Crisis mapping for disaster response:from the Haiti earthquake to Sandy A presentation by Annie Feighery, EdM, MPA Candidate, EdD Teachers College, Columbia University @AnnieFeighery annie@mWater.Co
The validity of crisis mapping depends on positive reinforcement mechanisms within the systemThe value of crisis mapping as a rapid assessment tool Diffusion of innovations curve within the UN regarding crisis mapping Sandy
Background• January12, 2010: 7.0 magnitude earthquake west of Port-au-Prince, Haiti•3 million people affected: 316,000 deaths, another million left homeless• Severe infrastructure damage: hospitals, airport, government and UN buildings• Watershed moment for crowdsourced disaster response
Methods of analysis• Qualitative interviews: key informants representing both Ushahidi and multilateral agencies• Google analytics: geocoding IPs• Wordle: visual representation of key words and mood• Social network analysis: bonding vs bridging vs linking• Text mining: parsed database of reports
Top hits by country over time (January-April) Source: Google Analytics (Haiti.Ushahidi.org)
n=3600 messages, source: Ushahidi database ~40,000 SMS messages originally received
Help-seeking Degree of Ties type behavior similarity Informal Bonding Strong ties forms of Homophilous support Formal Bridging Weak ties forms of Heterophilous supportGranovetter, M. (1983). The strength of weak ties: A network theory revisited. Sociological Theory, 1(1), 201-233.Lin, N. (2002). Social capital: A theory of social structure and action. Cambridge Univ Pr.
Crisis mapping Sandy• Sense making/situational awareness• Social network-based information• Hashtag crisis• Handheld-friendly tools• Liability protection• Tweet studies• Dave from Hoboken
NYC.gov• Rachel Sterne Haot, CDO• Twitter donated promoted tweets: ‣ 2k over 2 weeks• Total social digital reach as of 11/9: 2,785,806• Corrected bad reports, guided remarks• Transportation needs dominated convo
ANY QUESTIONS? Annie Feighery twitter: @AnnieFeighery www.participatoryepi.posterous.com www.mWater.Co
SNA Codes • 3.Topic of message1. Location of sender a. Looking for missing person a. Within Haiti b. Report of individual needed medical b. Outside of Haiti assistance2. Type of sender c. Need for supplies a. General public outside of Haiti d. Report of infrastructure, i.e., road damage b. Earthquake victim inside Haiti e. Report of available supplies c. Relief Responder from traditional NGO f. General thoughts or prayers offered 4. Intended recipient of message d. Crowdsourced relief responder a. Earthquake victims b. Relief organizations c. Public outside of Haiti
Interview Results• There was an inability to use the information gathered to directly interact with the Haitians who provided it.• UN and other ofﬁcial entities were reticent to use the information gathered because: a) they distrusted the validity of the sources, and b) they were too overtasked with their traditional evaluation protocol to subsume additional monitoring of social media.• The discord that marked the initial stages of relief in
Bonding Bridging borrow a cup of milk go buy milk at the bodegaask a neighbor to watch ask a neighbor for the your child phone number of their babysitter apply for Welfare ask to borrow money assistance
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