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Tc agendamento fernando_ilharco (2)

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  • 1. Agenda-Setting Theory / Teoria do Agendamento McCombs e Shaw A Tradição Sócio-psicológica (I)A comunicação como influência interpessoal ç pA comunicação como expressão, interacção e influência_Prever o êxito e o fracasso de comportamentos comunicacionais_Quem diz o quê a quem com que efeito_Predisposições individuais e influência mutua_Credibilidade: especialismo e força do carácter_Efeitos da comunicação ç_Comunicação individual e em grupo (eficácia, influência, liderança) 1
  • 2. A Tradição Sócio-psicológica (II)_Teoria do Agendamento _McCombs e Shaw_Teoria da Redução da Incerteza _Berger_Teoria Funcionalista da Decisão em Grupo _Hirokawa e Gouran AGENDA-SETTING THEORY Agendamento The original agenda Not what to think, but what to think about. Mass media transfer the salience of items on their news agendas to the public agenda. 2
  • 3. A Teoria do Agendamento – McCombs e Shaw Contexto: _Anos 70 _Caso Watergate “The original agenda: the media tell us not what to think, but what to think about.”Maxwell McCombs “The mass media have the ability to transfer the salience of items on their news agenda to the public agenda.” Principais conceitos: _Agenda mediática _Agenda pública _Selecção Donald Shaw AGENDA-SETTING THEORY Agendamento Agenda-setting theory contrasted with the prevailing selective exposure hypothesis Reaffirming the power of the press while maintaining individual freedom. 3
  • 4. A Teoria do Agendamento – McCombs e Shaw“Agenda-setting theory contrasted with the prevailing selective exposure hypothesis, reaffirming the power of the press, while maintaining individual freedom ” freedom. _A teoria do agendamento estuda em particular as campanhas eleitorais AGENDA-SETTING THEORY AgendamentoThe hTh hypothesis predicts a cause-and-effect relationship b t th i di t d ff t l ti hi between media dicontent and voter perception, particularly a match between the media’s agenda and the public’s agenda later on. 4
  • 5. AGENDA-SETTING THEORY Agendamento Measure the media agenda Position and length of story as the primary criteria of prominence. Rankings provided by uncommitted voters aligned closely with the medias agenda. A Teoria do Agendamento – McCombs e Shaw“Media agenda and public agenda: a close match.”_1 Measurement of the media agenda 1 Criteria of prominence: position and length of story Ranking of major issues_2 Measurement of the public agenda Rankings of uncommitted voters Close match 5
  • 6. A Teoria do Agendamento – McCombs e Shaw“McCombs and Shaw believe that the hypothesized agenda-settingfunction of the media causes the correlation between the media andpublic ordering of priorities ” priorities.“Correlation does not prove causation.” Media da Public ub Agenda Agenda AGENDA-SETTING THEORY Agendamento Correlation does not prove causation Media Voters Voters Media 6
  • 7. AGENDA-SETTING THEORY Agendamento Quem Fixa a Agenda dos Agenda-setters? A. News editors or “gatekeepers” B. Politicians and spin doctors C. Public relations professionals D. “Interest aggregations” A Teoria do Agendamento – McCombs e ShawWho sets the agenda for the agenda setters? _News editors or “gatekeepers” _Politicians and spin doctors _Public relations professionals Public _“Interest aggregations” Agenda Agenda Agenda Política Mediática Pública 7
  • 8. AGENDA-SETTING THEORY Agendamento Who is most affected by the media agenda? Those susceptible have a high need for orientation Need for orientation arises from: - high relevance - uncertaintyA Teoria do Agendamento – McCombs e Shaw Two levels of agenda-setting: _1 Salience 1 _2 Framing “The media tell us not just what to think about, but how to think about it.” 8
  • 9. AGENDA-SETTING THEORY Agendamento Framing: transferring the salience of attributes Media influence the way we think ... sobre o que pensamos... ... o que pensamos... ... como pensamos... A Teoria do Agendamento – McCombs e Shaw“Throughout the last decade, McCombs has emphasized that the mediainfluence the way we think.” …sobre o que pensamos… sobre pensamos …como pensamos… como pensamos_FRAMING _”A media frame is the central organising idea for news contentthat supplies a context and suggests what the issue is through the use ofselection, emphasis, exclusion and elaboration.” _ _”Media not only set an agenda but also transfer the salience of y gspecific attributes to issues, events or candidates.” 9
  • 10. AGENDA-SETTING THEORY Agendamento Framing: transferring the salience of attributes F i t f i th li f tt ib t Media influence the way we think Central organizing idea for news content: context, selection, emphasis, exclusion, and elaboration. Media not only set an agenda but also transfer the salience of specific attributes to issues, events, or candidates. A Teoria do Agendamento – McCombs e Shaw“The media may not only tell us what to think about, they alsomay tell us how to think about it, and perhaps even what to do about it.”“Some findings suggest that media priorities affect people’s behaviour.” _Agenda-melding function of the media: Affects the way people identify with groups and join them 10
  • 11. A Teoria do Agendamento – McCombs e Shaw Conclusions_McCombs has considered agenda-setting a theory of limited mediaeffects but framing reopens the possibility of a powerful effects model._The term framing has been used in media studies in diverse and oftencontradictory ways_The agenda-setting theory reminds us that news stories are inherentlyartificial. 11