SPACE SCIENCES                                                                                             07 March 2012  ...
2012 AFOSR SPRING REVIEW        Space Sciences Portfolio OverviewNAME:   Dr. Cassandra FesenBRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PORTFOLIO...
Outline• Why the AF has a Space Sciences program   • What parts of Earth’s atmosphere are of interest• What are some proje...
Why the Air Force interest in Space Sciences?                                          Space WeatherSpace Weathereffects i...
Space Weather effects:                              Satellite Drag AFSPC* has a 72-hour prediction requirement for neutral...
Space Weather Effects:Radiation Belt PerturbationsDISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ...
Space Weather Effects:  Communications, Navigation, SurveillanceScintillations       DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public r...
Space Sciences: Overview                                                  Solar PhysicsMagnetosphere/                     ...
Why the Sun is so importantDISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.   9
Heliospace and                         Geospace EnvironmentSun   Corona                 Solar Wind                        ...
Greatest Scientific Challenge  Predicting solar activity              • when it will happen              • how bad will it...
Solar Physics Research                         Ultimate Goal:                Predict Flares, CMEs*, and SEPs*             ...
A Typical Space Weather Event                                 19 Jan 2012                                24 Jan 2012      ...
Solar Physics ResearchAFOSR                                                                                  All arefunds ...
Solar Prominence Magnetometer                                                                                      A 40-cm...
New Solar Telescope at Big Bear, CAThe New Solar Telescopeis the highest resolutionground-based solartelescope.Most recent...
Solar polarization telescopes              at El Leoncito, Argentina  The El Leoncito Heliogeophysics Laboratory provides ...
Lab Experiments: Simulations              of solar magnetic loopsPI: P. Bellan, CalTech            DISTRIBUTION A: Approve...
Simulating an Earth-directed            coronal mass ejection (CME) blankDensity (cm-3) PI: C. Lee, NRC post-doc at AFRL/R...
Modeling “Stealth” CMEs“Stealth” CMEs : CMEs withvirtually no on-disk signatures(flare, EUV dimming,prominence eruptionHow...
First physics-based space weather          model to transition to operations  ADAPT model*: Air Force Data Assimilative Ph...
Additional ADAPT activities                                                                                           Usin...
Space Sciences: Overview                                                 Solar PhysicsMagnetosphere/                      ...
Earth’s Radiation Belts:                 what and where they areEnergetic                    Energetic protons (10-50 MeV)...
Earth’s Radiation Belts:         Why they are importantThey pose hazards for   • Astronauts   • Spacecraft   • Hardwarecom...
Magnetospheric Physics at                 AFOSRAFOSR’s magnetospheric physics investmentsare focused on a few key areas of...
Modeling and Theory                             Investigations     Modeling radiation belt electrons                      ...
Hot Topic: Radiation Belt               Remediation (RBR)RBR: remove/drain high energy particles from the beltsOne popular...
An active experiment:            Generating VLF Whistler Waves                                                            ...
Space Sciences: Overview                                                  Solar PhysicsMagnetosphere/                     ...
Major Issues: Scintillations andSatellite DragDISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.   31
The Upper Atmosphere and             Ionosphere                                                                          A...
Ionosphere Effects: ScintillationsScintillations are caused by irregularities or perturbations in theionosphere on various...
Global 3D Electron DensitiesAdvances in characterizing thebackground ionosphere usingglobal data assimilation of thegrowin...
Longitude Differences Near 20 S                                         Equator                          Near 20 N        ...
Evidence for lower atmosphere                     effects (1)                 Airglow observations over ChileAnalysis of t...
Evidence for lower atmosphere                   effects (2)C/NOFS satellite observations duringthe 2009 major sudden strat...
2-D Optical Measurements of                 Ionospheric IrregularitiesComplex ionospheric structure leading to GPS        ...
Fortunately, there are several new projects inthe works to help address these issues;   these include both new observation...
Resolving the finest scales in the                        auroraThe aurora exhibits a vast hierarchy of scales with the fi...
THE DURIP OPTICAL NETWORK         A longitude chain of imagers                                                  A chain of...
New Modeling DevelopmentsMultiscale modeling of                                                       Simulations of small...
All of which aims to lead to ….  DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.   43
Scintillation Prototype           Experimental daily scintillation mapsYIP PI: J. Comberiate, Johns Hopkins U          DIS...
Now turning to neutral atmosphere/satellitedrag     DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...
NADIR: Neutral Atmosphere Density            Interdisciplinary Research                                                   ...
Modeling the neutral density:          comparison with satellite dataPI: M. Fedrizzi, U Colorado             DISTRIBUTION ...
A Key to Improved AgreementSmall scalestructures!In particular,the seasonalvariation inthe smallscale electricfieldPI: M. ...
Density Response to Joule                Heating at Different Heights Globally Integrated Joule Heating Per Half Scale Hei...
Investigating the effects of energy         input to the M-I-T* system                                                    ...
Neutral Density Response to the      2009 Sudden Stratospheric WarmingA significant drop (30%) inneutral density occurredd...
Wave Structures observed       in other fieldsC/NOFS Zonal Drifts                                                         ...
Wrap Up: Trends / EmphasisFocus on projects that enable predictive capabilities for     * solar activity     * neutral the...
(Some) Challenges to Progress           in Space SciencesChallenge             Opportunity?                               ...
(Some) Challenges to Progress             in Space SciencesChallenge                Opportunity?                          ...
Contacts in Other Funding Agencies Agency                                         POC                                     ...
Thank you for your attendanceand your attention!DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.   57
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Fesen - Space Sciences - Spring Review 2012

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Dr. Cassandra Fesen presents an overview of her program - Space Sciences - at the AFOSR 2012 Spring Review.

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Fesen - Space Sciences - Spring Review 2012

  1. 1. SPACE SCIENCES 07 March 2012 Dr. Cassandra Fesen Program Manager AFOSR/RSE Integrity  Service  Excellence Air Force Research Laboratory9 March 2012 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 1
  2. 2. 2012 AFOSR SPRING REVIEW Space Sciences Portfolio OverviewNAME: Dr. Cassandra FesenBRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PORTFOLIO:Specifying and forecasting the geospace environment ofEarth, extending from the Sun to the Earth’s upperatmosphere, for Situational Awareness and for SpaceControlSUB-AREAS IN PORTFOLIO:Solar and Heliospheric Physics SpaceMagnetospheric Physics WeatherIonospheric and Thermospheric Physics DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 2
  3. 3. Outline• Why the AF has a Space Sciences program • What parts of Earth’s atmosphere are of interest• What are some projects in Space Sciences • Solar investigations • Radiation belt investigations • Thermosphere / Ionosphere investigations• Wrap-up • What are the trends • What other agencies are working in this area DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 3
  4. 4. Why the Air Force interest in Space Sciences? Space WeatherSpace Weathereffects include:• satellite drag• radiation belt perturbations• communication/ navigation/ surveillance DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 4
  5. 5. Space Weather effects: Satellite Drag AFSPC* has a 72-hour prediction requirement for neutral densities Because of the direct impact on satellite drag  orbit determination Necessary for: • satellite position • satellite lifetime • satellite re-entry • catalog of space objects • collision avoidance • satellite design* Air Force Space Command DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 5
  6. 6. Space Weather Effects:Radiation Belt PerturbationsDISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 6
  7. 7. Space Weather Effects: Communications, Navigation, SurveillanceScintillations DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 7
  8. 8. Space Sciences: Overview Solar PhysicsMagnetosphere/ Thermosphere/Radiation Belts Ionosphere DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 8
  9. 9. Why the Sun is so importantDISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 9
  10. 10. Heliospace and Geospace EnvironmentSun Corona Solar Wind Magnetosphere Thermosphere/ RF (radio frequency) radiation Ionosphere UV radiation X rays Solar flares CMEs (Coronal Mass Ejections) SEPs (solar energetic particles) DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 10
  11. 11. Greatest Scientific Challenge Predicting solar activity • when it will happen • how bad will it be • will it hit Earth Predicting the effects on Earth • when will it happen • how bad will it be • how long will it lastTransformational OpportunityDISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 11
  12. 12. Solar Physics Research Ultimate Goal: Predict Flares, CMEs*, and SEPs* NASA / Solar and Heliospheric ObservatoryCME = coronal mass ejectionSEP = solar energetic particle DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 12
  13. 13. A Typical Space Weather Event 19 Jan 2012 24 Jan 2012 An Active Region Erupts 1. Solar flare (x-ray) 2. Shock (energetic particles) 3. Coronal Mass Ejection (particles and fields) X-rays reach Earth in 8 minutes (speed of light) Energetic particles reach Earth in 15 min to 24 hours Coronal Mass Ejection reaches Earth in 1 – 4 daysDISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13
  14. 14. Solar Physics ResearchAFOSR All arefunds a ultimatelyrange of gearedactivities towardsspanning achieving aobserving, predictive ormodeling, forecastingand capabilitylaboratorywork. NASA / Solar and Heliospheric Observatory DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 14
  15. 15. Solar Prominence Magnetometer A 40-cm coronagraph at Sunspot, NM can extract information on the solar magnetic fields in the chromosphere. The goal is to predict if and when solar prominences will erupt and result in severe disturbances to USAF assets.PI: R. Altrock, AFRL/RV DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 15
  16. 16. New Solar Telescope at Big Bear, CAThe New Solar Telescopeis the highest resolutionground-based solartelescope.Most recent achievement:Discovery of magneticloops reaching from thesolar surface to the lowcorona.Instrument field of view is a circle 100” in diameterPI: P. Goode, NJ Institute of Technology DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 16
  17. 17. Solar polarization telescopes at El Leoncito, Argentina The El Leoncito Heliogeophysics Laboratory provides unique regular observations of the Sun at 45, 90, 200 and 400 GHz.PI: P. Kaufmann, U. Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Brazil DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 17
  18. 18. Lab Experiments: Simulations of solar magnetic loopsPI: P. Bellan, CalTech DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 18
  19. 19. Simulating an Earth-directed coronal mass ejection (CME) blankDensity (cm-3) PI: C. Lee, NRC post-doc at AFRL/RV DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 19
  20. 20. Modeling “Stealth” CMEs“Stealth” CMEs : CMEs withvirtually no on-disk signatures(flare, EUV dimming,prominence eruptionHow do you predict a CMEand its geoeffectiveness if youdidn’t see it erupt or cannotidentify the source region?To address this, the project isrunning MHD simulations ofthe 2008 Jun 2 “stealth” CMEin a simplified backgroundsolar wind YIP PI: B. Lynch, UC-Berkeley DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 20
  21. 21. First physics-based space weather model to transition to operations ADAPT model*: Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric Flux Transport (ADAPT) Model ADAPT provides high quality “snapshots” of the Sun’s global magnetic field; this is the primary input for all coronal and solar wind models.PI: C.N. Arge, AFRL/RV *RV’s newest Star Team DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 21
  22. 22. Additional ADAPT activities Using ADAPT Maps ADAPTSolar Wind Predictionsvs. Observations atSTEREO B Development of a new method to forecast the solar 10.7 cm radio flux PI: C.N. Arge, AFRL/RV DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 22
  23. 23. Space Sciences: Overview Solar PhysicsMagnetosphere/ Thermosphere/Radiation Belts Ionosphere DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 23
  24. 24. Earth’s Radiation Belts: what and where they areEnergetic Energetic protons (10-50 MeV) Slot regionelectrons + Electrons (0.04 – 4.5 MeV)(0.1 – 10 MeV) DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 24
  25. 25. Earth’s Radiation Belts: Why they are importantThey pose hazards for • Astronauts • Spacecraft • Hardwarecompromising • Mission performance • Mission lifetimessince they can lead to • Material degradation • Single Event Upsets (SEUs) • Internal charging • Surface charging DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 25
  26. 26. Magnetospheric Physics at AFOSRAFOSR’s magnetospheric physics investmentsare focused on a few key areas of particularinterest to the AF.The projects include state-of-the-art modeling ofthe energetic particles in the radiation beltsincluding diffusion and accounting for wave-particle interactions. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 26
  27. 27. Modeling and Theory Investigations Modeling radiation belt electrons pitch angle cross diffusion diffusion with quasi-linear diffusion driven by resonant waves PI: J. Albert, AFRL/RV cross energy radial diffusion diffusion diffusionDeveloping a computationallyefficient new multi-fluid hybridmodel for collisionless plasma YIP PI: R. Burrows, U. Alabama Developing a new theory of invariant curves for the analysis of intermittent turbulence PI: T. Chang, MIT DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 27
  28. 28. Hot Topic: Radiation Belt Remediation (RBR)RBR: remove/drain high energy particles from the beltsOne popular idea: use spaceborne antenna to injectSLF/VLF waves into the belts. These waves scatter highenergy particles down into the atmosphere.One project: determine the characteristics and effects of aspace-borne antenna radiating Electomagnetic Ion CyclotronWaves.PI: M. Martinez-Sanchez, MIT DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 28
  29. 29. An active experiment: Generating VLF Whistler Waves Whistler waves interact with ionospheric plasma and radiation belts sequentiallyExperiments at Gakona,Alaska, to generate beatwaves of VLF whistlersby HF heater wavesPI: M. C. Lee, MIT DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 29
  30. 30. Space Sciences: Overview Solar PhysicsMagnetosphere/ Thermosphere/Radiation Belts Ionosphere DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 30
  31. 31. Major Issues: Scintillations andSatellite DragDISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 31
  32. 32. The Upper Atmosphere and Ionosphere Above about 100 km, the neutral part of the atmosphere is called the thermosphere Above about 80 km, the charged/ionized part of the atmosphere is called the ionosphereDISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 32
  33. 33. Ionosphere Effects: ScintillationsScintillations are caused by irregularities or perturbations in theionosphere on various scales from very small to very large. Being able to predict scintillations would be hugely beneficial to the DoD and to SatCom/GPS society in general. SatelliteIrregularities This requires:Inionosphere  characterizing the background Scintillation, Comm dropouts, ionosphere GPS loss of lock  identifying the sources of scintillations  being able to simulate the Receiver ionosphere, the sources, and the development and evolution of the irregularities DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 33
  34. 34. Global 3D Electron DensitiesAdvances in characterizing thebackground ionosphere usingglobal data assimilation of thegrowing number of databases:1) slant TEC from globalground-based GNSS2) nadir vertical TEC fromJason-1/23) slant TEC from Multi radiooccultation missions(COSMIC, CHAMP, GRACE,SAC-C, TerraSAR-X, andMetop-A) PI: W. Schreiner, UCAR DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 34
  35. 35. Longitude Differences Near 20 S Equator Near 20 N Africa AmericaPI: E Yizengaw, Boston College DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 35
  36. 36. Evidence for lower atmosphere effects (1) Airglow observations over ChileAnalysis of this periodicity over 3 years shows a distributionsimilar to that expected for gravity waves propagating intothe lower thermosphere, suggesting that these waves maybe a viable seeding mechanism for instabilities.PI: J. Makela, U Illinois DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 36
  37. 37. Evidence for lower atmosphere effects (2)C/NOFS satellite observations duringthe 2009 major sudden stratosphericwarming event (SSW)Measurements made near Perushow two remarkable features: • large ion velocities in the morning • large downward velocities in the afternoon SSWs can severely disturb the ionosphere PI: F. Rodrigues, Atmos. Space Tech. Res. Assoc. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 37
  38. 38. 2-D Optical Measurements of Ionospheric IrregularitiesComplex ionospheric structure leading to GPS High-sensitivity observationserror and other system effects observable only reveal small-scale structures by optics 10 km structures 4 hours of ionosphere observations over Thule AB PI: T. Pedersen, AFRL/RV --- Star Team DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 38
  39. 39. Fortunately, there are several new projects inthe works to help address these issues; these include both new observationaltechniques or approaches and new modelingstudies DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 39
  40. 40. Resolving the finest scales in the auroraThe aurora exhibits a vast hierarchy of scales with the finest scales ofvariability associated with filamentary current systems and ionosphericturbulence, which affect wave propagation at HF, VHF, and UHF.This research will exploit high-speed CMOS imaging technology, coupled withimproved image intensification technology, with the goal of fully resolvingdynamic aurora. 180o (500 km) 9o (16 km) 1o (2 km) PI: J. Semeter, Boston U. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 40
  41. 41. THE DURIP OPTICAL NETWORK A longitude chain of imagers A chain of all-sky imagers near 70o W, extending pole to pole, and able to study conjugate processes for the first time 1. Equatorial and low latitude Ionosphere From magnetic equator to mag lat Effects on trans-ionospheric radio signals using GPS and optical diagnosis. 2. Mid latitude Ionosphere Poleward from ~  20 to ~  40 mag lat. Nighttime MSTIDs, coupling of E and F regions 3. Sub-auroral Ionosphere Antarctic peninsula and the Northern US. Stable auroral red arcsPI: M. Mendillo, Boston U DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 41
  42. 42. New Modeling DevelopmentsMultiscale modeling of Simulations of small-scaleionosopheric dynamics ionospheric irregularitiesPI: A. Mahalov, Arizona State U PI: M. Oppenheim, Boston U. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 42
  43. 43. All of which aims to lead to …. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 43
  44. 44. Scintillation Prototype Experimental daily scintillation mapsYIP PI: J. Comberiate, Johns Hopkins U DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 44
  45. 45. Now turning to neutral atmosphere/satellitedrag DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 45
  46. 46. NADIR: Neutral Atmosphere Density Interdisciplinary Research Focus Areas: I. Scales of Density Variability, Winds, and Drag Prediction II. Internal Processes and Thermosphere-Ionosphere CouplingU III. Energy Partitioning at High latitudes and Density ImplicationColorado IV. Wave Forcing from the Lower Atmosphere V. Forecasting Geomagnetic Activity VI. Forecasting Solar EUV/UV Radiation VII. Driver-Response Relationships VIII. Satellite Drag in the Re-entry RegionUSAFA DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 46
  47. 47. Modeling the neutral density: comparison with satellite dataPI: M. Fedrizzi, U Colorado DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 47
  48. 48. A Key to Improved AgreementSmall scalestructures!In particular,the seasonalvariation inthe smallscale electricfieldPI: M. Fedrizzi, U Colorado DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 48
  49. 49. Density Response to Joule Heating at Different Heights Globally Integrated Joule Heating Per Half Scale Height Altitude SSMax SSMin 437 654 TIEGCM Simulation Conditions: Equinox Auroral Hemispheric Power = 20 GW 357 512 Cross-polar-cap Potential = 50 kV 281 378 216 263 162 176 SSMAX, F10.7 = 200 SSMIN, F10.7 = 70 125 127 Much more Joule heat is deposited in the E region than in the F region, but F-region 104 105 heating dominates the density response during at least the first 12 hours of a storm, especially GW at solar maximum. This has important implications for modeling the density response.PI: A. Richmond, NCAR DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 49
  50. 50. Investigating the effects of energy input to the M-I-T* system Position Error @ 370 km When Using JB2008 Reference Atmosphere X−inertial 10 Y Z Total Error 5 Position Error (km) 0 −5 −10 236 236.2 236.4 236.6 236.8 237 50 Universal Time (DOY) 45 40 SATELLITE: LDEF 15% 35 ALTITUDE: 400 KM Error (Km) 30 25 In-Track 20 15 5% 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Orbit NumberPI : E. Zesta, AFRL/RV * M-I-T: magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 50
  51. 51. Neutral Density Response to the 2009 Sudden Stratospheric WarmingA significant drop (30%) inneutral density occurredduring the SSW,accompanied by a reductionin satellite drag on theCHAMP satellite.Careful analysis revealedthe cause to be magnetic Ap decreaseactivity. The NADIR modelCTIPe was able to simulatethe response with highaccuracy.PI: T. Fuller-Rowell, U Colorado DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 51
  52. 52. Wave Structures observed in other fieldsC/NOFS Zonal Drifts VEFI Zonal Drifts Summer 2008 Summer Solstice 60 21.75 Zonal Drifts (m/s) 40 20 0 0 90 180 270 360 LongitudePI: R. Pfaff, NASA/GSFC PI: C. Huang, AFRL/RV DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 52
  53. 53. Wrap Up: Trends / EmphasisFocus on projects that enable predictive capabilities for * solar activity * neutral thermospheric densities * scintillations and ionospheric irregularities Maintain projects investigating the radiations belts Current thermosphere/ionosphere projects that do not address neutral densities or ionospheric scintillations may not be renewed. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 53
  54. 54. (Some) Challenges to Progress in Space SciencesChallenge Opportunity? Pursuing?Construction of Need for such a model is obvious. Discussions with other“Sun to mud” However, cross-scale coupling is a huge agencies and communitypredictive model challenge. Funding is difficult, particularly leaders. in current climate.Predicting solar STEREO, Hinode, and SDO are providing About 1/3 of portfolio iseruptive events extensive datasets and new insights. invested in solar physics,(flares and Assimilative models are evolving, with strong ties withCMEs) complemented by numerical MHD models personnel in RV. Ongoing and lab investigations. collaboration with the National Solar Observatory. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 54
  55. 55. (Some) Challenges to Progress in Space SciencesChallenge Opportunity? Pursuing?Predicting C/NOFS plus GPS and TEC databases are Discussions with otherionospheric providing much new information and agency representatives areirregularities. opportunities for assimilative models. ongoing, particularly with Advances in computation and identification NSF and NOAA/SWPC. of important physical processes such as gravity waves are contributing much to the goal.Forecasting Recent satellites CHAMP, GRACE, and FY07 MURI is in final year.neutral densities RAIDS are providing extensive datasets on Significant contributions in1-3 days ahead neutral densities* solar activity effects, wave effects, drag coefficients. Transitioning results in collaboration with RVB.Coupling Has not achieved high visibility or critical Minor; through individualthermosphere/ mass. Limited funding . PIs. NSF leads on thisionosphere to topic; collaborate with them.magnetosphere DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 55
  56. 56. Contacts in Other Funding Agencies Agency POC Science AreaNSF Rich Behnke et al. Solar/Terrestrial Relations, Magnetospheric Physics, Aeronomy, CubesatsONR Scott Budzien Neutral atmosphere and ionosphereNOAA Tom Bogdan Space Weather predictionsNASA Madhulika Guhathakurta Heliophysics (Sun to Earth)NRO Dave Byers Remote sensing of the geospace environment DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 56
  57. 57. Thank you for your attendanceand your attention!DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 57

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