JabberwockyJabberwockybybyLewis CarrollLewis Carroll Twas brillig, and the slithy tovesDid gyre and gimble in the wabe:All mimsy were the borogoves,And the mome raths outgrabe."Beware the Jabberwock, my son!The jaws that bite, the claws that catch!Beware the Jubjub bird, and shunThe frumious Bandersnatch!"He took his vorpal sword in hand:Long time the manxome foe he sought --So rested he by the Tumtum tree,And stood awhile in thought.And, as in uffish thought he stood,The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame,Came whiffling through the tulgey wood,And burbled as it came!One, two! One, two! And through and throughThe vorpal blade went snicker-snack!He left it dead, and with its headHe went galumphing back."And, has thou slain the Jabberwock?Come to my arms, my beamish boy!O frabjous day! Callooh! Callay!He chortled in his joy.`Twas brillig, and the slithy tovesDid gyre and gimble in the wabe;All mimsy were the borogoves,And the mome raths outgrabe.
““ Stop -Stop - don’tdon’ttouch thattouch thatdictionary. Thedictionary. Thedefinition of thedefinition of theword you don’tword you don’tknow is right hereknow is right here
Context CluesContext Clues Words or phrases around an unfamiliarWords or phrases around an unfamiliarword which can help you understand theword which can help you understand themeaning of this new word are calledmeaning of this new word are calledcontext cluescontext clues. If you learn how to use. If you learn how to usethese clues, you can save yourself a tripthese clues, you can save yourself a tripto the dictionary, increase yourto the dictionary, increase yourvocabulary, and improve your readingvocabulary, and improve your readingcomprehension.comprehension.
Context CluesContext Clues Vocabulary knowledge is mandatory toVocabulary knowledge is mandatory toachieve success.achieve success. Often when confronted with an unfamiliarOften when confronted with an unfamiliarword within its context, students will skipword within its context, students will skipover it and continue to read, or they willover it and continue to read, or they willstop reading altogether.stop reading altogether.
Context CluesContext Clues The sentence might offer an example ofThe sentence might offer an example ofthe word or tell what the word does.the word or tell what the word does.If you encounter an unfamiliar word,If you encounter an unfamiliar word,context clues or other words around it incontext clues or other words around it inthe sentence or paragraph can help youthe sentence or paragraph can help youfigure out its meaning.figure out its meaning.
1. Context Clues1. Context CluesGuidelinesGuidelines AfterAfter the word or thatthe word or that directly followdirectly follow thetheunfamiliar word.unfamiliar word. Example: TheExample: The trektrek,, or journey, becameor journey, becamemore challenging as we approached themore challenging as we approached thetop of the mountain.top of the mountain.
2. Context Clue2. Context ClueGuidelineGuideline Authors often useAuthors often use punctuation cluespunctuation clues totohelp the reader.help the reader. Punctuation cluesPunctuation cluesmight include commas, dashes,might include commas, dashes, ororparentheses.parentheses. Example: In order to keep the dogsExample: In order to keep the dogsinside the yard, we built ainside the yard, we built a parapetparapet, a low, a lowwall or railing.wall or railing.
2. More Examples2. More Examples MaryMary retainedretained,, kept, the deed to her motherskept, the deed to her mothershouse.house. I wonder if that fruit isI wonder if that fruit is edibleedible,, able to be eaten.able to be eaten. The company is going through manyThe company is going through manytransitions,transitions, changes.changes. Children are oftenChildren are often loquacious,loquacious, very talkativevery talkativeand active.and active. Bigamy,Bigamy, marriage to two spouses at themarriage to two spouses at thesame time,same time, is not legal in the United States.is not legal in the United States.
3. Context Clue3. Context ClueGuidelineGuideline Before the wordBefore the word calledcalled.. Example: The worm ate the middle layerExample: The worm ate the middle layerof the peach, which is called theof the peach, which is called themesocarpmesocarp..
4. Context Clue4. Context ClueGuidelineGuideline In theIn the previousprevious sentence.sentence. Example: Everyone at the dinner tableExample: Everyone at the dinner tablecleaned their plates and asked forcleaned their plates and asked forseconds. As the guests left, they said theseconds. As the guests left, they said thedinner wasdinner was delectabledelectable..
5. Context Clue5. Context ClueGuidelineGuideline In theIn the nextnext sentencesentence Example: Jake left the waitress aExample: Jake left the waitress a paltrypaltrytip. She forgot to give them glasses oftip. She forgot to give them glasses ofwater, brought out cold food, and neverwater, brought out cold food, and neverchecked on them, so she deserved achecked on them, so she deserved asmall tip.small tip.
6. Context Clue6. Context ClueGuidelineGuideline By replacing the unfamiliar word with aBy replacing the unfamiliar word with a““predictionprediction” word to see if it fits or” word to see if it fits ormakes sense.makes sense. Example: He acted like aExample: He acted like a buffoonbuffoon at theat theparty by telling jokes and laughing tooparty by telling jokes and laughing tooloudly and too often.loudly and too often.(prediction word: fool)(prediction word: fool)
7. Context Clue7. Context ClueGuidelineGuideline By studying the unfamiliar word’sBy studying the unfamiliar word’s prefix,prefix,suffix, or rootsuffix, or root word and writing the meaningsword and writing the meaningsto figure out the meaning of the word.to figure out the meaning of the word.Example: The only part of the cityExample: The only part of the city recognizablerecognizableto Ian was the Sears Tower.to Ian was the Sears Tower.(-able=capable of being/recognizable)(-able=capable of being/recognizable)
8. Context Clue8. Context ClueGuidelineGuideline By asking yourself if the word soundsBy asking yourself if the word soundspositive or negativepositive or negative.. Example: The evil queen cast aExample: The evil queen cast a sinistersinisterglare at the elf when he asked her aglare at the elf when he asked her aquestion. (evil=negative)question. (evil=negative)
9. Context Clue9. Context ClueGuidelineGuideline By figuring out the word’sBy figuring out the word’s part ofpart ofspeechspeech, such as a noun, verb, adjective,, such as a noun, verb, adjective,or adverb.or adverb. Example: HeExample: He guzzledguzzled water rapidly afterwater rapidly afterthe race.the race. (Guzzled is a verb. He did something to(Guzzled is a verb. He did something tothe water.)the water.)
10. Context Clue10. Context ClueGuidelineGuideline The context clue may be aThe context clue may be a synonymsynonym (words(wordswith almost the same meaningwith almost the same meaning)) or anor anantonymantonym (words opposite in meaning(words opposite in meaning)) for thefor theunfamiliar word.unfamiliar word. Examples: Reducing cholesterol has a number ofExamples: Reducing cholesterol has a number ofbeneficialbeneficial results. Oneresults. One positivepositive outcome is reducingoutcome is reducingthe risk of heart disease. (the risk of heart disease. (synonym cluesynonym clue)) II despisedespise liver, but Iliver, but I adoreadore steak. (steak. (antonymantonymclueclue))
Practice 1Practice 1 I have always lived inI have always lived in cubbyholescubbyholes. After. Aftermoving away from home, my first apartmentmoving away from home, my first apartmentwas just awas just a cubbyholecubbyhole in a large building. It wasin a large building. It wasno more that 8 by 12 and had a bed in oneno more that 8 by 12 and had a bed in onecorner. My second was no more than a largecorner. My second was no more than a largewalk-in closet. My current one is about 10 feetwalk-in closet. My current one is about 10 feetlong by 12 feet wide, but it at least has twolong by 12 feet wide, but it at least has tworooms.rooms. Possible Answer:Possible Answer: A. Small space B. Large Space C. HomeA. Small space B. Large Space C. Home
Practice 2Practice 2 The floors of the restaurant wereThe floors of the restaurant wereextremelyextremely scuzzyscuzzy. They were covered. They were coveredwith spilled grease, crumbs of food, andwith spilled grease, crumbs of food, andcigarette butts.cigarette butts. Possible Answer:Possible Answer: A. Clean B Dirty C. StraightA. Clean B Dirty C. Straight
Practice 3Practice 3 The contractor was always wellThe contractor was always wellremuneratedremunerated for his work. For example,for his work. For example,he received $10,000 for a small additionhe received $10,000 for a small additionto a house and last year he was receivedto a house and last year he was received$5,000 for reconstructing a stairway.$5,000 for reconstructing a stairway. Possible Answer:Possible Answer: A. Valued B. Given C. PaidA. Valued B. Given C. Paid
Practice 4Practice 4 The department store carries a variety ofThe department store carries a variety ofbreechesbreeches, for example they carried, for example they carriedLevis, Wranglers, and even some plainLevis, Wranglers, and even some plainunlabeled brands made of cotton.unlabeled brands made of cotton. Possible Answer:Possible Answer: A Clothes B. Pants C. SocksA Clothes B. Pants C. Socks
Practice 5Practice 5 Josie received aJosie received a baublebauble for a presentfor a presentfrom her great aunt. This she put with herfrom her great aunt. This she put with herothers, a pair of imitation earrings, a fakeothers, a pair of imitation earrings, a fakeemerald pendant, and a ring that lookedemerald pendant, and a ring that lookedlike a ruby.like a ruby. Possible Answer:Possible Answer: A. Rings B. Fancy eats C. JewelryA. Rings B. Fancy eats C. Jewelry