L01 2010 the growth of world populationPresentation Transcript
The Growth of World Population
Key Terms Population Distribution – How people are spread across the earth. Population Density – The number of people living in a given area. Usually measured as people per square kilometre.
Key Terms Birth Rate - A measure of an area’s fertility. It is expressed as number of live births per 1,000 people in 1 year. (Crude Birth Rate) Death Rate – The number of deaths per 1,000 people in 1 year. (Crude Death Rate) Life Expectancy – The average number of years from birth that a person can expect to live.
Key Terms (con’t) Longevity – the increase in life expectancy over a period of time. It is a direct result of improved medical provision and increased levels of economic development. People live longer and this creates an older population.
Key Terms (con’t) Natural Change – The change in size of a population caused by the interrelationship between birth and death rates. If birth rate exceeds death rate, a population will increase. If death rate exceeds birth rate, a population will decline.
Global Population Growth in World population has not taken place evenly.
World Population Growth
Population Change Components of Population Change: Fertility (births) Mortality (deaths) Migration
Measures of Fertility Crude Birth Rate (CBR) Total Fertility Rate – the average number of children born to a women during her lifetime. Replacement Level Fertility –the level at which each generation has only enough daughters to replace themselves. Approximately 2.12 is replacement rate.
Measures of Mortality Crude Death Rate Age-Specific Death Rate Age- and Sex- Specific Death Rate Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) – a measure of the number of deaths of infants before their first birthday per 1000 live births. Life Expectancy – the average number of years a person can expect to live. Maternal Mortality Rate – the number of women who die as a result of complications in pregnancy and childbirth. Measured per 1000 live births in a year.
Causes of Population Growth
Factors: Health Control of Disease Birth Control Measures Infant Mortality Rates Diet and Malnutrition Numbers of Doctors and Nurses Sexual Health Sanitation
Factors: Education Health Education Age at Which Compulsory Schooling Finishes Females in Education Levels of Tertiary Education Literacy Levels
Factors: Social Provision Levels of care for the elderly. Availability of radio and other media. Clean water supply.
Factors: Cultural Factors Religious attitudes to birth control Status gain from having children. Role of women in society. Sexual morality.
Factors: Political Factors Taxation to support services Strength of the economy Impact of war and conflicts Access to healthcare and contraception.
Factors: Environmental Factors Frequency of hazards. Environmental conditions that breed disease.