HONESTWORK:CAN WEREALLYEXPECT IT? Laura Yoo English and World Languages Howard Community College Lyoo@howardcc.edu 443-518-4281 Presented at 22nd AFACCT At Montgomery College January 6, 2012 9:00-10:10 am Session 5.3
Agenda• Discussion: What kinds of behavior do you observe in class and out of class that may be considered “less-than-honest” work?• What driving forces are at work?• Can we really influence student behavior?• Strengthening academic honesty at HCC• Information Literacy• Discussion: What can we do?
Some of the forces behind cheating• poor time management and planning skills• lack of confidence• “the thrill of rule breaking”• “natural economizers”: “faced with too many choices, they put off low priorities” • BUT THIS IS STUFF WE KNOW…
Fear factor“good grades make the difference between going to medical school and being a janitor” (qtd. in Callahan 29).
Another forces behind cheating• Confusion – Group work/projects – Sharing information or sources – Homework (“no big deal” assignments) – Take-home quizzes/tests – “Self-plagiarism” – Use of online materials
Another force behind cheating • the perceived goal of a college experience learning building a solid VERSUS OkayLess academic, person transcript that will tolikely tocheat al, and get them to the next cheat professional skills level
Another force behind cheating• Contextual factors: McCabe, Trevino, and Butterfield (2001) – “contextual factors (peer cheating behavior, peer disapproval of cheating behavior, and perceived severity of penalties for cheating) were significantly more influential than the individual factors (age, gender, GPA, and participation in extracurricular activities)” (222).
Hypothesis: “Social norms theory says that people tend to maintain behavior consistent with peer descriptive norms, and that overestimating the frequency that ones peers engage in a behavior can lead to increases in thatHard, behavior”Conway, andMoran(2001) Confirmed!
WHAT ABOUT FACULTY PERCEPTION? STUDENTSFACULTY “faculty beliefs about the frequency of student academic misconduct were positively related to two important faculty behaviors: prevention efforts and efforts to challenge students suspected of misconduct” (Hard, Conway, and Moran)
“Qualifying the Teacher”:Philip Shon (2006) framing the professor as being unfair or difficult or the course as impossible to pass “students ‘size up’ their teachers, testing their vigilance, and establishing the behavior parameters of permissible illicit action” (133). A student decides against cheating because the professor was a department chair, who “would not play any games” (Shon 133). Later this student does decide to cheat when he realizes the professor is in a wheelchair which made her less mobile in the classroom during exams.
“Qualifying the Teacher”:Sandra Nadelson (2007)• “Students reported that their propensity to act in a dishonest manner was related to instructors’ leniency and the perceived probability of a faculty member’s acting on observed misconduct” (2).
IT TAKES (AT LEAST) THREE TO TANGO Students Institution Faculty
Promotion Project: HCC (2008-2012)• Survey students• Review faculty syllabi• Faculty development – Report: Students survey and faculty syllabi – Assignment design• Resources for students and faculty (online)• Future plans
Student Academic HonestySurvey May 2010* • 477 responses from • English 087 (ESL developmental) • English 097 (developmental) • English 121 (College Comp I) • English 122 (College Comp II)* Some questions and statements were adapted from Kansas State University’s and SyracuseUniversity’s academic honesty surveys.
Academic Honesty SurveyPlease read each statement carefully and mark the answer that best describe your opinion. %Agree/Str ResponseAnswer Options ongly Agree Count1. Cheating is common at HCC. 12.9 4812. Cheating is a serious problem at HCC. 16.4 4813. Copying another student’s homework is cheating. 74.6 4814. Using unpermitted notes or access to information during a quiz is cheating. 83.8 4815. Using unpermitted notes or access to information during a test is cheating. 86.5 4816. Using someone else’s ideas without proper citation (without naming the source) in 76.7 481a paper is cheating. 69.2 4817. Copying and pasting a few sentences from the internet into a paper is cheating.8. If a student observes an incident of cheating by another student, he/she should 40.7 481report it.9. The faculty members at HCC seem to care about academic honesty. 81.9 48110. The faculty members at HCC sometimes ignore cheating. 9.8 481 answered question 481 skipped question 0
Academic Honesty SurveyRead the following statements carefully and select the appropriate response. Since being a student at HCC,have you ever … %YES(On 3. More ResponseAnswer Options ce/More 2. Once than once Count than once)11. copied someone elses homework? 35.6 105 65 47712. allowed someone else to copy your homework? 47.6 131 96 47713. bought a term paper from another individual? 4.2 15 5 47714. bought a term paper from an internet source? 4.2 14 6 47715. written a paper or a part of the paper for another student? 10.5 37 13 47716. …copied material almost word for word from written source 15.5 55 19 477(like a book or a website) and turned it in as your own work?17. copied a few sentences from another source without citing 30.6 116 30 477it(without naming the source)?18. collaborated with another student for an assignment that was 39.4 101 87 477not "group work"?19. falsified or fabricated bibliography? 11.9 45 12 47720. cheated on an exam by copying another students answers? 11.1 38 15 47721. cheated on an exam by using unpermitted notes or access to 9.6 31 15 477information?22. helped another student cheat on an exam? 11.9 40 17 47723. cheated on a quiz by using unpermitted notes or access to 13.6 49 16 477information?24. helped another student cheat on a quiz? 13.6 43 22 47725. reported an incident of cheating or plagiarizing? 7.8 27 10 477 answered question 477 skipped question 4
SYLLABI REVIEW: FALL 2009 Full time Part time faculty: 83 faculty: 94syllabi from syllabi from 7 divisions 7 divisions
Full Time Faculty Syllabi (83 syllabi from Fall 2009) No mentionExplains 26% (22)41% (34) Refer to Handbook 33% (27)
Part-time Faculty Syllabi(94 syllabi from Fall 2009)Explains No mention36% (34) 44% (41) Refer to Handbook 20% (19)
Guiding Principle:“Honest Work” (Charles Lipson)• “When you say you did the work yourself, you actually did it.• When you rely on someone else’s work, you cite it.• When you use their words, you quote them openly and accurately and you cite them, too.• When you present research materials, you present them fairly and truthfully.”
Information Literacy• Knowledge: What information do I need?• Access: How can I get the information I need?• Evaluation: Is my information valid, current, and reliable?• Use: How do I use this information to solve my problem?• Honesty: Am I using this information legally and ethically?
Works CitedCallahan, David. “On Campus: Author Discusses the ‘Cheating Culture’.” Plagiary 1.4 (2006): 25-32. Web. 12 Aug. 2007.Hard, Stephen F., James M. Conway, Antonia C. Moran. “Faculty and College student beliefs about the frequency of student academic misconduct.” Journal of Higher Education 77.9 (Nov-Dec 2006): 1058 (23). Academic OneFile. Web. 12 May 2009.Harris, Robert. “Anti-Plagiarism Strategies for Research Papers.” Virtual Salt. 27 Jul. 2005. Web. 1 Aug. 2007.Lipson, Charles. Doing Honest Work in College. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004.McCabe, Donald L., Linda Klebe Trevino, and Kenneth D. Butterfield. “Cheating in Academic Institutions: A Decade of Research.” Ethics and Behavior 11.3 (2001): 219-232. Academic OneFile. Web. 12 May 2009.Nadelson, Sandra. “Academic Misconduct by University Students: Faculty Perceptions and Responses.” Plagiary 2.1 (2007): 1-10. Web. 12 Aug. 2007.Shon, Phillip C. “How College Students Cheat On In-Class Examinations: Creativity, Strain, and Techniques of Innovation.” Plagiary 1.10 (2006): 130-148. Web. 12 Aug. 2007.