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Wikibio100 2
 

Wikibio100 2

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    Wikibio100 2 Wikibio100 2 Presentation Transcript

        • interactions of organisms with one another (biological environment)
        • Includes the study of the ecosystem structure and function
        • Patterns and causes of abundance and distribution of organisms in nature
      Ecology: Study of relationships between organisms and their physical environment, including:
    • Interactions
    • Interactions
    • Vegetation protects the soil from washing away with the rains. Interactions
    • Patterns & abundance
    • Pure stands of creosote Patterns & abundance
    • Ecologist vs. Environmentalist
      • Is an ecologist an environmentalist?
      • No, not necessarily
      • An ecologist is a person (scientist, farmer, rancher) who studies how ecosystems work and the relationship between organisms and their environment
      • An environmentalist is an individual interested in the environment (and may or may not be a scientist)
      • Ecology is now considered a scientific discipline
    • History of Ecology
      • Roots of ecology go back to prehistory times when people’s health & survival depended on the ability to understand the ecology of plants and animals with great accuracy
    • History of Ecology
      • Ecology as a Western science
        • Began with Greeks in 4 th & 5 th centuries B.C.E.
        • Continued as modern science in 18 th & 19 th centuries as natural history (describing & cataloging organisms)
        • In 1866 a German biologist coined the term “oecologist” formed from Greek words:
          • Eco=“oikos”=house, environment
          • Logy-”logos”=study of
        • The Ecological Society of America formed in the early 20 th century
    • Ecology is an interdisciplinary science
      • Ecology is considered a branch of biology but is in reality an interdisciplinary science which includes some of the following sciences
      • Geology, geography, climatology, soil science, evolutionary biology, systematics, behavior, systematics, statistics, molecular biology & biochemistry
      • Ecology is a “synthetic” science which looks at the whole rather than “reductionist” which looks at the parts
    • Levels of organization in the living world: large scale to small scale
    • Biosphere Ecosystem Community Population Organism The sum total of living things on Earth and the areas they inhabit A functional system consisting of a community, its nonliving environment, and the interactions between them A set of populations of different species living together in a particular area A group of individuals of the same species that live in a particular area at the same time An individual living thing
    • Levels of Organization
      • Organism
      • An individual living thing
    • Levels of Organization 2. Population A group of individuals of the same species that live in a particular area at the same time
    • Levels of Organization
      • 3. Community
        • A set of populations of different species living together in a particular area
    • Levels of Organization
      • 4. Ecosystem
        • A functional system consisting of a community (many populations), its nonliving environment, and the interactions between them
    • Principles of Ecology
      • Range of tolerance
      • Habitat & niche
      • Competitive exclusion principle
      • Carrying capacity
      • Population growth
      • Biological succession
    • Principles of Ecology
      • Range of tolerance
        • The range of variability in a particular physical factor that an organism can withstand
      • Habitat & niche
      • Competitive exclusion principle
      • Carrying capacity
      • Population growth
      • Biological succession
    • Range of Tolerance Where?? Where?? Where?? Where?? Where??
    • Range of Tolerance
      • Limiting Factors
        • All it takes is one single factor to be outside of the range of tolerance to limit population growth
        • This factor is called the limiting factor
      Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
    • Range of tolerance
      • Limiting factor for Ha:sañ
        • Too cold (freezing temperatures) N & E
        • Too dry W & SW
        • Competition with other plants to the S
        • JUST RIGHT in orange outline
    • Principles of Ecology
      • Law of tolerance
      • Habitat & niche
        • Habitat is where an organism lives
          • Adequate food, water, shelter etc. for survival
        • Niche is what role an organism plays within an ecosystem
      • Competitive exclusion principle
      • Carrying capacity
      • Population growth
      • Biological succession
    • Niche
      • Specialists versus Generalists
        • Plants and animals with narrow tolerance ranges and/or specific dietary constraints, etc. = Specialists
        • Plants and animals with wide variety of habitats, foods, etc = Generalists
      Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
    • Ecological niche
      • Specialist vs. Generalist
      http://helios.bto.ed.ac.uk/bto/desbiome/coyote.htm Coyote Mexican Grey Wolf
      • Which is more prone to extinction?
        • The wolf – a specialist (carnivore)?
        • The coyote – a generalist (omnivore)?
      Mexican Grey Wolf Answer: Wolf
    • Habitat & Niche http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/image/c/cagi7-wpnurse-tree14456.htm
    • Ecology I: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
    • Principles of Ecology
      • Law of tolerance
      • Habitat & niche
      • Competitive exclusion principle
        • If two different populations of organisms occupy the same habitat and niche, they cannot coexist indefinitely
      • Carrying capacity
      • Population growth
      • Biological succession
    • Competitive exclusion principle http://www.reptilesofaz.com/herp-lizards.html http://www.reptilesofaz.com/herp-lizards.html
    • Competitive exclusion principle OR . . . . http://www.reptilesofaz.com/herp-lizards.html http://www.reptilesofaz.com/herp-lizards.html
    • Competitive exclusion principle http://www.reptilesofaz.com/herp-lizards.html http://www.reptilesofaz.com/herp-lizards.html
    • Share some of the same habitat and niche – organisms & populations can coexist http://www.reptilesofaz.com/herp-lizards.html http://www.reptilesofaz.com/herp-lizards.html
    • Principles of Ecology
      • Law of tolerance
      • Habitat & niche
      • Competitive exclusion principle
      • Carrying capacity
        • The ability of a habitat to sustain a population of organisms indefinitely
      • Population growth
      • Biological succession
    • Carrying Capacity http://www.biologycorner.com/bio2/notes_chap16.html
    • What is the carrying capacity of Earth?
      • Paul Ehrlich’s “The Population Bomb”
        • How many humans can live on Earth?
      http://fig.cox.miami.edu/Faculty/Dana/humanpopgrowth.gif
    • Principles of Ecology
      • Law of tolerance
      • Habitat & niche
      • Competitive exclusion principle
      • Carrying capacity
      • Population growth
        • How fast a population of organisms grows in relation to the resources available to sustain that population
      • Biological succession
    • Population terms
      • Size
        • # of individuals in a population
      • Density
        • # of individuals per given area
      • Distribution
        • Uniform, clumped, or random
    • Population terms
      • Size
        • # of individuals in a population
      Large population Small population
    • Population terms
      • Density
        • # of individuals per given area
      Dense population Sparse population
    • Population terms
      • Distribution
        • Uniform, clumped, or random
      Clumped Uniform Random
    • Changes in population
      • Linear
        • Changes each year by a fixed amount
      0 100 1 year 10 years
    • Changes in population
      • Exponential
        • Population increases by a percentage each year
    • Changes in population
      • Logistic
        • Population increases quickly, then slows down
        • Carrying capacity curve
    • Principles of Ecology
      • Law of tolerance
      • Habitat & niche
      • Competitive exclusion principle
      • Carrying capacity
      • Population growth
      • Biological succession
        • When one community of organisms is replaced by a different community of organisms in a relatively predictable way
    • Biological succession
      • What will grow first on the cooled lava flow (black rocks)?
      Biological succession http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Rangitotolavapath.jpg
      • What will grow first on this logged forest?
    • Interrelationships
      • Mutualism : both gain
      • Predation : predator gains, prey loses
      • Parasitism : parasite gains, host loses
      • Competition : both lose
      • Commensalism : one species benefits; the other is unaffected
      • Biological environment & ecology = interrelationships
    • Different ways to get along, or not get along Predation + - Competition - - Parasitism + - Commensalism + o Mutualism + +
      • + = benefit
      • = harmed
      • 0 = unaffected
    • Mutualism Which Type? Both gain
    • Competition Which Type? Both the bobcat and coyote lose
    • Parasitism Which Type? The parasite gains, the host loses
    • Predation Which Type? Predator gains, Prey loses
    • Commensalism Which Type? Snake gains home, rodent unaffected (hole abandoned long ago)
    • Mutualism Which Type? Both gain
    • Competition Which Type? Both lose available soil moisture
    • Levels of organization in the living world
      • Ecosystems :
        • Ecosystems are the starting point to understand many ecological relationships.
    • Levels of organization in the living world
      • Ecosystems :
        • Includes physical factors such as climate, water, minerals and sunlight as well as biotic factors such as organisms
        • Ecosystems are the fundamental operational unit of ecology
    • Structure of ecosystems
      • Energy source
      • Physical environment
      • Producers
      • Consumers
      • Decomposers
    • Ecosystem Structure
      • Energy source
        • Mostly sunlight
        • Geothermal
      http://www.bbc.co.uk/northyorkshire/content/image_galleries/january06_gallery.shtml?18
    • Ecosystem Structure
      • Energy source
      • Physical environment
        • Air, water, soil, climate etc.
    • Ecosystem Structure
      • Energy source
      • Physical environment
      • Producers
        • Make their own food
        • Photosynthetic plants, algae & bacteria
    • PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photo + Synthesis (Light) (to make) To make carbohydrates using CO 2 & H 2 O and light .
    • http://grapevine.net.au/~grunwald/une/KLAs/science/photosynthesis.html
    • Photosynthesis is . . .
      • . . . The beginning of energy flow through the environment.
      http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/CoopExt/SEA/Tim/017energyflowinecosystem.jpg
    • Ecosystem Structure
      • Energy source
      • Physical environment
      • Producers
      • Consumers
        • Eat other living things
    • Consumers Herbivores (vegetarian)
      • Eats plants almost exclusively
        • Cow
        • Seed-eating bird
        • Grasshopper
        • Any others???
    • Consumers Carnivores
      • Eats meat (can include insects) almost exclusively
        • Mountain lion
        • Lizard
        • Hawk
        • Any others???
      http://www.sangabrielvalleymenus.com/tacoking/tacokingcitrus.htm Carne vore Asada
      • Eats plants and animals
        • Bears
        • Pigs
        • Roadrunners
        • Racoons
        • Any others???
      Consumers Omnivores http://www.custommadebears.com/blog/
    • Ecosystem Structure
      • Energy source
      • Physical environment
      • Producers
      • Consumers
      • Decomposers
        • Eat waste material and things that have died
    • Decomposers (Sometimes called detritus feeders, scavengers, or parasites)
      • Any organism that gets its energy and nutrients from
        • Animal wastes
        • Dead bodies of plants and animals
      • Includes:
        • Bacteria, fungi, termites, maggots, some fish (catfish), vultures
        • Any others???
    • Ecosystem Structure
      • Energy source
        • Usually sunlight
      • Physical environment
        • Air, water, soil, climate etc.
      • Producers
        • Make their own food
        • Photosynthetic plants, algae & bacteria
      • Consumers
        • Eat other living things
      • Decomposers
        • Eat waste material and things that have died
      • All ecosystem interactions depend on
        • Flow of energy
        • Cycling of matter
      • What does this mean?
      Ecosystem functions
    • 1. Flow of energy producers decomposers consumers heat Light
    • 2. Matter cycling Biosphere Heat Carbon Nitrogen Sulfer Phosphorous Oxygen Water Insert thermodynamics slides here Sun
    • Matter cycling in ecosystems Also called . . . . .? ? ? ? ?
    • Bio geo chemical cycles
      • Elemental cycles
        • 4 major elements in living things
          • Carbon, Oxygen. Hydrogen, Nitrogen
        • These 4 elements make up over 96% of most organism’s mass (our bodies are ≈ 60 – 65% H 2 O)
      • Hydrologic cycle
        • How water moves through the earth & atmosphere
      Biosphere Carbon Nitrogen Sulfer Phosphorous Oxygen Water
    • (Hydrologic)
    • Hydrologic Cycle
      • Water storage
      • Moving water on, in, and above the Earth
      • Never ending cycle of water between the Earth & the atmosphere
      ABOVE ON IN
    • Hydrologic Cycle Powered By: Solar Energy Gravity &
      • E vapor ation
        • gravity or solar energy?
      • Precipitation
        • gravity or solar energy?
    • Hail Hail Hail Hail Hail Hail Hail Hail Hail Hail Hail Hail fog fog fog fog fog fog fog fog fog fog fog fog
    • Precipitation - Any form of water that falls from the atmosphere. Hail Hail Hail Hail Hail Hail fog fog fog fog fog fog
    • Water appears in all 3 of its phases at different times during the hydrologic cycle
      • Solid
        • Ice, hail, snow, frost, glaciers, ice caps
      • Liquid
        • Rain, mist, dew, clouds
      • Gas
        • Water vapor
    • Once on Earth, water does one of three things
      • Stays on the surface & mixes with surface water (including ice & snow)
      • Infiltrates into the ground
      • Moves back into the atmosphere
    • Components of the Water Cycle – Water features in the landscape
      • Oceans
      • Lakes
      • Rivers
      • Glaciers
      • Groundwater etc.
      Processes of the Water Cycle – Water motion or movement
      • Water Flow
      • Evaporation
      • Precipitation etc.
    • Distribution of Earth’s water http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/earthwherewater.html
    • http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/earthwherewater.html
    • Groundwater vs. Surface water
      • Groundwater
      • Any water that is found beneath the Earth’s surface.
      • Surface water
      • Any water that is found on the Earth’s surface
        • Lakes
        • Rivers
        • Ocean
        • Snow
        • Glaciers
      Groundwater storage in the US far exceeds all surface water storage in streams, rivers, reservoirs, lakes etc.
    • Petersen, J. “Seminar on Water”. Sells, AZ. 9/14/04 Reservoir Volume (cubic km x 1,000,000) Percent of Total Oceans 1370 97.25 Ice Caps and Glaciers 29 2.05 Groundwater 9.5 0.68 Lakes 0.125 0.01 Soil Moisture 0.065 0.005 Atmosphere 0.013 0.001 Streams and Rivers 0.0017 0.0001 Biosphere 0.0006 0.00004
    • Water Storage
      • In the Earth
      • On the Earth
      • Above the Earth
      Petersen, J. “Seminar on Water”. Sells, AZ. 9/14/04 Oceans 37,000 years Charco several months to years Atmosphere 9 – 12 days   Reservoir Average Residence Time   Glaciers   40 years   Seasonal Snow Cover   0.4 years   Soil Moisture   0.2 years   Groundwater: Shallow   200 years   Groundwater: Deep   10,000 + years   Lakes   100 years   Rivers   0.04 years
    • Atmospheric moisture http://www.atmo.arizona.edu/gifs/VAPORC.GIF http://www.atmo.arizona.edu/products/wximagery/globalwv.html global moisture movie
    • Glacier http://www.jimwegryn.com/Photos/Photos.htm
    • water storage in ice & snow during ice age http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/earthglacier.html
    • Current water storage in ice & snow Reproduced from National Geographic WORLD (February 1977, no. 18, p. 6) with permission http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/earthglacier.html
    • Have you paid your ecosystem today?
      • Ecosystem services
        • Filtrates & assimilates pollutants to help clean air and water
        • Modulates climate
        • Helps control erosion
        • Breaks down and assimilates waste
          • helps fix Nitrogen
          • forms topsoil
          • aerates soil
          • water infiltration etc.
        • Provides habitat (food, water, shelter) for plants & animals