Session 4 creativity session funding

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  • How many answers are there?
    ONE: And you can get the answer through analytical thinking.
  • How many answers are there?
    Indefinite. Think full numbers, fractions, negatives etc.
    This is getting a little more creative, any you might have found this more interesting, yet more difficult.
    Let us explore what entrepreneurs can do to get more creative.
  • The broader picture to this is captured in the „Innovation Engine“ from Tina Seelig. Check again once the book is in.
  • Who are the creative people?
    Just „the others“ that stand out?
    We see it in companies as well: the „weird“ creative director“, the people from the detached „future lab“ etc.
    Some say that creativity is too important to leave it to, well, „creatives“.
    Rather, everyone is creative and we can see what can be do to unlock the creative potential.
    Here, you can tell more and adress this „creativity as a part of intelligence“ – story and adress the „born or made“
  • Zusammenhang mit Alternativengenerierung wird oft auf Kreativitätstechniken zurückgegriffen. Hierbei gilt es zunächst zu klären was Kreativität ist.

    Novel = neu, bezeichnet wie neu und originell eine Idee oder Lösung ist
    Useful = nützlich, ein Idee/ Lösung sollte auch nützlich und von praktischem Nutzen sein. Bezeichnet auch die Angemessenheit der Lösung angesichts bestehender Einschränkungen. Besonders diese 2. Dimension ist für die NPD wichtig, da Produkte, die nur neu und originell sind, schnell als bizarr floppen können.
    Psychological creativity: new and useful for YOU. Historical creativity: new and useful for the world.
    Die Kreativitätsforschung ist ein junger Forschungszweig, der lange im Schatten der Intelligenzforschung und weiterer Erkundungen der Mutterdisziplin Psychologie stand.
    Seit dem ersten Weltkrieg wurde Kreativität historisch vorwiegend als ein Unteraspekt der Intelligenz angesehen, weswegen die Intelligenzforschung eine bedeutend breitere Aufmerksamkeit erfuhr. Bis auf den heutigen Tag hält sich die Auffassung einer engen Verbindung von Intelligenz und Kreativität, obwohl niemals eindeutig nachgewiesen,
    Der Startpunkt der Kreativitätsforschung wird historisch betrachtet heute zwei Ereignissen zugeschrieben:
    Zum einen, intern motiviert, durch die berühmte Rede von J.P. Guilford (US-Psychologe) am 5. September 1950, die heute oft als Startpunkt der modernen Kreativität angesehen wird. Guilford beklagte anlässlich seiner Antrittsrede als damaliger Präsident der APA (US-Psychologenvereinigung) ein mangelndes Interesse der Forschung an dem Kreativitätsthema und belegte das u.a. mit einer Zahl: Er stellte fest, dass in den 25 Jahren zuvor von 121.000 erschienenen psychologischen Arbeiten nur etwa 186 relevante Titel zum Thema Kreativität verfasst worden waren, und rief dazu auf, diesem Bereich mehr Aufmerksamkeit zu widmen; angemerkt werden muss hierzu, dass sich diese Zahl nur auf den, Guilford bekannten, Bereich der Psychologie bezog und andere Disziplinen und Wissenschaften nicht berücksichtigte.
    Zum anderen, extern motiviert, durch den berühmten "Sputnick-Schock", mit der die politisch-gesellschaftliche und wissenschaftlich-forscherische Reaktion auf den ersten Start eines Satelliten am 4.10.1957 (genannt Sputnick) durch die Sowjetunion bezeichnet wurde; er stellte den damals vorherrschenden Überlegenheitsglauben des Westens in Frage. D.h. Es gibt genug intelligente Menschen – es fehlt an den „kreativen“.
    Kreative Methoden zielen meist darauf ab, Denk- und Verhaltensmuster zu verändern. Dadurch erleichtern Sie, Dinge "anders zu sehen" als gewohnt, und ermuntern, Vorhandenes auf eine andere Art zu verbinden. Als kreativ gelten Methoden also dann, wenn sie dazu beitragen, Neues zu erfinden oder Vorhandenes auf neue Art und Weise zu verbinden, indem Sie Wege beschreiten, die abseits bekannter Denk- und Verhaltensmuster liegen.
    Diese Denk- und Verhaltensmusteränderung erfolgt entweder systematisch (auch: analytisch, strukturiert) oder intuitiv (auch: assoziativ), oder in einer beide Prinzipien vermischenden Form. (vgl. Dries 1982, S.89, Kluge/Zysno 1993, S.56)
    Fähigkeit neue Ideen und Lösungen zu finden, ist keine Eigenschaft die entweder vorhanden ist oder nicht. Vielmehr kann sie erlernt werden, wenn auch nicht vollständig (abhängig von Erfahrungswissen, Motivation, Anstrengung und Ausdauer).
  • Dies ist nur eine Übergangsfolie
  • Preparation helps to …
    *) have „general building blocks“ of a phenomenon ready to work with. These are in research eg constructs to build models with, methods that can be applied, technical/mechanical relations, etc.
    *) when you dont have to think about the basics of a discipline any more, you begin to have time and capacity to play around in the field. Consider my lectures. The basics are there, now I can play with formats, with where to put which slide, which material etc.
    *) When you are an expert in a field, you know waht is useful and novel, and also whats possible
    Tools: „DP“ means: Doing and reflecting. Measuring experience by the numbers of hours spend on an activity is not enought – its important to be very critical about your work so that you can improve.
    „Engaging“, also called „immersion“: Be part of the world of the users, of the world where you want to contribute to.
    This is why average age of entrepreneurs is 35, and ist very common to start with a idea you had while working in a company X
    This is whre the Shane example of the 3D- Printer comes in again.
    This is illustrated by the Dropbox example.
  • Ist about a specific problem now. Again read and get immersed on the specifics.
    Seeing similarities: golf ball RFID was triggered by the entrepreneur watching an alarm go off in a clothing store when someone wanted to steal with RFID-Protected.
    The similaritiy in problem: Finding stuff. Simialrity in solution: the chip
    Seeing differences: Combine stuff from different sources. Gives surprise results: baby and cleaning. Is really sold.
    Convergent thinking: finding the one answer to a problem
    Divervent thinking: finding multiple answers to a problem. Reframing the problem
    RSA Aminate Education Paradigms: On why it is so difficult to be and remain creative: Education paradim of „industrial model“. Taht drives out „divergent thinking“ out of kids
    6:30 – end (6 mins)
  • Frist Definition // then lets hear it from the movie // then discuss: what happens during incubation
    Ist not like „nothing happens“ during incubation. Neuroscience suggests that it is not this left-side / right side BS that creates the emergence of new ideas.
    Rather, talk is about „networks“ where a lot of brain regions are involved, networks: clusters of cells in different areas of the brain that are involved.
    Executive Attention network (green) when you are focussin on stuff „attention like a laserbeam“ Like now, hopefully. Also active when you are not conciously working on stuff
    Imagination network: „constructing dynamic mental simulations based on personal past experiences such as used during remembering, thinking about the future, and generally when imagining alternative perspectives and scenarios to the present.” = You use it all the time anyways
    Salience network: switches between the two
    Indeed, its often helpful to stifle the activity of the EAN:
    *walk away
    Daydream
    Relax
    Chose a different environment
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2700890/?tool%3Dpubmed
  • Streghenting sympaitc connections with learning and repeated exposure and / or attention to a certain „issue“.
    This allows a thinkter to more quickly and realiably make associations.
    A process also used i „priming“
    Check Erik KandelCreative
    “idea generation is a cognitive process involving retrieval of ideas from long-term memory and their integration in working memory” Long-term memory is associative, being organized such that related concepts are more strongly connected—and thus more likely to be retrieved together or in rapid succession—than concepts that are only weakly related. Clusters of similar concepts are organized into categories
  • Research on „Illumination is particularly difficult as you cannot just stuff people in a MRT Magnet Resonance Tube as see what happens as they get an illumination
    Trick: relatively easy word combinations „Pine apple crab“ + find a word that links or so: „Compound remote Association test“
    Have people solve and tell if they had an „insight“ or developed“ anaytically.
    Researchers can then spot intensitc and location of activiy in the brain and derive ideas of what happened.
  • The „get sorted“ – exercise to illustrate the „fixation on the first idea“ from Tina Seelig
    Get about 20-30 people from the audience to where they can move. Instruct.
    „Line up from left to right according to your month and then day of the birthday WITHOUT talking!“
    Explain: January first would go here. December 31 woudl to there. You have ONE minute.
    What you will see is people explaining with their fingers.
    Test if they found the correct order. Ask them to sit down.
    Explain: You always that this. Someone starts with the fingers, and poeple copy.
    BUT THERE MIGHT have been other options. Have audience collect
    a) Writing / b) showing licence / c) having someone outside the group arrange the group („January here, Feb. There“ … … … others.
    This is „fixation on the first idea“ which you often find with entrepreneurs.
    This is what makes the difference between a „dreamer“ and a real entrepreneur, a person that acutally does stuff.
    Verification is clearly par t of the „lean“ model of hypothesis-driven entrepreneurship.
    We have got to avoid the „fixation on the first idea“
    This is what we also find in brainstoring („Collaboratie fixation: Effects of others‘ ideas on brainstorming (2010).
  • Just an intro slide for „individual barriers to innovation“.
    You can use it to trigger indivdiual responses to „barriers“
  • a) 2600 tests after graduation. But in real life, there is often not „one answer“.
    b) Try not to inhibit divergent thinking
    c) This has always been doe that way … is cognitively easier … but can lead to ineffective solutions (keyboards)
    d) Think only the thinkable? Limits C. Go and play. Use techniques (later in this lecture) to split open the „box“
    f) Link this point to „connecting the dots“ or to „divergent thinking“: If you become overy specialized you do not know issues outside of your narrow field of interest. Limits your ability for divergent thinking. A technician that knows about market trends can not only make something new, but also sth useful (definition of crea). A bus admin that knows tech. Cannot only think about novely, but also about whether it is possible ot build.
    g) Introduce risk and uncertainty. Introduce Risk avoidance.
    h) Can this be a reason why no one answers in class: Waht if ist wrong? What do my colleagues think … … Only if you do something, you can make mistakes …
    i) Everyone is creative. When you tell a lie, you create a whole new world. For example, a world in which you study on Sunday rather than spend the day in bed … a world where you eat healthy … … if you can create worlds of imagination, then you can surely be creative arond this issue of a single product/ service. RATHER: whats missing may not be the creativity, but the means of expression (drawing, doing handicraft)
  • Do something relaxing and fun, like watch a movie.
  • While intuitively correct, think about the sematnic network that is literally embodied in synaptic connection. Think about if you had more
    Shower with eyes closed, eating without fork & spoon
    Listen and observe what others do and say: customers, Kids, other companies and
    Use a creativity journal
  • Diversity of staff: age, cultural backround whatnot: Strong ties & weak ties as reasons why it can work. Diversity of viewpoints lead to creative tension.
    BUT: Meta-analysis: team het. Alone does not contribute to more innovatieness. Ist FUNCTIONAL het. that does.
    For you: Team builiding. You can influence functional het.
    Architecture: alternative pictuer: kindergarden – school – cubicle illustration of how our workplaces become less and less „inspiring“.
    Dont leve it to amateurs: MB mixed up people from different departments on different floors to incraese collaboration. Did not work. Now we dont even talk with each other 
    For you: change the environment
    Org. Structure: the more levels, the more likely to reject. Organic vs. Mechanistic. Functional vs. Business unit. Any type of creating „bunkers“ interrups potentially interesting lines for crative collaboration. While there may be very good reasons for any structural division, think about ist concequences in terms of creativity.
    For you?
    Suggestion schemes: A chapter on ist own. Timely, fair, transparent, etc are minimum requirements to keep staff motivated to submit creative soltions
    VOC: have everyone out to interact with customers at leas once in a while. Dont leave it to „boundary spanners“
    Motivation: intrinsic / extrinsc: Ask aorund what may work and why for creativity.
    RSA animate on Motivation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u6XAPnuFjJc
    Problem infomration: Lead user
    Rewards: RSA on Motivation
  • Ist nur eine Übergangsfolie zum Thema „Kreativitätstechniken“.
    Es wird ja of suggeriert das es eine „If – then“ - Logik bei Crea. Gibt: Mach Brainstorming, dann …
    Das halte ich für zu mechanistisch.
    A closer look a the lit reveals taht some of the techniues are not as effectice if used „just like that“!
  • How NOT to brainstrom: It will DEFINITELY NOT WORK WHEN ACTING LIKE THIS; BUT…..
  • Total model.
    We select a few.
  • Illusion of productivity: why:
    Cultural expextations: „group work is good“
    Experience of flow: „It felt so … creative!“
    Where is HE looking at?
    Does the tie still sit sharp?
    How can I (!) be the top B****?
  • Kann ich im Moment nicht viel zu sagen ausser:
    Vorbereitung hilft “Incubation”
    Pausen helfen “Cognigive loads”
    Paulus et al., 2006 for rules
  • Start with a deep analysis of a problem. Discuss, ask questions (20 mins)
    5 mins per person to wirte up 3 ideas
    Pass it around
    Read and epand on / or add new ideas .. …
    Where can be advantages over „Brainstroming“?
    Less social Bullshit // time to focus! (analytical mind)
    Paulus: some reasearchon combined Brainstrom/ Brainwriting shows ist more promisitng than just BS itself
    Wirkungsvoller Einsatz in eher redefreudigen Gruppen die den Hang haben alles ausdiskutieren zu müssen. Vielredner können gebändigt werden. Redeschüchterne sind ebenfalls eingebunden. Verhindert Zerreden und ausufern
    Wenn aber sechs Runden Ermüdungserscheinungen
    Die Methode 635 ist eine Form des Brainstorming, das schriftlich in der Gruppe durchgeführt wird (vgl. Brainwriting). Sie zielt bei der Ideenfindung hauptsächlich darauf, dass die Ideen der Teilnehmerinnen und Teilnehmer gegenseitig aufgegriffen und dadurch weiterentwickelt werden.
    Dauer: ca. 40 Minuten;
    Teilnehmer: 6 !
    Räumliches Arrangement: am besten um einen Tisch
    Materialien: Schreibstifte, 635-Formular
    Ergänzung der Vorgängerideen
    Variation der Vorgängerideen
    völlig neue, andere Ideen
    Verlauf
    Jeder der Teilnehmer erhält ein vorbereitetes 635-Formular. Die Angaben zu den Beteiligten und die Blatt-Nummer werden von den Teilnehmern und Teilnehmerinnen eingetragen.
    Das Problem wird vom Leiter/Moderator vorgestellt und die genaue Problemstellung wird definiert. Die Problemdefinition wird im 635-Formular notiert.
    Jeder der 6 Teilnehmer trägt 3 Ideen in die oberste Zeile seines 635-Formulars (horizontal!) ein. Dafür gibt es ca. 5 Minuten Zeit.
    Auf ein Kommando des Moderators hin wird das 635-Formular an den rechten Tischnachbarn weitergegeben.
    Jeder Teilnehmer hat nun ein 635-Formular seines linken Tischnachbarn vor sich, in dem schon die erste Tabellenzeile mit ihren drei Kästchen ausgefüllt sind. In die zweite Tabellenzeile können in dieser Runde wieder 3 Ideen eingetragen werden. Diese Ideen können die Vorgängerideen ergänzen oder variieren, dürfen aber auch vollständig andere, neue Ideen sein. Dafür stehen wieder 5 Minuten zur Verfügung.
    Danach werden die Formulare wieder in der gleichen Richtung weitergereicht, bis die sechste und letzte Zeile des 635-Formulars ausgefüllt ist.
    Im Anschluss an die Ideenfindung kann die Gruppe, sofern dies gewünscht ist, eine erste Bewertung der Ideen vornehmen.
    Variation: nach der 4. Runde – Steigerung auf 7. Minuten
  • Helps to structure stuff …
    You can use computer to shuffe stuff around
    You may feel linear rellations are too limited to shw what you want .. You concept maps or other stuff
    Start in the center with an image of the topic, using at least 3 colors.
    Use images, symbols, codes, and dimensions throughout your mind map.
    Select key words and print using upper or lower case letters.
    Each word/image is best alone and sitting on its own line.
    The lines should be connected, starting from the central image. The central lines are thicker, organic and thinner as they radiate out from the center.
    Make the lines the same length as the word/image they support.
    Use multiple colors throughout the mind map, for visual stimulation and also to encode or group.
    Develop your own personal style of mind mapping.
    Use emphasis and show associations in your mind map.
    Keep the mind map clear by using radial hierarchy, numerical order or outlines to embrace your branches.
  • Session 4 creativity session funding

    1. 1. School of Management & Governance 1 PD Dr. Rainer Harms r.harms@utwente.nl International New Business Development Session 4 - Creativity session
    2. 2. lunchlezing van Jort Kelder in Waaier 1 en 2 We finish at 1220 School of Management & Governance 2
    3. 3. School of Management & Governance 3 5 + 5 = ? From Seelig, T.
    4. 4. School of Management & Governance 4 x + y = 10 From Seelig, T.
    5. 5. Learning goals Individual level Discover the „creative process“ Discover typical barriers to the creative process Organizational level Discuss creative conditions in companies Discover the relationship between incentives and creativity Tools Discuss critically: Brainstroming et al. School of Management & Governance 5
    6. 6. Can anyone do it? School of Management & Governance 6 http://www.fastcompany.com/1753885/conan-obrien-expresses- himself-fast-companys-most-creative-people-issue#
    7. 7. The creative process  „… the production of novel and useful ideas or problem solutions“ (Amabile et al. 2005, S. 368) School of Management & Governance 7
    8. 8. How do novel and useful ideas or problem solutions emerge? Look inside the creative process School of Management & Governance 8
    9. 9. The creative process I: Preparation „Creativity favors the prepared mind“ 10.000 – hour rule Gates & The Beatles (Gladwell) How? general building blocks, routies free capacity for creativity knowing whats useful and possible Tools: deliberate practice reading, engaging creativity journal School of Management & Governance 9 http://www.muyinteresante.es/tag/Isaac-Newton Scarboraough, N.M. (2011), p. 67
    10. 10. The creative process II: Investigation&Transformation Investigation: gathering a solid understanding of the problem Transformation: mapping simliarities and differences among information Basics approaches: convergent and divergent thinking, structuring School of Management & Governance 10 http://blog.barcoding.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/golf.gif http://www.huffingtonpost.com/chris-barnes/repurposing-ideas-5-new-uses-paper-clips_b_1661794.html / http://www.mindtools.com/media/Diagrams/mindmap.jpg
    11. 11. The creative process III: Incubation Incubation = Unconscious recombination of thought elements that were stimulated through conscious work at one point in time, resulting in novel ideas at some later point in time. (wiki) RSA animate: where good ideas come from School of Management & Governance 11 http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/beautiful-minds/2013/08/19/the-real-neuroscience-of- creativity/
    12. 12. The creative process III: Incubation School of Management & Governance 12 http://www.creativitypost.com/psychology/creativity_and_iq._what_is_d ivergent_thinking_how_is_it_helped_by_sleep // wiki
    13. 13. The creative process IV: Illumination Difficult research design: Creativity as it happens „The Aha! moment itself seems to reflect the sudden emergence into consciousness of a representation or thought that brings together all the necessary problem elements and is likely to involve right-hemisphere semantic integration that connects distantly related concepts “ „It could be that any behavior that encourages people to attend to their own quiet thoughts will be somewhat helpful for insight.” -> That’s what we have learned about Incubation Jung-Beeman et al. (2008) School of Management & Governance 13
    14. 14. The creative process V: Verification and Implemention School of Management & Governance 14 http://egyptianinnovation.wordpress.com/tag/innovation/
    15. 15. School of Management & Governance 15 Scarborough (2011), 56-60
    16. 16. Individual-level barriers to creativity a) Searching for the „right“ answer b) Focussing on „being logical“ c) Following rules d) Always being practical e) Never play f) Becoming overly specialized g) Avoiding ambiguity h) FEAR of mistakes, of looking foolish i) Believing you are not creative School of Management & Governance 16
    17. 17. Individual-level ways to enhance creativity School of Management & Governance 17 http://allenketchersid.com/2012/02/
    18. 18. Individual-level ways to increase creativity a) Give your mind fresh input every day (when was the last time you …) b) Do something normal, but in a very weird way c) Be attentive d) Take notes School of Management & Governance 18 http://www.debraquartermain.com/ceoblog/?y=2010&m=3
    19. 19. Organizational ways to increase employees creativity  Diversity  Architecture  Org. structure  Suggestion schemes  Voice of the Customer – as far as problem information  Rewards?! School of Management & Governance 19 http://www.oneofficedesign.net/colorful-creative-home-office- decorating.html
    20. 20. School of Management & Governance 20 http://www.schulbilder.org/bild-technologie-i14730.html
    21. 21. Creativity techniques in context School of Management & Governance 21 Initiative Feedback/ Stop PROJECTMANAGEMENT Problem analysis Goal formulation Find alternatives Evaluate / Decide Control Implement
    22. 22. Brainstorming: everyone does it, but …  Start with defined question  Comunicate rules  No criticism  Quativity above quality  Crazy ideas encouraged  Encourage building on theris ideas  Start the process  Moderator collects ideas, stimulates group  end School of Management & Governance 22 How not to brainstorm: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ttWhK-NO4g8
    23. 23. ,… there is a productivity gap. School of Management & Governance 23 Paulus, P. Effective group brainstorming
    24. 24. 24Creativity and Innovation Group Structure Diversity Cohesiveness Longevity Size Overlap in KSA Leadership Style External Demands Autonomy/Self-Management Resources Creative Mentors and Models Organizational Specified Goals Rewards and Penalties Organizational Structure Performance Feedback Reference Group Performance Intergroup & Intragroup Competition Group Climate Psychological Safety Trust Risk-Taking Norms Participation Conflict Shared Goals/Vision Commitment to Task Norms for Innovation Group Member Variables Personality Task Relevant KSA Mood (Cognitive Flexibility) Intrinsic Motivation Perceived Task Challenge Creative Self-Efficacy Attitude toward Diversity Group, Task, and Situational Variables Cognitive Processes Generate Solutions by: *Searching LTM to Generate Ideas *Attending to Others’ Ideas *Combining/Elaborating on Previously Generated and Others’ Ideas Social Processes Share Generated Ideas Exchange Information/Collaborative Problem-Solving Discuss Varied Viewpoints/Minority Dissent Engage in Social Comparison Manage Conflict Reflexivity Motivational Processes Use Internal Motivators (e.g., Intrinsic Motivation) and External Motivators (e.g., Goals, Rewards, Competition) to Set and Maintain High Levels of Motivation Reduce Group Motivational Losses (e.g., Social Loafing, Free Riding) Group/Team Processes Group Structure Diversity Cohesiveness Longevity Size Overlap in KSA Leadership Style Communication Modality External Demands Freedom/Autonomy/Self-Management Support for Creativity (including Resources) Creative Mentors and Models Organizational Specified Goals Rewards and Penalties Organizational Structure Performance Feedback Reference Group Performance Feedback Intergroup & Intragroup Competition Task Structure Group Climate Psychological Safety Trust Norms of Participation Conflict Shared Goals/Vision Commitment to Task Norms for Innovation Risk Taking Norms Group Member Variables Personality Task Relevant KSA Mood (Cognitive Flexibility) Intrinsic Motivation Perceived Task Challenge Creative Self-Efficacy Attitude toward Diversity Group/Team, Task, and Situational Variables Paulus, P. Effective group brainstorming
    25. 25. Influencers on creative group performance School of Management & Governance 25 Social inhibition Social anxiety Social loafing Free riding Illusion of productivity Matching Downward comparison Cognitive inferenece Production blocking Task irrelevant behavior Cognitive load Social stimulation Competition Upward comparison Psychol. Safety Cognitive stimulation Priming Attention Incubation Heterogeneity conflicts Paulus, P. Effective group brainstorming
    26. 26. Tools on increase group creativity • High Standards • Negative competitive feedback • Additional Rules • Task Decomposition • Breaks • Training School of Management & Governance 26
    27. 27. Example: Effect of Alone / Group sequencing School of Management & Governance 27
    28. 28. Method 635 How can we have more fun in this class? Idea 1 Idea 2 Idea 3 Participant 1 Participant 2 Participant 3 Participant 4 Participant 5 Participant 6 School of Management & Governance 28
    29. 29. Semantic Intution Make use of the associative mind! Oven, Cover, Steam, Knife, Plate, Mixer, Potatoe, Grater, Glass, cool. Hot … You get: Ovenmixer … BS? Gratingcover … BS? Coldplate … BS? School of Management & Governance 29 Schwarz, Kraijer, Dummer
    30. 30. Semantic Intuition: try for yourself A cosmetics company is looking for ideas for new products: A brainstrom revealed serveral key words: Face, tooth, mask, brush, tweezer, cleansing, stick, roll-on, hair, blow- dryer, color, scent, care … Try for 10 mins if you can come up, individually, with 2 new product ideas! School of Management & Governance 30
    31. 31. Mindmapping School of Management & Governance 31 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MindMapGuidlines.svg
    32. 32. References Scarborough, N.M (2011): Essentials of Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management. Chapter 2 Jung-Beeman, M., Collier, Azurri, Kounios, J. (2008): How insight happens: learning from the brain. NeuroLeadershipJournal 1, 1-6 School of Management & Governance 32

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