Breeding and engineering non-Breeding and engineering non-food crops for biodieselfood crops for biodieselAgricultural Research Organization (VOLCANI Center)P.O.B. 6, Bet-Dagan, 50250 IsraelTel: +972-3-9683111 / Fax: +972-3-9665327State of Israel/Ministry of Agriculture and Rural DevelopmentARO – Agricultural Research OrganizationYedidya Gafni – Institute of Plant Sciences
Bio-FuelsBio-Fuels• Type of Renewable Energy (derived from the Sun).• Biofuels are liquid fuels made from esters, alcohols, ethers,and other biomass chemicals (Source: US Dept. of EnergySource: US Dept. of Energy).• Common biofuels include: ethanol and biodiesel.• Ethanol is made from starches / sugars.• Biodiesel is an ester made from vegetable oils, animal fatsor other types of biomass.
BiodieselBiodiesel (bio-petroleum diesel(bio-petroleum diesel))• B100 = 100% biodiesel / B20 = 20% / B5 = 5% / B2 = 2%• Production process: Transesterification (of oil)• Main crops used for producing biodiesel:• Rapeseed (Europe)• Soybean (US)• Jatropha (Africa, India)• Castor Bean (Africa, China, S. America)• Palm Oil (Tropical areas)• More• Other oil-enriched crops: Coconut, Brazil nuts, Jojoba, Peanuts,Cotton seed, Sunflower, and many more.
Schematic of the Transesterification processSchematic of the Transesterification process
BIODIESEL – Final ProductBIODIESEL – Final ProductBiodiesel 100%Glycerin
Energy CropR&DFarmingOilseedMealCrushingCrop OilBiodiesel ProductionBiodieselMarketGlycerinFrom the Farmer to the Fuel Tank
Higher cetane Greater lubricity Superior detergency Higher flash point More mileage Greater horsepower Less smoke Smoother running engines Quicker starts Longer engine life Reduced maintenanceBenefitsFeaturesBioDiesel – A better fuel vs. Diesel
Biodiesel AdvantagesBiodiesel Advantages• Produced from renewable materials – eco friendly / closed CO cycle.• Local & self production – less reliance on foreign oil.• Contains practically no sulfur (0.001%) – non toxic.• Considerably decreases emissions (up to 50%).• Easily decomposes – does not harm soil or ground water.• Biodiesel is not hazardous material (flashpoint above 110°C).• Eligible as fuels under international standards & specifications (world-wide).• Eligible for CDM (Clean Development Mechanism - Kyoto Treaty).• More…2
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) –Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) –Carbon Credits (CERCarbon Credits (CER((“.. the mechanism of the Kyoto TreatyKyoto Treaty (CDM) is now in force toreduce industrial & commercial greenhouse gas emissions –planting of bio-fuel crops may well create carbon sinks thatcan earn cash through their sale of emissions credits topolluting industries in developed countries.”The potential of acquiring GHG reductions, in the form of CER, forbio-diesel projects is about 3 tons of CO reduction per year (3 CER)for every ton of petroleum replaced.Current price for 1 CER is about US$ 5 - 7.2
Biodiesel DrawbacksBiodiesel Drawbacks• Biodiesel can be corrosive to rubber materials.• Biodiesel is not necessarily more economic thanregular diesel. Depend on the plants, theirDepend on the plants, theirrelated processes and, other incentives.related processes and, other incentives.• Biodiesel can last up to 6 months. In 6-12months need to be treated.
Biodiesel Refineries / Plants (EUBiodiesel Refineries / Plants (EU((75%of total biodiesel production belong to 4 corporations:ADM (Archer Daniels Midland), Cargill, Bunge & Saipol
US – Existing BD PlantsUS – Existing BD Plants
The EU Biodiesel MarketThe EU Biodiesel MarketTotal European Biodiesel Market: Unit Shipment and Revenue Forecasts (Europe(, 1997-20070500100015002000250030001997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007YearRevenues($Million(00.511.522.533.544.55Units(MillionTonnes(Revenues ($ Million( Units (Million Tonnes(Source: European Biodiesel Board, 2006
World Production of Biodiesel2005 - 20102005Western Europe (D, FR, IT, UK, etc.) –main producers and consumers – 75% ofworldEastern Europe & N. America – 2ndlargest marketsAsia – although significant market yet,relatively small2010Western Europe (D, FR, IT, UK) – mainproducers and consumers – 38% of worldAsia – will become the 2ndlargest market(China, India – consumption & production(Eastern Europe & N. America – 3rdlargestmarkets, with US as the single largestconsumer – 18% of world75%38%30%US –18%Source:BiodieselBiodiesel20202020GlobalMarketSurvey,Oct. 2006
Biodiesel – Crops & YieldsBiodiesel – Crops & YieldsCropKgoil/haLitersoil/haUSgal/acreOil ContentCastor beans 1188 1413 151 50% - 55%Coconut 2260 2689 287 70%Corn (maize) 145 172 18 12%Cotton 273 325 35 13% - 15%Jatropha 1590 1892 202 30% - 35%Palm oil 5000 5950 635 35%Peanuts 890 1059 113 36%Rapeseed 1000 1190 127 37%Soybean 375 446 48 15%Sunflower 800 952 102 32%Source: www.journeyforever.com – Jan. 2007 – This data is compiled from a wide variety of sources.The yield figures are most useful as comparative estimates, crop yields vary widely.
ARO & BiodieselARO & BiodieselThe ARO (also known as ‘The VOLCANI Center‘The VOLCANI Center‘)aims at becoming the ultimate knowledge baseregarding complete Seed – to – Harvest processesof two selected plant types:Jatropha curcasJatropha curcas and Castor beanCastor bean
• Jatropha curcas -small shrub native ofC. America and amember of theEuphorbia family, it isa drought-resistantperennial, living up to50 years and growingon marginal soils.• Oil content: ~35%• Oil: Not Edible.• Other oil uses: None• Castor bean - drought-resistant, annual plant oftropical origin withimmense spread-out. Theplant can grow between 2to 5 m.• Oil: soluble in alcohol (noheat) – fit for biodiesel• Oil content: ~55%• Oil: Not Edible (high levelof Ricinoleic Acid – 85%).• Other oil uses: Over 700
The Research TeamThe Research TeamProf. Yedidya GafniProf. Yedidya Gafni – Head of TeamHead of Team..In charge of developing tissue culture & transformationprotocols.Dr. Yiftach VakninDr. Yiftach Vaknin – In charge of the Jatropha curcasproject..Dr. Oren OstersetzerDr. Oren Ostersetzer – In charge of the Castor beanproject..Dr. Samuel Gan-MorDr. Samuel Gan-Mor – In charge of developingmechanical harvesting machines.Prof. Dani ShteinbergProf. Dani Shteinberg – In charge of the studies of plantdiseases.Dr. Asher Bar-TalDr. Asher Bar-Tal – In charge of the studies of soilchemistry and plant nutrition and fertilization.
AROsAROs Biodiesel Plants – Package of KnowledgeBiodiesel Plants – Package of Knowledge include ICMinclude ICM(Integrated Crop Management) & complete research on the following process(Integrated Crop Management) & complete research on the following process::Jatropha curcasSuperior VarietiesDevelopmentComplete Cultivation ProcessHarvest & Post HarvestIP ProtectionComplete Field Support--------SeedsGrowthYieldHarvest ...Castor beanSuperior VarietiesDevelopmentComplete Cultivation ProcessHarvest & Post HarvestIP ProtectionComplete Field Support--------SeedsGrowthYieldHarvest ...Genetics & BreedingGenetics & Breeding--------Seed / TissuesWater & SoilWater & SoilTechnologiesTechnologies--------Growth (cultivation)Phytopathology &Phytopathology &EntomologyEntomology--------Growth (cultivation)MechanizationMechanizationEngineeringEngineering--------Harvest, Collection &Post-Harvest
ARO – Advantages for BD CropsARO – Advantages for BD Crops• Unique & patented (PBR) varieties with superior characteristics for:– Fast growth rate.– Better yields.– Increased oil content (in the seeds).– Regulated fruition and harvest (opposed to wild, un-regulated fruition).– Lower toxicity of Castor bean plants (the oil is non-toxic).– Complete match to various climates, soil type & composition, water, etc.– Pre-determined plants shape & size – suitable for mechanical harvesting.– High resistance to pests & diseases.• Development of mechanical harvesting machinery.• Complete professional support and guidance in cultivation of PilotPlantation – at any locationat any location of potential project.
What can genetic engineeringWhat can genetic engineeringcontribute?contribute?• Make plants give higher oil yields for making biodiesel• Enhance the oxidative stability of the oil• Render plants resistant to biotic stress• Resistance to viruses (ACMV?), fungi, bacterialdiseases, nematodes and insects and more.• Render plants resistant to abiotic stress• Salinity, drought, heat, cold marginal soils andmore.•Control plants height for mechanical harvesting
Regeneration of Jatrophacurcas in tissue culture