Like this presentation? Why not share!

# 6. risk return

## by AfiqEfendy Zaen, Photographer, IT Executive at Northern of Malaysia University on Feb 02, 2013

• 566 views

### Views

Total Views
566
Views on SlideShare
566
Embed Views
0

Likes
0
34
0

No embeds

### Categories

Uploaded via SlideShare as Microsoft PowerPoint

## 6. risk returnPresentation Transcript

• Learning Objectives 1. Define and measure the expected rate of return of an individual investment. 2. Define and measure the riskiness of an individual investment. 3. Compare the historical relationship between risk and rates of return in the capital markets. © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-2
• Learning Objectives 4. Explain how diversifying investments affects the riskiness and expected rate of return of a portfolio or combination of assets. 5. Explain the relationship between an investor’s required rate of return on an investment and the riskiness of the investment. © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-3
• Slide Contents Principles used in this chapter 1. Expected return 2. Risk Defined and Measured 3. Rates of Return: The Investor’s Experience 4. Risk and Diversification 5. The Investor’s Required Rate of Return © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-4
• Principles Applied in this Chapter  Principle 3: Risk requires a reward.  Principle 1: Cash flow is what matters. © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-5
• 1. Expected Return 1.1 Historical or holding-period or realized rate of return Holding period return = payoff during the “holding” period. Holding period could be one day, few weeks or few years. © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-6
• Expected Return  You bought 1 share of HPD for \$19.70 in May 2008 and sold it for \$32.32 in May 2009. The company paid divided of 8 cents every quarter during the last two years.  Holding Period dollar gain, DG = 32.32 + .08*4 – 19.70 = \$12.94 © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-7
• Expected Return Holding Period rate of return = 12.94/19.70 = .6568 or 65.68% © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-8
• Expected Return 1.2 Expected Cash Flows and Expected Return  The expected benefits or returns, an investment generates come in the form of cash flows.  Cash flows are used to measure returns (not accounting profits). © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-9
• Expected Return  The expected cash flow is the weighted average of the possible cash flows outcomes such that the weights are the probabilities of the occurrence of the various states of the economy.  Expected Cash flow (X) = ΣPbi*CFi  Where Pbi = probabilities of outcome i  CFi = cash flows in outcome i © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-10
• Measuring the Expected Cash Flow and Expected Return State of the Probability Cash flow % Return (Cash economy of the states from the Flow/Inv. Cost) investment Economic 20% \$1,000 10% Recession (\$1,000/\$10,000) Moderate 30% 1,200 12% Economic (\$1,200/\$10,000) Growth Strong 50% 1,400 14% Economic (\$1,400/\$10,000) Growth © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-11
• Expected Cash flow equation © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-12
• Expected Cash Flow  Expected Cash flow = ΣPbi*CFi = .2*1000 + .3*1200 + .5*1400 = \$1,260 on \$1,000 investment © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-13
• Expected Rate of Return  We can also determine the % expected return on \$1,000 investment. Expected Return is the weighted average of all the possible returns, weighted by the probability that each return will occur.  Expected Return (%) = ΣPbi*ri  Where Pbi = probabilities of outcome i  ri = expected % return in outcome i © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-14
• Expected Rate of Return © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-15
• Expected Rate of Return  Expected Return (%) = ΣPbi*ri  Where Pi = probabilities of outcome i  ki = expected % return in outcome i = .2(10%) + .3(12%) + .5(14%) = 12.6% © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-16
• 2. Risk Defined and Measured Three important questions: 1. What is risk? 2. How do we measure risk? 3. Will diversification reduce the risk of portfolio? © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-17
• 2. Risk Defined and Measured 2.1 Risk Defined  Risk refers to potential variability in future cash flows.  The wider the range of possible future events that can occur, the greater the risk.  Thus the returns on common stock is more risky than returns from investing in savings account in a bank. © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-18
• 2. Risk Defined and Measured 2.2 Risk Measurement Example Two Investment Options: 1. Invest in Treasury bill that offers a 3% annual return. 2. Invest in stock of a local publishing company with an expected return of 15% based on the payoffs (given on next slide). © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-19
• Probability of Payoffs Probability Rate of Return Treasury Bill 100% 3% Stock 10% 0% 20% 5% 40% 15% 20% 25% 10% 30% © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-20
• Probability of Payoffs Expected return  T. Bill = 1*3% =3%  Stock = .1*0 + .2*5% + .4*15% + .2*25% + .1*30% = 15% © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-21
• Figure 6-1 Treasury bill versus Stock © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-22
• Figure 6-1 Treasury bill versus Stock  We observe from Figure 6-1 that the stock of publishing company is more risky but it also offers the potential of a higher payoff. © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-23
• Standard deviation (S.D.)  Standard deviation (S.D.) is one way to measure risk. It measures the volatility or riskiness of portfolio returns.  S.D. = square root of the weighted average squared deviation of each possible return from the expected return. © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-24
• Equation 6-5 © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-25
• Table 6-2 © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-26
• Comments on S.D.  There is 66.67% probability that the actual returns will fall between 5.78% and 24.22% (= 15% ± 9.22%). So actual returns are far from certain!  Risk is relative; thus whether 9.22% is high or low risk, we need to compare the S.D. of this stock to the S.D. of other investment alternatives.  To get the full picture, we need to consider not only the S.D. but also the expected return.  The choice of particular investment depends on investor’s attitude to risk. © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-27
• 3. Rates of Return: The Investor’s experience (1926–2008) Figure 6-2 shows: A. The direct relationship between risk and return B. Only common stocks provide a reasonable hedge against inflation. The study also observed that between 1926– 2008, large stocks had negative returns in 23 out of 83 years, while treasury bills generated negative returns in only 1 year. © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-28
• Figure 6-2 © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-29
• 4. Risk and Diversification 4.1 Portfolio  Portfolio refers to combining several assets.  Examples of portfolio:  Investing in multiple financial assets (stocks – \$6000, bonds – \$3000, T-bills – \$1000)  Investing in multiple items from single market (example – investing in 30 different stocks) © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-30
• 4. Risk and Diversification 4.2 Diversifying away the risk in a Portfolio  Total risk of Portfolio is due to two types of Risk:  Systematic (or Market risk) is risk that affects all firms (ex. Tax rate changes, war)  Unsystematic (or company unique risk) is risk that affects only a specific firm (ex. Labor strikes, CEO change)  Only non-systematic risk can be reduced or eliminated through effective diversification (Figure 6-3) © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-31
• Total Risk & unsystematic risk decline as securities are added © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-32
• Total Risk & unsystematic risk decline as securities are added  The main motive for holding multiple assets or creating a portfolio of stocks (called diversification) is to reduce the overall risk exposure. The degree of reduction depends on the correlation among the assets.  If two stocks are perfectly positively correlated, diversification has no effect on risk.  If two stocks are perfectly negatively correlated, the portfolio is perfectly diversified. © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-33
• Total Risk & unsystematic risk decline as securities are added  Thus while building a portfolio, we should pick securities/assets that have negative or low positive correlation to attain diversification benefits. © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-34
• Total Risk & unsystematic risk decline as securities are added 4.3 Measuring Market Risk: Google versus S&P 500 Table 6-3 and Figure 6-4 displays the monthly returns for Google and S&P500 for the 12 months ending May 2009. © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-35
• Table 6-3 © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-36
• Figure 6-4 © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-37
• Equation 6-6 © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-38
• Equations 6-7 and 6-8 © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-39
• Total Risk & unsystematic risk decline as securities are added (cont).  Both Google and overall market declined during 2008 and 2009. The average monthly return for Google and S&P500 index was –1.3% and –2.2% respectively.  Google has relatively higher risk compared to S&P500 (SD of 9.9% versus 8.3%).  There is a moderate positive relationship between the returns of Google and S&P500 (See Figure 6-5). © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-40
• Total Risk & unsystematic risk decline as securities are added (cont).  The relationship between Google and S&P500 is captured in Figure 6-5.  Characteristic line is the “line of best fit” for all the stock returns relative to returns of S&P500.  The slope of the characteristic line (= .68) measures the average relationship between a stock’s returns and those of the S&P 500 Index Returns. This slope (called beta) is a measure of the firm’s market risk i.e. Google’s returns are .68 times as volatile on average as those of the overall market. © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-41
• Interpreting Beta  Beta is the risk that remains for a company even after we have diversified our portfolio.  A stock with a Beta of 0 has no systematic risk  A stock with a Beta of 1 has systematic risk equal to the “typical” stock in the marketplace  A stock with a Beta exceeding 1 has systematic risk greater than the “typical” stock  Most stocks have betas between .60 and 1.60. Note, the value of beta is highly dependent on the methodology and data used. © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-42
• Portfolio Beta  Portfolio beta indicates the percentage change on average of the portfolio for every 1 percent change in the general market. βportfolio= Σ wj*βj Where wj = % invested in stock j βi= Beta of stock j © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-43
• Equation 6-10 © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-44
• Figure 6-7 Portfolio Beta © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-45
• 4.4 Risk and Diversification Demonstrated  The market rewards diversification.  Through effective diversification, we can lower risk without sacrificing expected returns and we can increase expected returns without having to assume more risk. © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-46
• Asset Allocation  Asset allocation refers to diversifying among different kinds of asset types (such as treasury bills, corporate bonds, common stocks).  Asset allocation decision has to be made today – the payoff in the future will depend on the mix chosen before, which cannot be changed. Hence asset allocation decision is considered the “most important decision” while managing an investment portfolio. © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-47
• Asset Allocation Example  In 2002, \$1,000 invested in stock market will have earned less than \$1,000 invested in banks  In 2003, \$1,000 in stocks will have earned higher returns  History shows asset allocation matters and that taking high risk does not always pay off!!!  Of course, decision has to be made today for the future and that is why “asset allocation” decision determines who will be the “winners”© 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights in the financial market!!!reserved. 6-48
• Historical Returns in the US Market: 1926–2000  Treasury Bills 3.9%  Government Bonds 5.6%  Corporate Bonds 6.0%  Common Stocks 13.0% (S&P 500)  Small company stocks 17.3% © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-49
• Asset allocation example  Determine the final value of the portfolio based on the following two portfolios with a 75-year time horizon. Use the average returns from the previous slide and \$1m initial investment.  Conservative investor– invests 20% in Tbills, 40% in Govt. bonds and 40% in Corporate Bonds  Aggressive investor – invests 10% in Tbills, 50% in small company stocks and 40% in common stocks © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-50
• Asset allocation matters!  Return = Σ Weightj*Return%j  Conservative investor = 5.42%  Aggressive investor = 14.24%  Final Value = \$1m(1 + i)75  Conservative = \$52,387,284.93  Aggressive = \$21,695,246,174.70 © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-51
• Figure 6-8 © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-52
• Asset allocation matters!  We observe the following from Figure 6-8:  Direct relationship between risk and return: As we move from an all-stock portfolio to a mix of stocks and bonds to an all bond- portfolio, both risk and return decline.  Holding period matters: As we increase the holding period, risk declines. © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-53
• 5. The Investor’s Required Rate Return 5.1 Required Rate of Return  Investor’s required rate of returns is the minimum rate of return necessary to attract an investor to purchase or hold a security.  This definition considers the opportunity cost of funds i.e. the foregone return on the next best investment. © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-54
• Investor’s Required Rate of Return © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-55
• Risk-Free Rate  This is the required rate of return or discount rate for risk-less investments.  Risk-free rate is typically measured by U.S. Treasury bill rate. © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-56
• Risk Premium  Additional return we must expect to receive for assuming risk.  As the level of risk increases, we will demand additional expected returns. © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-57
• Measuring the Required Rate of Return © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-58
• Capital Asset Pricing Model  CAPM equation equates the expected rate of return on a stock to the risk-free rate plus a risk premium for the systematic risk.  CAPM provides for an intuitive approach for thinking about the return that an investor should require on an investment, given the asset’s systematic or market risk. © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-59
• Capital Asset Pricing Model  If the required rate of return for the market portfolio rm is 12%, and the rf is 5%, the risk premium for the market would be 7%.  This 7% risk premium would apply to any security having systematic (nondiversifiable) risk equivalent to the general market, or beta of 1.  In the same market, a security with Beta of 2 would provide a risk premium of 14%. © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-60
• CAPM CAPM suggests that Beta is a factor in determining the required returns. © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-61
• CAPM example Market risk = 12% Risk-free rate = 5% Required return = 5% + Beta * (12% - 5%) If Beta = 0 Required return = 5% If Beta = 1 Required return = 12% If Beta = 2 Required return = 19% © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-62
• The Security Market Line (SML)  SML is a graphic representation of the CAPM, where the line shows the appropriate required rate of return for a given stock’s systematic risk. © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-63
• The Security Market Line © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-64
• Figure 6-5 © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-65
• Figure 6-6 © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-66
• Table 6-1 © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rightsreserved. 6-67
• Key Terms  Asset allocation  Portfolio beta  Beta  Required rate of return  Capital Asset Pricing Model  Risk (CAPM)  Risk-free rate of return  Characteristics line  Company-unique risk  Risk premium  Diversifiable risk  Security market line  Expected rate of return  Standard deviation  Holding-period return  Systematic risk  Market risk  Unsystematic risk © 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights  Nondiversifiable riskreserved. 6-68