants Vertebrates Invertebrates
  • 13DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Sensori-motor Control of Natural Flight and Navigation = AFOSR BIO-NAVIGATION FUNDING INITIATIVE P. Krishnaprasad ( U. MD): Modeling formation flight control T. Daniel ( U. Washington): Wing mechanosensor functions. H. Krapp ( Imp. College London): Neural basis of visual steering S. Humbert ( U. Maryland): Modeling sensorimotor control M. Frye ( UCLA): Higher-order motion detection S. Reppert ( U. Mass): Clock-compensated navigation R. Ritzmann (Case Western): Adaptive locomotion control J. Evers (AFRL/RW): Natural 3D flight dynamics G. Taylor (Oxford): Raptor pursuit strategies in 3D E. Warrant (Lund U.): Nocturnal navigation P. Shoemaker (Tanner Res.): Visual detection of small targets M. Willis (Case Western): Visual / olfactory target tracking R. Olberg ( Union College): Dragonfly flight to target capture S. Sterbing ( U. MD): Wing sensors in bat flight control M. Wehling ( AFRL/RW): Neural analysis of optic flow. S. Sane ( Tata Institute): Insect multisensory integration
  • 14DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. AFRL-DSTL Working Group Biologically-Motivated Micro-Air-Vehicles “STATE OF THE ART REVIEW” Georgia Tech 15-18 June, 2010 Organizers: M. Wehling, AFRL. P. Biggins, Dstl Presentations: https://livelink.ebs.afrl.af.mil/livelink/llisapi.dll?func=ll&objId=24091294 &objAction=browse&viewType=1 30 Participants from UK, US, Industry, Academia, & Gov. H. Krapp J. Niven G. Taylor T. Daniel S. Humbert M. Willis U.S.U.K. International and 6.2 Coordination
  • 15DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Fundamental Question: What underlying principles drive biology’s design of actuation and sensing architectures? Motivating Observations from Insect Research : • Sensors are “noisy,” redundant, distributed in non-orthogonal coordinates. • Inputs fuse across modalities prior to activating flight muscles. • No conventional distinctions between estimate/control or inner/outer loop • Sensors differ radically in bandwidth & temporal response, e.g., vision lags mechanoreception. Insect Lab, Eglin AFB Dr. Jennifer Talley Sensori-motor Control of Natural Flight and Navigation
  • 16DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Wings are Sensory Receptors - - - A New Research Effort Hawkmoth, Manduca sexta MECHANICAL INPUT Wing Campaniform Neurons Respond to Mechanical Forces NEURON RESPONSE 4-NEURON COHERENCE INPUT POWER SPECTRUM CORIOLIS REGIONS Hypothesis: Wings not only drive flight, but also detect inertial moments. - - - strain receptors modulate wing shape and position. T. Daniel (biology) and K. Morgensen (Aeronautics) U. Washington.
  • 17DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Wings are Sensorimotor Surfaces • Discovering their Role in Flight Control BATS HAWKMOTHS Measure joint muscle activity during flight. What is controlled? Force or position? Discover role of intrinsic (non-joint) muscles. Record from strain receptors during wing motion. Measure dynamics of response to mechanical inputs. Map neural signal from wing to flight motor. Find and study hair sensors on wings. Measure response to air flow. Map wing sensor circuits to cortex.
  • 18DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Mechanoreceptors in Flight Control Sterbing-D’Angelo et al., PNAS 2011, Sterbing-D’Angelo & Moss (in press) Tactile Hairs have directional bias: Many favor reverse air flow. Air flow reverses during low-speed flight when vortices form and flow separates Scientific Challenge: Finding: Hypothesis: Tactile hairs indicate stall? They enable the bat to stabilize flight when airflow is disrupted? Discover the role of wing receptors in flight control.
  • 19DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Mechanoreceptors on Bat Wings Cortical response to single-unit stimulation Flight Velocity ProximitytoObstructions Removing tactile hairs alters flight steering Tactile wing hair 200m length, 5m diameter base ba • Ringed by Merkel cells • Responsive to air puffs • Mapped to sensory cortex • Needed for flight agility Current Findings: Sterbing-D’Angelo et al., PNAS 2011, Sterbing-D’Angelo & Moss (in press)
  • 20DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Biological Flight Coherence Inspires New Control Laws Key Insights: In 2 dimensions, obstacle avoidance and boundary tracking pose similar problems for flight coordination, but 3-dimensional coordinated flight requires a new approach. Gyroscopic modeling enables biological interpretations and tests. Illustration of a gyroscopic boundary- tracking law following circular motion on the surface of a sphere. Scientific Challenge: Develop control laws that model sensory interactions and coordination in biological flight. Zhang, Justh, & Krishnaprasad, GaTech & U. MD. 2012
  • 21DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. STTR AF12-BT03 Direction and Value (RW) • Biologically-inspired topic provides science base to extend current seeker state of the art from anthropomorphic narrow field of view single color intensity imager to arthropomorphic wide field of view multispectral intensity and polarization imager – Enhances situational awareness (120 deg fov vs 1 deg fov) – Enhances target discrimination capability (multispectral and polarization discrimination) – Increases seeker functionality (from terminal guidance sensor to sensor enabling guidance, navigation and control and fuzing, applicable to ISR and BDA and communication channel receiver) • Supports vision-based sensor development in Nature-Inspired Sciences Center of Excellence, and vision-based sensor applications in BioUAS PA
  • 22DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Recent Highlights AFOSR Basic Research Initiative: Biological Sensing of Magnetic Fields Optimal Protocols for Photic Re-Entrainment Challenge: Discover how geo- magnetism can induce neural signals for spatial navigation. Math solution minimizes time to adjust circadian phase (‘jet lag’) D. Forger, U. Mich. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Nature-Inspired sciences for sensing & control of autonomous flight AFRL/RW Center of Excellence: A Program Partnership
  • 23DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Nature-Inspired CoE: Direction and Value • Technical focus in RW has been on the science underlying optical sensors and associated algorithms, for application to agile autonomous airframes • CoE provides opportunity to expand technical focus to include additional sensory modes (mechanosensors, chemosensors, magnetosensors), and address efficient approaches to combining information from these sensors • Opportunity for exchanging personnel and students in each other’s laboratories
  • 24DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. BIO-SENSING OF MAGNETIC FIELDS A NEW BASIC RESEARCH INITIATIVE AFOSR SENSORY INFORMATIN SYSTEMS PROGRAM SCIENTIFIC CHALLENGE: Discover the receptor mechanism(s) for biological magnetic sensitivity, especially at field strengths comparable to the geomagnetic background. PM ADVISORY GROUP: Patrick Bradshaw, Tatjana Curcic, Hugh DeLong, John Gonglewski, Willard Larkin (retired, v.e.c.) *Primary co-PM
  • 25DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. BIO-SENSING OF MAGNETIC FIELDS KNOWN: What is known? … What is conjectured? TWO CONJECTURES: Magnetoreception is found in all major vertebrate groups, plus some molluscs, crustaceans, and insects Used for local position finding (e.g. bats homing at night) Used for long-range migration Magnetite Fe3O4 single-domain crystals associated with cell membranes twist to align with an imposed field – this may open/close ion channels. Blue-light photoreceptive proteins – cryptochromes – are somehow involved, possibly via quantum spin coherence among radical pairs.
  • 26DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. BIO-SENSING OF MAGNETIC FIELDS Why would this discovery matter? It would explain the bio-sensory basis for long- range navigation by orientation to the geomagnetic field. It could provide a missing scientific link to understand neurocognitive effects of magnetic stimulation – these phenomena currently are explored in AFRL 711HPW/RH. It could reveal the first known quantum-level biophysical mechanism in sensory biology -- we conjecture that some natural biological systems acquire extreme sensitivity via correlated spin dynamics of certain electron transfer reactions. It would deepen fundamental knowledge of cryptochrome proteins in sensory function – these proteins are implicated in a wide range of non-imaging photosensitivity, e.g., adaptive camouflage. They may be key to light-dependent magnetoreception. 1. 2. 3. 4.
  • 27DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. BIO-SENSING OF MAGNETIC FIELDS Why enter this research area now? • Weak experimental methods have hampered past efforts to find a biophysical transduction mechanism for magnetic sensitivity. Better techniques are now available, in behavioral, cellular, molecular, and physics approaches. A few key papers: Kirschvink, et al., (J. Royal Society, 2010) Biophysics of magnetic orientation: Strengthening the interface between theory and experimental design. Eder, et al. (PNAS, 2012) Magnetic characterization of isolated candidate magnetoreceptor cells. Solov’yov & Schulten (J. Phys. Chem. 2012) Reaction kinetics and mechanism of magnetic field effects in cryptochrome. Dorner, et al. (Quant. Phys. 2012) Toward quantum simulation of biological information flow. • A scientific community with growing interest and expertise has been forming, especially with respect to “Quantum Effects in Biology,” (Dr. Sterbing attended QEB meeting in June.) High quality proposals are expected.
  • 28DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. BIO-SENSING OF MAGNETIC FIELDS Where is the top research in this area? Munich: Michael Winklhofer, at Ludwig-Maximillians Univ. Duke U.: Sonke Johnson (a PI in Hugh DeLong’s program) Oxford: P.J.Hore (DARPA-funded expert on quantum chemistry) Baylor: David Dickman (expert on avian magnetic navigation) U. Mass: Steven Reppert (a PI in Larkin’s program) U. Oldenberg, GE: Henrik Mouritsen (Neurosensory Sciences) Chapel Hill: Kenneth Lohmann (UNC biologist)
  • 29DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Conclusion • Sensory information systems is a dynamic, cross cutting discipline that is discovering what nature has perfected • This program is feeding information to many of the TD’s (RW, RY, RX) as well as the RTX’s (RTA, RTE) • The BRI and COE are exciting opportunities that will provide creative, new information for the science of flight
  • 30DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Backup Slides
  • 31DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Dissociated cell from trout olfactory epithelium rotates with an imposed 33Hz magnetic field Red arrows identify a micron-sized magnetic cluster inside the cell. Such rotatable cells were rare in this preparation, and had an elongated shape (aspect ratio 1.6). BIO-SENSING OF MAGNETIC FIELDS What is known? … What is conjectured? RECENT FINDING CONJECTURE Sources: Eder, et al., (PNAS 2012) and Lohmann (Nature 2010)
  • 32DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. BIO-SENSING OF MAGNETIC FIELDS What is known? … What is conjectured? A RECENT FINDING: “Magnetically sensitive light-induced reactions in cryptochrome are consistent with its proposed role as a magnetoreceptor.” Kinetics and quantum yields of photo- induced radical pairs (flavin-tryptophan) were studied for this plant cryptochrome (in vitro). Rates of spin-coherent processes were estimated. Magnetic field effects were seen down to 1 mT. Maeda, et al. (PNAS 2012) Arabidopsis thaliana Cryptochrome AtCry-1 CONJECTURE: Magnetic sensitivity may be a general feature of this protein family, and could extrapolate to vertebrate cryptochromes.
  • 33DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. BIO-SENSING OF MAGNETIC FIELDS Can AFOSR take the lead in this area? Current research funding is widely scattered: No other focused Federal program exists. DARPA’s program on quantum effects in biology (QEB) has a much broader scope, but it has relevance to our BRI. We have encouragement and continuing interest from DARPA. (Matt Goodman and Guido Zuccarello) Dr. Susanne Sterbing is deeply capable in the physics, biophysics, and sensory neuroscience needed for AFOSR’s PM leadership on this topic.
  • 34DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Visuomotor Convergence
  • 35DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Visual Sensory Equipment in Flying Insects 1. Study the functional and physiological organization of two visual mechanisms (compound eye, ocelli) in Locusts, Tabinids, and Asilids (Krapp) 2. Characterize observability properties of tangential cells and ocelli across species (Humbert) 3. Extract species-specific adaptations of visual control structures and determine general principles for multisensory integration (Krapp, Humbert) 4. Implement bio-inspired visual feedback for stabilization and compare to traditional approaches (Humbert) How is visual sensor specification linked to flight performance? Tabanidae (horseflies); varying number of ocelli, 18- 25 VS cells, 6 HS cells Asilidae (robber flies); no ocelli, no VS cells, 5-18 HS cells Calliphoridae (blowflies); 3 ocelli, 10/11 VS cells, 3 HS cells Orthoptera (locusts); 3 ocelli, likely to have no VS cells, several HS cells, no halteres
  • 36DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Insect Sensorimotor Control Power Muscles Steering Muscles Apply control- and information-theoretic tools to models of sensory systems and flight dynamics to understand potential benefits to unmanned aerial systems (UAS) What is novel/unique about insect sensorimotor systems? • Measurements made in highly non-orthogonal axes • Sensors configured to measure composite quantities • Traditional separation between estimation/control and inner/outer loops is absent Fundamental Question: What underlying principles drive biology’s design of actuation and sensing architectures?
  • 37DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Multidisciplinary Methods / Approach Novel combination of experimental and analytical methods from biology, aerodynamics, flight dynamics and control/information theory • Electrophysiology to study functional and physiological organization and generate models of sensory systems • High speed videography and automated kinematics extraction to determine control strategies • Computational fluid dynamic simulations (based on extracted kinematics) to estimate flight dynamics models • Control- and information-theoretic analysis of closed loop behavior (observability/controllability) +_ x(1 ) x(t)
  • 38DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Novel Contributions • Formalization of operational principles for insect sensorimotor control systems • Novel approach combining biological experimental techniques, high fidelity simulations with solid grounding in control- and information theoretic analyses • Are natural systems optimized for information extraction, maneuverability, robustness or some combination of the above? • Are sensory systems matched to the flight dynamics (Mode-Sensing Hypothesis)? • What are the potential improvements in Air Force capabilities? • Increased levels of agility, gust tolerance and autonomy for small scale UAS • Comparisons of novel hardware implementations with traditional engineered solutions (computational requirements, bandwidth, SWaP, closed loop performance) Biological Principles Novel Hardware Implementations (analog VLSI) Increased Capabilities for Small UAS (Agility, Robustness, Autonomy)
  • 39DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Visual flight control in dim light: How moths see and maneuver in low light. Objectives: (1) Determine what part of the visual environment is most important for flight stabilization and steering. (2) Determine the spatial and temporal resolution of motion-detecting neurons in the visual system. (3) Determine the spatial and temporal resolution of visual flight control mechanisms by challenging freely behaving M. sexta moths to fly through environments using identical stimuli and conditions. Technical Approach: (1) Record responses of freely flying moths to visible patterns in areas of their visual surround (i.e., above, below, to the side). Then determine the combination of pattern density and decreasing light level that causes flight stabilization and maneuvering to degrade. (2) Determine the spatial and temporal resolution of the wide-field motion detecting neurons in the visual system that supports adaptive flight control in these moths. (3) Coordinate these two approaches to show how moths generate adaptive flight control at night. DoD Benefit: (1) Basic knowledge of important visual principles that enable flight in dim light. (2) Useful insights for the development of control systems allowing autonomous micro air vehicles to fly missions in dim light. WIND Parallel studies of the behavioral responses of freely flying moths and the responses of neurons in the visual systems of the same species, to the same visual stimuli, will reveal the performance envelop of adaptive flight maneuvering in these specialized night flying animals.
  • 40DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Flight Control Experiments • Behavioral responses of freely flying moths tracking odor plumes upwind will be recorded as they encounter different visual patterns at different light levels from daylight to starlight. • Male moths track female pheromone plumes upwind – supported by motion-sensitive visual flight stabilization and steering control. • The lowest pattern contrast (combination of finest stripe density and moth flight speed) that continues to allow stable flight control at each light level reveals the maximum spatial and temporal resolution of the flight control system. • Behavioral response will be compared to physiological responses of neurons in the moths visual system to the same stimulus and light conditions. Normal control Flight disrupted over low contrast pattern WIND
  • 41DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Visual Motion Experiments • Recordings of the physiological responses of neurons in the visual system sensitive to wide-field motion will be made at different light levels from daylight to starlight (using neutral density filters). • Neurons respond preferentially to sinusoidal stripe gratings moving in one direction – they are directionally sensitive to motion. • The fastest pattern motion and finest stripe density that can distinguish at each light level reveals the maximum spatial and temporal resolution of the visual system. • Responses of these neurons will be compared to responses of freely flying moths in the same stimulus and light conditions.
  • 42DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Haematopota pluvialis, A horse fly Stomatopod compound eye; six midband rows contain spectral and polarization sensing diversity
  • 43DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Insect Bird Bat ( ) with potential to be controlled during flight Natural Fliers’ Wing Joints Plagiopatagiales Muscles Bat wing has Intrinsic, non-joint muscles Research Questions: • Discover joint coordination timing • Determine functional redundancy • Do joint muscles control force or position? • Discover what the intrinsic muscles do. Wing Sensorimotor Activation - - A New Program Initiative
  • 44DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Intrinsic Muscles Active only During Wing Upstroke: Discovering Bat Wing Musculature Dynamics during Flight Large bat (1.2kg) in low speed flight has precise control via wing skeletal muscles and wing intramembranous (intrinsic) muscles • Electromyography during flight • Thermal videography for metabolic load) • Selective, reversible muscle paralysis • 3D X-ray mapping of skeletal motion ResearchTechniques:
  • 45DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. SUMMARY: Transformational Impacts & Opportunities Advanced auditory modeling: Hearing protection: Optical processing: Autonomous flight control: • Adaptive airfoils based upon bio-sensory mechanisms • Steering based upon neural autonomous systems • Discover sensorimotor basis of formation flight • Polarization vision and signaling adapted from biology • Achromatic 1/4 wave optical retarders • Emulating compound eye in new optical devices • Mathematics for coherent modulation analysis • Neural-Inspired analyses to parse acoustic scenes • Massive improvements in high-noise attenuation.
  • 46DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  • 47DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Robber Fly No Ocelli Halteres No VS cells 5-18 HS cells New Lab for Insect Vision Spectral & Polarization Electroretinography AFRL/RWG PI: Martin Wehling
  • 48DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Large bat (1.2kg) in low speed flight maintains precise control via wing skeletal muscles and wing intramembranous muscles Dynamics of Bat Wing Musculature S. Swartz, T. Roberts, Brown Univ., 2011 Electromyography during flight Thermal videography (to measure metabolic load) Selective, reversible muscle paralysis 3D X-ray mapping of skeletal motion Techniques: