The third root afrolatino culture


Published on

July 2012 - Presentation on Afro-Latino Culture.

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • During my academic formation, I was presented with the assumption that the Latin American identity has three separate and distinct roots: the European, the indigenous, and the African. We all agree that many countries are far richer for their multiethnic heritage. However the dream of mestizaje has not come yet a reality, because we have not had the integrity and courage to acknowledge the black presence of our people with their traditions and flavor in our savory cultural stew. Our countries should consider how it narrates its entire history from school curricula to national holidays to inclusion in the media and political life to attain visibility and voice. It should embrace its rich African legacy, study it in the classroom, and celebrate it. Instead we should think about Latin American culture as a tangled, proliferating growth, without beginning or end, containing within its infinite possibilities of interactive transformation, the recognition of contact and plurality of multiple processes where all the elements of Latin culture interact with each other to be transformed. The process of mestizaje then becomes a much more complex process.
  • The quote suggests a degree of invisibility. The contributions made by Afrolatinos have been central to the shaping of Latin American societies, but it hasn’t been always recognized. When Latin American nations declared independence, the legacy of colonialism in the ruling elites preserved the ideas of racial inferiority. Ex. School curriculum. I was never taught the history of afrolatinos. I remember reading one book in graduate school. As foreign languages teacher, we notice that in our Spanish language textbooks, there is very little inclusion of afrolatino culture or pictures of black people. In our countries, blacks are not able to hold and strengthen to their identity. Not being visible on the political, social, and cultural sphere. Racism is disguised. Up front people won’t admit that there is racism. But behind closed doors, they have strong negative impressions of blacks. As we see blacks being poor, we don’t discuss the legacy of slavery or create any policies for affirmative action that can address the effect of oppression and discrimination against blacks. Even though there is a historical debt, little is done to fix it. Ex. Colon City, Panama, my hometown. The first step is to be included in census information. If your ethnic group can’t be counted, then your social presence and your rights as a citizen don’t count either.
  • A few years ago, there was limited afrolatino information available. Last year the UN declared 2011 as the international year for people of African Descent. Navi Pillay, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, stated:“ The International Year must become a milestone in the on-going campaign to advance the rights of people of African descent. It deserves to be accompanied by activities that fire the imagination, enhance our understanding of the situation of people of African descent and are a catalyst for real and positive change in the daily lives of the millions of Afro-descendants around the world. ” It produced a many books, workshops, documentaries. I am using through this presentation Henry Louis Gates Jr’s PBS series Black in Latin America which aired last year.
  • If you visit the UN page you will have access to all this new material available that did not exist a few years ago.
  • Garifuna Culture
  • More than 11 million Africans were brought forcibly to the American Continent. The institution of slavery lasted more than 300 years. No place in the Western Hemisphere received more slaves than Brazil. 43% of all slaves ended up in BZ. It is the second largest black country in the world after Nigeria. The majority of slaves landed through the port of Bahia b/c it was closer to Africa. It was the last country in the WW to abolish slavery.
  • After being marched to the coast for sale, enslaved people waited in large forts called factories. This map shows the various slave holding points in Western African used by European traders around 1750. These African points of embarkation included port towns, forts, and castles that changed hands among European powers and African powers frequently in the 400 years of the slave trade. The greatest numbers of enslaved persons taken from Africa came from the Congo region. Out of these ports came 10 to 15 million African captives. Before the 1830s, almost four times as many Africans came to the Americas as European migrants, and almost all of them left from the points indicated on this map.
  • The transatlantic slave trade resulted in a vast and as yet still unknown loss of life for African captives both in and outside of America. Approximately 1.2 – 2.4 million Africans died during their transport to the New World. More died soon upon their arrival. The amount of life lost in the actual procurement of slaves remains a mystery but may equal or exceed the amount actually enslaved.
  • Collection of clips to talk about race relation in Spanish speaking countries: Black in L.A., About Latino Identity, Examining Color in LSTalking Points:Living in MS and learning the violent history of the civil right movement, the Jim Crow’s segregation laws, and the fight for voting rights. Coming from the darkest part of Panama, we did not have this kind of discrimination.My personal idea of race relations before becoming more educated on the subject. Learning from Afro Latinos’ stories & experiencesThe one drop rule. Hypodescent :mixed race person is given the status of the subordinate culture, socially inferior). Hyperdescent: mixed race person give him the status of the dominant group, or socially superior group.Most of the people learn about race later in life.Denial of black ancestry. If not in denial, people are confused or ambivalent about being afro descendant. Color and identity in L.A. are more complex. Informal/behavioral racism vs structural racism. Indicators that show inequality and disparity: high level of poverty, level of education, access to health care and affordable housing, lack of political representation. Informal racism is just as effective b/c it gives the appearance of tolerance. The idea that we are so racially mixed that we are beyond racism is false. Black is OK if it is part of the blend. L.A. countries have built their economies on the back of slaves, yet many of them remained second class citizens. Mestizaje is the happy face that our countries put on for the world, but the day-to-day life is still hostile for blacks.
  • Juan O’Gorman’s paintings often treated Mexican history, landscape, and legends. He painted the murals in the Independence Room in Mexico City‘s Chapultepec Castle National Museum of History. Less than 5 percent of the 11.5 million Africans wrenched into slavery ended up in the United States. That is one reason Editor-in-Chief Henry Louis Gates Jr. from Harvard University decided to explore the lives and cultures of blacks from Brazil to Haiti, from Peru to Mexico, in his new PBS television series. The most important question that the PBS series and the book attempt to explore is this: What does it mean to be "black" in these countries? Who is considered "black," and under what circumstances and by whom, in these societies? The answers to these questions vary widely across Latin America in ways that will surprise most people in the United States
  • EL CANTANTE celebrates the life and music of the legendary Puerto Rican salsa singer Hector Lavoe, a pioneer of the sound and sensibility that redefined Latin music in the 1960s and 1970s. Its stars, Marc Anthony and Jennifer Lopez, are real life couple. Both are New Yorkers of Puerto Rican descent.  Antohony is an accomplished salsa singer who has won several Latin Grammy awards for his albums.Jennifer Lynn Lopez (born July 24, 1969[1]), popularly nicknamed J.Lo, is an American actress, singer, record producer, dancer, fashion designer and television producer. She is the richest person of Latin American descent in Hollywood according to Forbes, and the most influential Hispanic entertainer in America according to People en Español's list of "100 Most Influential Hispanics".The clip we are going to watch shows a santeria ritual. Lavoe had a nervous breakdown and goes to a herbal store where there is a “santera.” She gives him beats for protection and entrust him to Santa Barbara. She also performs a cleansing ceremony. This scene is overlap with a concert song with Lavoe singing “Aguanile.” The word is from an African language. It is not Spanish. It is usually use with the words maimai. It refers to holy water like the water used to cleanse and restore.
  • Elegua is also known as Esu in the Yoruba Pantheon of Orishas. Elegua opens and closes the road or way for us in life. He stands in the crossroads and 4 corners. No ceremony is started without paying tribute to him first. He takes many forms and has many names. He is considered a trickster and can be a difficult teacher when there is a lesson needed to be learned.
  • (b Lima, 1810; d Lima, 28 July 1879). Peruvian painter. A mulatto (of mixed parentage), he was self-taught and was probably illiterate; his paintings remained unsigned, and their titles were possibly added later. He became the leading costumbrista artist in Peru, with watercolours that recorded the people and events of the transitional phase between the colonial and Republican periods, although the fact that he portrayed not only established types and traditions but also figures from the early modern era set him apart from other costumbrista artists. His works were usually characterized by their gentle caricature, and it has been suggested that some paintings were influenced by the works of Goya. His technique involved laying down a basic pencil sketch, which was then built up with a series of brightly coloured washes; the drawing often lacked proportion, perspective and shape, although outlines were usually eloquent and lively. The figure depicted was identifiable by the inclusion of details indicating his trade or status (e.g. Friar Tomato, n.d.; Lima, Mus. A.). Fierro's prolific output amounted to c. 1200 watercolours, c. 238 of which were owned by the contemporaneous Peruvian costumbrista writer Ricardo Palma (collection acquired in 1954 by the Municipalidad de Lima Metropolitana). The largest collection outside Peru is probably the 78 watercolours (St Petersburg, Mus. Ethnog.) bought by Leopold Schrenk, a Russian scientist sent by Tsar Nicholas I to Peru in 1854. There are also numerous small collections fo his work, mainly in Europe. Fierro exerted considerable influence both during his career and into the 20th century, when such leading Indigenist artists as José Sabogal took an interest in his work.
  • Created vivid, almost documentary portraits of Afro-Peruvian life during his era. He was prolific, painted more than twelve hundred watercolors depicting almost every activity imaginable. School children study PanchoFierro’s painting in school curricula. He included many black subjects in his paintings, and many of his paintings depict small scenes, with 3 or 4 figures, almost cutaways of slavery. The portrayed of three characters, the street vendor woman is suggestively exposed, surrounded by melons and fruits. Usually there is more than one race: Here we have black, and white. So this scene is fantastic. It shows us three characters, but the one who takes center stage is the Afro-woman.
  • Fierro’s black subjects look integral to the construction of the scenes they are in. Many of them look quite contented, even those pictured at work. He shows us a society that we could not see from documents. Fierro seems to have been especially keen to represent the experience of the slaves as fundamental to the shaping of Lima society.
  • When we think about slaves, we always think about plantation slaves, chained at the feet, constantly beaten up. But PanchoFierro gives us a lot to regain from the past. Slavery in Lima was more relaxed, more flexible. He wanted to show us the happiness that the afro-population could have.PanchoFierro shows us people interacting, living together, having fun, whether they are men or women, rich or poor, black or white. He shows us a society which is more integrated, with fewer conflicts. This is a point of view.
  • In 1943 Fernándo Ortiz published an article on Cubanidad. He retook Marti’s and Maceo’s ideas. He criticized the whitening process and reminded Cuba of its unique racial history and destiny. He encouraged Cuba to embrace itself by celebrating its African cultural roots. What matters is that one was brought up in Cuba and became part of its national identity. Critique to this position: the idea that national pride can supersede racial identity has spread all across Latin America. But it has rarely succeeded. These well-meaning policies had lead to blackness being forced to become invisible, or to brown-pride movements that buried black roots. Prep Time: 8 hr 0 min Inactive Prep Time: -- Cook Time: 2 hr 0 min Level: -- Serves: 8 servingsIngredients8 ounces tasajo (cured dry beef), cut into cubes and soaked overnight 8 ounces pork stew meat cut into cubes1 ear fresh corn1 green plantain 8 ounces cassava 8 ounces malanga (a root similar to potato) 8 ounces sweet yam 1/2 cup crushed tomatoes8 cups chicken stock8 cups pork bone stock
  • Buena Vista Social Club started a craze in the Western World for Latin American music, particularly Cuban music.In 2003 the album was listed by Rolling Stone magazine as #260 in The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time, one of only two albums on the list to be produced in a non-English speaking country.Buena Vista Social Club (1997) is an album made by Juan de Marcos González and American guitarist RyCooder with traditional Cuban musicians. The album was produced by Cooder who travelled to Cuba to record sessions with the musicians, many of whom were previously largely unknown outside Cuba.The musicians and the songs were later also featured in a documentary film of the same name (1999) by Win Wenders, an acclaimed German filmmaker. The film was nominated for an Academy Award for best documentary feature in 2000. It won as best documentary in the European Film Awards as well as 18 others awards and nominations.In this film, we see and hear some of the songs being recorded in Havana. There is also footage from concerts in Amsterdam and New York City's Carnegie Hall. In addition, many of the individual musicians talk about their lives in Cuba and about how they got started in music.
  • One of the most moving and touching 'boleros' ever, 'Silencio' was composed by Puerto Rico's Rafael Hernandez, a major figure of Latin American music. This rendition features Ibrahim Ferrer and OmaraPortuondo in a soulful duet. WimWenders filmed the recording session in Havana as well as the performance of the song in Amsterdam.  As the camera dissolves seamlessly from studio to performance, we see Ibrahim Ferrer wiping a tear off OmaraPortuondo's cheek, the most poignant moment of the film, crystallizing the tragic beauty not just of the this bolero but also of the story behind The Buena Vista Social Club.
  • 1925 José MaríaVasconcelos: Mestizos will produce a civilization more universal.During the course of the colonial period, Lima became 40% black.Public Apology: It is not enough to say sorry. It needs to be translated into public policies that promote inclusion for Afro-Latinos.Antonio Maceo: the tendency of white ruling elites to whiten national heroes in order to be included in the official history. Other examples: Rosario Sanchez in Dominican Republic. Obscuring hero’s black ancestry.
  • During Holy Week at the end of the eighteenth century, a count visits his Havana sugar mill on a day a slave has run away. The count tells his cruel overseer, Don Manuel, to pick 12 slaves who will be guests at the count's table. Don Manuel objects, but to no avail. The twelfth guest is the recaptured runaway. During the dinner, using religious analogies, the count lectures his guests on the perfect happiness possible in slavery. They in turn tell stories and make requests. He promises no work on Good Friday, but he leaves early that morning and Don Manuel rousts the slaves for a long day cutting cane. They rebel.
  • 2009 Novel by Chilean writer, Isabel Allende. The story opens on the island of Saint-Domingue (current day Haiti) in the late 18th century. Zarite (known as Tete) is the daughter of an African mother she never knew and one of the white sailors who brought her into bondage. As a young girl Tete is purchased by Violette, a mixed race courtesan, on behalf of Toulouse Valmorain, a Frenchman who has inherited his father's sugar plantation. Valmorain has big dreams of financial success and is somewhat ambivalent towards slavery. He views it as a means to an end, as he does most things.Upon Valmorain's marriage, Tete becomes his wife's personal slave. Valmorain's wife is fragile, beautiful, and slowly succumbs to madness. As Valmorain's wife goes mad, Valmorain forces Tete, now a teenager, into sexual servitude, which produces several illegitimate children. Spanning four decades, the narrative leaps between the social upheavals from the distant French Revolution to the Haitian slave rebellion in all its brutality and chaos, to a New Orleans fomenting with cultural change. this story is a work of fiction, but the brutality of war and slave ownership, yet the blurred lines between what is proper and humane during the 1700-1800s shocked me at times, as I am compelled to think that reality was very similar to many passages in this book. This is one of the most beautifully written stories I've ever read, and is right up there with the author's previous work The House of the Spirits.
  • It is said that Latin American are the product of three cultures: European, Indigenous, and African. But it not an obvious cultural root. It is up to us foreign language teachers to make sure that we don’t exclude the African root of Spanish culture.
  • The third root afrolatino culture

    1. 1. The Third Root
    2. 2. Sagrario Cruz-CarreteroMexican Anthropologist
    4. 4. What does the typicalHispanic look like?
    5. 5. Afro-Mexican of the Costa Chica
    6. 6. Honduran National Team
    7. 7. Afro-Panamanian
    8. 8. Afro-Uruguayan
    9. 9. US-Born Afrolatinos
    10. 10. Afro-LatinAmerica, 1800Reid Andrews, George.Afro-Latin America, 2004.
    11. 11. By 1830:The ratioof slaves-Europeanswas 4:1.
    12. 12. Colonial African Kingdoms
    13. 13. Slaves Arrivals 1451-1870 West Indies Atlantic Spanish NorthEurope Brazil British French Dutch Total Islands America America50,000 25,000 1,622,400 4,029,800 1,639,700 1,699,700 437,700 559,800 10,247,500
    14. 14. Afro-LatinAmerica, 2000Reid Andrews, George.Afro-Latin America, 2004.
    15. 15. DemographicAfro-Descendant Presencein Contemporary Latin America
    16. 16. Who are Afro-Latinos?• An Afro-Latino is a Latin American person of at least partial African ancestry.• It may also refer to historical or cultural elements in Latin America thought to come from this community.• The term can refer to the mixing of African and other cultural elements found in Latin American society such as religion, food, music, language, the arts, and social class.
    17. 17. African descendants• 150 million• 39 – 33% of the population
    18. 18. How many Afro-Latinos are there?
    19. 19. Are you black? : No !!Your grandmother? Perhaps… No 85.8% Ns/Nc 11.2% Si 3.0%
    20. 20. Race Relations in Latin America
    21. 21. Afro-Latinos in History
    22. 22. Mexico’s Independence WarJosé María Morelos Vicente Guerrero 1765-1815 1782-1831
    23. 23. Blacks in Latin America
    24. 24. Mexicos Independence War (Blacks in Latin America)1. When does the war takes place?2. Who started the revolution? What did he propose regarding the Mexican cast system?3. Who succeeded him after his death?4. What was remarkable about these two generals?5. Who abolished slavery in Mexico? When?6. Why does Professor Gates say that Mexico was ahead of the United States in 1830?7. In your opinion, what is the most significant aspect of this clip? Why?
    25. 25. Afro-LatinoInfluence in Religion
    26. 26. DefinitionSantería: – Means “veneration of the Saints” – Fuses African myths with Catholic Saints. – Syncretic religion that uses dancing and singing to practice Yoruba-derived rituals.Orisha: – A divine being, who like Catholic Saints, is petitioned on behalf of humanity and whose origin stems from the religious worldview of the Yoruba people.
    27. 27. SyncretizationObatala Virgen de las Mercedes Our Lady of Mercy
    28. 28. SyncretizationOchun Virgen de la Caridad (Patron Saint of Cuba) Our Lady of Charity
    29. 29. SyncretizationYemayá Virgen de la Regla Our Lady of Rule
    30. 30. Syncretization Santa BárbaraChangó St. Barbara
    31. 31. Santa Bárbara
    32. 32. Aguanile
    33. 33. Aguanile Song (El Cantante)1. Where does the couple go?2. What does the "healer" give Hector Lavoe? According to her, who is going to protect him?3. What colors does Hector wear during the concert? Are these colors symbolic?4. What actions overlap with the concert?5. What is the songs chorus?6. From this clip, what are some African religious practices that are still prevalent in modern Latin American culture?
    34. 34. Afro-latino Art• During the 1920’s, there was a period of increased political and cultural activism.• Afro-cubanismo had several artists that came to represent the African heritage in their art. The most representative artist was Wifredo Lam (1902-1982).
    35. 35. Wifredo Lam•He was a painter ofAfro-Chinese descent.•He explained, “I wantedwith all my heart to paintthe drama of mycountry, but bythoroughly expressingthe Negro spirit, thebeauty of the plastic art
    36. 36. Wifredo Lam, The Jungle, gouache on paper, 1943, Museum of Modern Art.
    37. 37. Altar para Yemayá Altar para Elegua
    38. 38. Zambezia, Zambezia, oil on canvas painting by Wifredo Lam, 1950
    39. 39. Afro-Peruvian: Pancho Fierro19th Century Lima Vignettes •Francisco Fierro (1810-1879) was of mixed Spanish, indigenous, and African descent and was born into humble circumstances. •He was self-taught and was probably illiterate. •His watercolor multicultural paintings reveal Perus diverse and complex past.
    40. 40. Zamacueca Penitente y chichera El Yerbatero
    41. 41. Son de los Diablos Sigue el Son de los Diablos
    42. 42. Cuban Ajiaco • A rich stew consisting of a large variety of ingredients. • The ingredients of the “stew” include Catholicism brought in by the Spaniards and the spirituality of the Yoruba slaves. The base of the stew is the indigenous people.
    43. 43. Blacks in Latin America
    44. 44. Cuban Ajiaco (Blacks in Latin America)1. What is ajiaco?2. Define the concept of "cubanidad" according to this clip.3. How can "ajiaco" be used as a metaphor for Cuban cultural identity?4. How are the United States and Cuba different in terms of racial differentiation?
    45. 45. Afro-latinos in sports
    46. 46. Roberto Clemente (Puerto Rico)
    47. 47. Juan Marichal (República Dominicana)
    48. 48. Rod Carew (Panama)
    49. 49. African influence in Latin music• The Caribbean is a fertile site for musical creation that has come to enjoy global appeal.• Syncretic transculturation that involves African, indigenous, and European features. Ex. Rumba, mambo, son, salsa, meren gue, tango, cumbia, plena, and
    50. 50. African influence in Latin music• Some common elements are: • Use of call-and-response style. • Emphasis in rhythm. • Use of percussion, featuring several drums. • Pieces structured on repetition
    51. 51. Musical Documentary
    52. 52. Calle 541. According to these Latin American musicians, what is the common root of Caribbean music?2. What family comparisons are made?3. What instrument dominates in this clip?
    53. 53. Dance in Latin America and the Caribbean• A vital means of expressing the aesthetic, spiritual, and even political solidarity of people of African descent which has strongly influenced the culture at large in this part of the world.
    54. 54. Candombe in Uruguay
    55. 55. Carnival in Uruguay
    56. 56. Uruguays Candombe (YouTube)1. Where were the African slaves from in Uruguay?2. What is Candombe?3. What status has UNESCO given to Candombe?4. Nowadays Candombe is festive. What was it originally like during colonial times?
    57. 57. Buena Vista Social Club
    58. 58. Silencio (lyrics)Duermen en mi jardínlos nardos, las rosas y las blancas azucenas.Mi alma muy triste y pesarosaA las flores quiere ocultar su amargo dolor.Yo no quiero que las flores sepanLos tormentos que me da la vidaSi supieran lo que estoy sufriendoPor mis penas llorarían también.Silencio que están durmiendoLos nardos y las azucenasNo quiero que sepan mis penasPorque si me ven llorando, morirán.
    59. 59. Buena Vista Social Club
    60. 60. Afro-Latino Singers
    61. 61. Afro-Latino Singers
    62. 62. Poetry: Nicolás Guillén (1902-1989)
    63. 63. "Sensemayá" Sensemayá, la culebra, (Canto para matar a una culebra) sensemayá, Sensemayá, con sus ojos,¡Mayombe-bombe-mayombé! sensemayá.¡Mayombe-bombe-mayombé! Sensemayá con su lengua, sensemayá.¡Mayombe-bombe-mayombé! Sensemayá con su boca, sensemayá!La culebra tiene los ojos de vidrio;la culebra viene, y se enreda en un palo; La culebra muerta no puede comer;con sus ojos de vidrio en un palo, la culebra muerta no puede silbar,con sus ojos de vidrio. no puede caminar,La culebra camina sin patas; ¡no puede correr!la culebra se esconde en la yerba; La culebra muerta no puede mirar;caminando se esconde en la yerba; la culebra muerta no puede beber,¡caminando sin patas! no puede respirar, ¡no puede morder!Mayombe-bombe-mayombé!¡Mayombe-bombe-mayombé! ¡Mayombe-bombe-mayombé!¡Mayombe-bombe-mayombé! Sensemayá, la culebra... ¡Mayombe-bombe-mayombé!Tú le das con el hacha, y se muere; Sensemayá, no se mueve...¡dale ya! ¡Mayombe-bombe-mayombé! Sensemayá, la culebra...¡No le des con el pie, que te muerde, ¡Mayombe-bombe-mayombé!no le des con el pie, que se va! ¡Sensemayá, se murió!
    64. 64. Sensemayá
    65. 65. Students’ Group Projects
    66. 66. Film Project Tomás Gutiérrez Alea 1976
    67. 67. La Ultima Cena
    68. 68. Isabel Allende2009
    69. 69. The 5 "Cs" of the National Standards
    70. 70. STANDARDS FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING CULTURESGain Knowledge and Understanding of Other Cultures
    71. 71. To conclude. . .Over the centuries black people have addedtheir original contributions to the culturalmix of their respective societies and thusexerted a profound influence on all facetsof life in Latin America. Our culture is richthanks to our multiculturalism.
    72. 72. “It is also true that many African-American students find greater relevancy in foreign languages study when the concept of “Negritude,” an effort to influence the awareness of their African heritage, is introduced and explored. James Davis, “African American Students and Foreign Language Learning.”
    73. 73. ReferencesMidlo Hall, Gwendolyn. Slavery and African Ethnicities in the Americas. University of North Carolina Press, 2005.Reid Andrews, George. Afro-Latin America 1800- 2000. Oxford University Press, 2004.Walker, Sheila. African Roots/American Cultures. Rowman Publishers, 2001.Miller, Grace. The Rise and Fall of the Cosmic Race. University of Texas Press, 2004.Landers, Jane. Slaves, Subjects and Subversives. University of New Mexico Press, 2006.
    74. 74. Appiah, Kwame and Henry Louis Gates. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. Basic Civitas Books, 1999.Hubbart, Louise. “The Minority Student in Foreign Languages.” The Modern Language Journal, Vol.64, No. 1 (Spring 1980), pp. 75-80.Brigman, Leelen and Lucy Cheser. “Participation and Succes of Minority Students in University Foreign Language Programs.”The Modern Language Journal, Vol. 65, No. 4 (Winter 1981), pp. 371-376.Pérez-Sarduy, Pedro & Jean Stubbs. No Longer Invisible: Afro-Latin Americans Today. Minority Rights Publication, 1995.
    75. 75. Gates, Henry Louis. Black in Latin America. New York University Press, 2011.PBS Documentary Series Black in Latin America. in-latin-america/Afro descendant Population in Latin America. http://www.afrodescendientes-
    76. 76. International Year for People of African Descent. 011/global.shtmlExamining Color in Latin America. YKag&feature=youtube_gdata_playerSomos Afro. ca/somos-afro/Series about Latino Identity. XJIs
    77. 77. African American Linguists: in America: y Racismo en América Latina:ón Afroamérica: de mujeres afrolatinoamericanas y afrocaribeñas:
    78. 78.