IB Oceans and their Coastal Margins<br />B1 – Introduction to Oceans: Morphology of Oceans & Ocean Water<br />
Morphology of Oceans<br />B1 – Introduction to Oceans<br />
Seamounts – extinct volcanic cones that lie below the surface.<br />Guyot - a flat topped volcano that once reached the su...
Abysall Plain  - at the edge of the continental slope. These plains cover large areas of the sea floor at depths of betwee...
Abysall Plain  - at the edge of the continental slope. These plains cover large areas of the sea floor at depths of betwee...
Continental Slope- the steeply sloping area of the seabed that stretches from the continental shelf to the abyssal plain.<...
Submarine Canyon – steep sided valley on the sea floor of a continental slope.<br />Often (but not always) found as extens...
Ocean Trenches<br />
Ocean Trenches<br />The deepest part of the oceans. Arc-shaped depressions, formed at subduction zones where one tectonic ...
Mid-Ocean Ridges<br />The largest feature of the ocean floor.<br />Linear belt of submarine mountains.<br />New magma forc...
Continental Shelf<br />Relatively flat area of seabed, stretching from the land to the edge of the continental slope.<br /...
OCEANIC WATER<br />B1 – Introduction to Oceans<br />
Variations in Ocean Temperature<br />Temperature in the oceans is not always constant.<br />Ocean temperature not only var...
f<br />Sea Surface Temperature<br />Impact of currents can be seen:<br />- Western side of continents shows cooler water h...
----<br />Ocean water also varies with depth:<br />Temperature <br />Salinity<br />Ocean waters varies seasonally up to de...
-------<br />A boundary usually occurs at a depth of between 200 and 800m called the thermocline; below that surface water...
Other Changes with Depth<br />Density of ocean water increases constantly with decreasing temperature until the water free...
Salinity and density show the opposite trend to water as the depth of ocean water increases.<br />Temperature declines wit...
Tropical Areas<br />These changes are most noticeable at the tropical areas.<br />The surface temperatures are warmer in t...
Changes with Latitude - Salinity<br />Average salinity is 35 parts per thousand.<br />Concentrations of salt are higher in...
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L2 morphology and oceanic water

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  • L2 morphology and oceanic water

    1. 1. IB Oceans and their Coastal Margins<br />B1 – Introduction to Oceans: Morphology of Oceans & Ocean Water<br />
    2. 2. Morphology of Oceans<br />B1 – Introduction to Oceans<br />
    3. 3. Seamounts – extinct volcanic cones that lie below the surface.<br />Guyot - a flat topped volcano that once reached the surface but later subsided.<br />
    4. 4. Abysall Plain - at the edge of the continental slope. These plains cover large areas of the sea floor at depths of between 4000m and 6000m. They are generally flat and featureless.<br />
    5. 5. Abysall Plain - at the edge of the continental slope. These plains cover large areas of the sea floor at depths of between 4000m and 6000m. They are generally flat and featureless.<br />
    6. 6. Continental Slope- the steeply sloping area of the seabed that stretches from the continental shelf to the abyssal plain.<br />
    7. 7. Submarine Canyon – steep sided valley on the sea floor of a continental slope.<br />Often (but not always) found as extensions to larger rivers.<br />Submarine canyons are thought to be major conduits for sediment movement from the continents into the deep-sea.<br />
    8. 8. Ocean Trenches<br />
    9. 9. Ocean Trenches<br />The deepest part of the oceans. Arc-shaped depressions, formed at subduction zones where one tectonic plate plunges under another one.<br />Usually a dense oceanic plate going under a less dense continental one.<br />
    10. 10.
    11. 11. Mid-Ocean Ridges<br />The largest feature of the ocean floor.<br />Linear belt of submarine mountains.<br />New magma forces its way up between two plates and pushes them apart.<br />The rate of spreading at the mid Atlantic ridge is 5 cm a year. <br />
    12. 12.
    13. 13. Continental Shelf<br />Relatively flat area of seabed, stretching from the land to the edge of the continental slope.<br />The continental shelf is less than 250m deep and may be up to 70 km wide.<br />
    14. 14. OCEANIC WATER<br />B1 – Introduction to Oceans<br />
    15. 15. Variations in Ocean Temperature<br />Temperature in the oceans is not always constant.<br />Ocean temperature not only varies through the seasons but also by latitude.<br />Sea surface temperature usually recorded remotely by satellite.<br />
    16. 16. f<br />Sea Surface Temperature<br />Impact of currents can be seen:<br />- Western side of continents shows cooler water heading towards equator.<br />
    17. 17. ----<br />Ocean water also varies with depth:<br />Temperature <br />Salinity<br />Ocean waters varies seasonally up to depths of 500 – 1000 metres.<br />
    18. 18. -------<br />A boundary usually occurs at a depth of between 200 and 800m called the thermocline; below that surface waters don’t mix.<br />90% of the total volume of ocean water is found below the thermocline.<br />
    19. 19. Other Changes with Depth<br />Density of ocean water increases constantly with decreasing temperature until the water freezes.<br />Ocean water is saline therefore its normal freezing temperature is -1.94°C; significantly cooler than pure water.<br />As sea water freezes it usually rejects some of the salt; therefore is only 1% saline; where as sea water is 3.5% saline.<br />
    20. 20. Salinity and density show the opposite trend to water as the depth of ocean water increases.<br />Temperature declines with increasing depth but salinity and water density both increase.<br />Salinity show a rapid increase at the same time temperature falls rapidly. This increase of salinity is called the halocine.<br />At the same depth the water density also increases rapidly in the same zone which is referred to as the pycnocline.<br />
    21. 21. Tropical Areas<br />These changes are most noticeable at the tropical areas.<br />The surface temperatures are warmer in the equatorial areas.<br />At great depths the temperature of ocean water shows very little variation.<br />
    22. 22. Changes with Latitude - Salinity<br />Average salinity is 35 parts per thousand.<br />Concentrations of salt are higher in warm seas, due to high rates of evaporation of water.<br />In polar seas where there is an input of fresh water from rivers salinity is low.<br />

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