Wikibio100 3
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Wikibio100 3 Wikibio100 3 Presentation Transcript

  • DIVISIONS OF THE PLANT KINGDOM
          • Pinophyta -
          • The Gymnosperms
            • Pines, firs, spruces
            • Seed producing plants without flowers
          • Magnoliophyta -
          • The Angiosperms
            • Roses, orange tree
            • Seed producing plants with flowers
  • EVOLUTION OF PLANTS - GYMNOSPERMS
    • Gymnosperms
      • Evergreens
      • Produce seeds in a cone
      • All are perennial (live more than two years)
      • Do not produce flowers
      • Appeared about 300 million years ago near the end of the Paleozoic Era
    • Among some of the first gymnosperms as indicated by fossil records
      • Pines
      • Firs
      • Junipers
        • These gymnosperms flourished around 60-70 million years ago
    EVOLUTION OF PLANTS - GYMNOSPERMS
  • EVOLUTION OF PLANTS - ANGIOSPERMS
    • Angiosperms
      • Flowering plants
      • Seeds (ovaries) enclosed in a fruit or covering (carpel)
      • Began 150 million years ago during Mesozioc Era
    • Commonly known Angiosperms:
      • Grasses
      • Flowers
      • Vegetables
      • Shrubs
      • Cacti
      • Trees
    EVOLUTION OF PLANTS - GYMNOSPERMS
  • FIRST CULTIVATED FOOD CROPS: ALL ANGIOSPERMS SCIENCE. v.316. 6/29/07. p.1833
  • PLANTS THAT FEED THE WORLD
    • Very few plant species account for the world’s food production
    • All of them are angiosperms:
      • Cereal crops
      • Roots and tubers
      • Oil crops
      • Sugar
      • Fruit crops
      • Vegetable crops
  • CLASSES
    • Each Division can be separated into Classes:
      • Divison: Pinophyta (Gymnosperms)
      • Division: Magnoliophyta (Angiosperms)
        • Class: Magnoliopsida (dicots)
        • Class: Liliopsida (monocots)
  • COTYLEDON
    • Germination leaf
      • Often called a “seed leaf”
    • Gymnospersm
      • 2 -24 cotyledons
    • Angiosperms
      • One or two cotyledons
    Pine tree
  • COTYLEDON
    • Angiosperms
      • One or two cotyledons
    • Mono cotyledon = Monocot
      • One seed leaf
    • Di cotyledon = Dicot
      • Two seed leaves
  • STRUCTURE OF HIGHER PLANTS
    • Angiosperms
        • Monocot
          • Embryo with one cotyledon
        • Dicot
          • Embryo with two cotyledons
  • ANGIOSPERM: MONOCOT
    • One cotyledon at germination
    • Flower parts in pattern of three
    • Veins run parallel
    • Examples
      • Grasses
      • Palm trees
      • Grain crops
  • ANGIOSPERM - MONOCOT - CORN
    • As the name monocot implies, these plants have only a single cotyledon.
    • In corn and other grasses, the seed remains in the ground.
    ANGIOSPERM - MONOCOT - CORN
  • ANGIOSPERM: DICOT
    • Two cotyledons at germination
    • Flower parts pattern of four, five
    • Leaf veins not parallel, they are “netted”
    • Examples
      • Fruit trees
      • Cotton
      • Beans
      • Melons
  • ANGIOSPERM - DICOT - BEAN
    • As the name dicot indicates, bean plants have two cotyledons.
    cotyledons First “true” leaves
  • MONOCOT VS. DICOT
    • Seed with one cotyledon
    • Flower parts in threes or multiples of threes
    • Leaf with more or less parallel veins
    • Seed with two cotyledons
    • Flower parts mostly in fours or fives or multiples of four or five
    • Leaf with a distinct network of primary veins – “netted”
    • Monocot
    • dicot
  •  
  • PLANT FAMILIES
    • Groups of plants that are closely related are in the same family
    • Grouping based on structure, growth requirements, and flower similarities
  • MOST O’ODHAM CROPS ARE IN THE FAMILIES OF . . .
    • Poaceae:
    • Grains
      • Corn, wheat, barley etc.
    • Fabaceae:
    • Legumes
      • Baw ĭ, peas, garbanzos
    • Cucurbitaceae:
    • Cucurbits
      • Squash, watermelon, gourds
  • POACEAE GRAINS ARE GRASSES
    • Hollow or pithy, jointed stems
    • Leaves on 2 sides of stem
    • Parallel veins
    • Non-woody
    • Corn, sugarcane (sorghum), oats
    • Monocot or dicot??
    http://www.saguaro-juniper.com/i_and_i/grasses/heteropogon/heteropogon.html
  • FABACEAE LEGUMES
    • Many have compound pinnate leaves (opposite leaflets)
    • Seeds are in pods
    • Fix Nitrogen
    • Many have “Pea” like flowers
    • Monocot or dicot??
    Mesquite Ironwood Tepary bean
  • CUCURBITACEAE CUCURBITS
    • Most
      • Grow as vines
      • Have tendrils
      • Like hot weather
      • Separate male and female flowers on the same plant.
    • Watermelon, squash, honeydew, gourds, cucumber etc.
    • Monocot or dicot??
  • Male or Female?? Male or Female?? Male Female
    • Knowing which plant family a crop belongs to can help determine:
      • Nutrient requirements
      • Root structure
      • Insect attraction or resistance
      • Growth pattern
      • Reproduction
    PLANT FAMILIES
  • WINTER CROPS
    • Kalwaş (garbanzo)
    • Pilkañ (wheat)
    • Lanji (lentils)
    • Wihol (pea)
    • Huñ (corn)
    • Ha:l (squash)
    • Bawĭ (tepary beans)
    • Muñ (pinto beans)
    • Miloñ or Gepĭ (watermelon)
    • Ka:ño (sorghum)
    • Ke:li Ba:so (honeydew)
    • I'hug (devil’s claw)
    • Ko'okol (chile peppers)
    SUMMER CROPS TRADITIONAL TOHONO O’ODHAM CROPS
  • WINTER CROPS
    • Kalwaş (legume)
    • Pilkañ (grain)
    • Lanji (legume)
    • Wihol (legume)
    • Huñ (grain)
    • Ha:l (cucurbit)
    • Bawĭ (legume)
    • Muñ (legume)
    • Miloñ or Gepĭ (cucurbit)
    • Ka:ño (grain)
    • Ke:li Ba:so (cucurbit)
    • I'hug (Martyniaceae)
    • Ko'okol (solenaceae)
    SUMMER CROPS TRADITIONAL TOHONO O’ODHAM CROPS
  • Self-pollination Cross-pollination Perfect or complete flower
    • Cross pollination
    • Self pollination
    The majority of crop plants have the ability to do both, but . . . Most plants have the tendency to do one, or the other To know more about how crops pollinate (reproduce), we look at . . . FAMILY , G enus & s pecies
  • Phaseolus acutifolius Tepary bean Phaseolus vulgaris Pinto bean Genus Species Species Family - Fabaceae Variety Variety Variety Variety Variety Variety Variety Variety
  • Felis cattus Domestic cat Genus Species Species Family - Felidae Abyssinian Persian http://www.thecatsite.com/Cats/Cat_Breeds.html http://www.tigertouch.org/cats/blackfootedcat.html Black-footed cat + Felis nigripes Wild cat +
  • Canis familiaris Common dog Canis latrans Coyote Genus Species Species Family - Canidae Sheep dog Bull dog http://www.akc.org/index.cfm?nav_area=homepage http://wc.pima.edu/%7Ebfiero/tucsonecology/index.htm Coyote + +
  • SAME COLORED BOXES ARE THE SAME LEVEL OF
  • SAME-COLORED BOXES CAN CROSS-POLLINATE + + http://www.nativeseeds.org/v2/cat.php?catID=34 + +
  • http://www.nativeseeds.org/v2/cat.php?catID=14 + + + +
  • CUCURBIT ACEAE http://www.nativeseeds.org/v2/cat.php?catID=50# + = ??? Cucurbita argyrosperma Cucurbita argyrosperma Cucurbita argyrosperma
  • CUCURBIT ACEAE http://www.nativeseeds.org/v2/cat.php?catID=50# + = Cucurbita argyrosperma Cucurbita argyrosperma Cucurbita argyrosperma
  • SOLANACEAE + = ??? http://www.nativeseeds.org/v2/cat.php?catID=16&cp=2# Capsicum annuum Capsicum annuum Capsicum annuum
  • SOLANACEAE + = http://www.nativeseeds.org/v2/cat.php?catID=16&cp=2# Capsicum annuum Capsicum annuum Capsicum annuum
  • SOLANACEAE Capsicum annum Solanum melongena http://www.heirloomtomatoes.bizland.com/varieties.htm http://www.mariquita.com/images/photogallery/eggplant.rosa.growing.jpg http://www.hort.purdue.edu/ext/senior/vegetabl/pepper4.htm Pepper http://www.hort.purdue.edu/ext/senior/vegetabl/egg4.htm Eggplant +
  • PLANT ORGANS
    • Vegetative
      • Roots
      • Stems
      • Leaves
    • Reproductive
      • Flower
      • Seed
      • Fruit