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L09 geopolitics of oceans conflict

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  • 1. IB Oceans and their Coastal Margins
    B4 – Geopolitics of Oceans - Conflict
  • 2. Scramble for the Arctic
  • 3. ARCTIC OCEAN STATE-CHANGES:
    NATIONAL INTERESTS AND COMMON INTERESTS
    Nation
    State
    ~25%
    International
    Space
    ~75%
    Paul Arthur Berkman
    Arctic Ocean Geopolitics Programme
    Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge
  • 4. ARCTIC OCEAN
  • 5. SOVIET PRESIDENT MIKHAIL GORBACHEV – SPEECH IN MURMANSK AT THE CEREMONIAL MEETING ON THE OCCASION OF THE PRESENTATION OF THE ORDER OF LENIN AND THE GOLD STAR TO THE CITY OF MURMANSK
     
    Murmansk, 1 October 1987
     
    “The community and interrelationship of the interests of our entire world is felt in the northern part of the globe, in the Arctic, perhaps more than anywhere else. For the Arctic and the North Atlantic are not just the "weather kitchen", the point where cyclones and anticyclones are born to influence the climate in Europe, the USA and Canada, and even in South Asia and Africa.
     
    I would like to invite, first of all, the countries of the region to a discussion on the burning security issues.
     
    The potential of contemporary civilization could permit us to make the Arctic habitable for the benefit of the national economies and other human interests of the near-Arctic states, for Europe and the entire international community.
     
    Let the North of the globe, the Arctic, become a zone of peace. Let the North Pole be a pole of peace.”
  • 6. ENVIRONMENTAL STATE-CHANGE
  • 7. EMERGING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES
    FIGURE 7: Shipping routes in the Arctic Ocean in 2004 based on eleven commercial vessel types among approximately 6000 vessels. Major fishing activities, with more than 5000 fishing vessel days, occurred in the Large Marine Ecosystems (Fig. 2) of the: East Berring Sea, Barents Sea, West Greenland Shelf, East Greenland Shelf, Norwegian Sea, Iceland Shelf Sea and Farroe Plateau. Adapted from the 2009 Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment.
  • 8. INTERNATIONAL INTERESTS IN THE ARCTIC
  • 9. INTERNATIONAL INTERESTS IN THE ARCTIC
  • 10. “BURNING SECURITY ISSUES”
    FIGURE 6: Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBM) test in the Arctic. Data through 2007 [1] has associated information about the missile types, apogees, sites and missions. The 2009 SLBM launches were reported in Ria Novosti. [2] This figure shows a total of 133 SLBM tests in the Arctic.
    [1]http://www.astronautix.com/sites/acrocean.htm
    [2] Russia test launches second Sineva ballistic missile in two days. RiaNovosti 18 July 2009. (http://en.rian.ru/mlitary_news/20090714/155525416.html)
  • 11. ARCTIC GOVERNANCE – INSTITUTIONAL INTERPLAY
  • 12. GEOPOLITICAL STATE-CHANGE
    OIL AND GAS ESTIMATES
    2009 - United States Geological Survey
    “…the Arctic may contain about 30% of the world’s undiscovered gas and 13% of the world’s undiscovered oil… about 618 BBO [billion barrels of oil] … with a high probability (>95%chance) that more than 770 TCF [trillion cubic feet] of gas occurs north of the Arctic Circle.”
    Science 324:1175-1179  
    1974 – Unites States Geological Survey
    “…45 billion barrels of oil and 115 trillion cubic feet of natural gas” in the Antarctic
    Geological Survey Circular 705 (USGS, Reston)
  • 13. UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA
    Signed: Montego Bay, Jamaica, 10 December 1982
    Entered into Force: 16 November 1994
    Ratification, Accession or Succession: 155+ Nations
  • 14. ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY
    +
    NATIONAL INTERESTS
    COMMON INTERESTS
    ARCTIC COUNCIL
    “Arctic Council should not deal with matters related to military security”
    “common arctic issues” - sustainable development and environmental protection
  • 15. “North Pole as a pole of peace.”
    NEEDED: Wisdom to promote cooperation and prevent discord with all tools of diplomacy

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