Web Accessibility from a
 software engineering
 perspective: how RIAs and the
 Mobile Web changed
 accessibility testing
D...
About Fraunhofer FIT
—   Fraunhofer Society
—   Fraunhofer Institute for
    Applied Information
    Technology FIT
     ...
Work areas
—   Web Compliance Engineering           —   Consultancy & training:
       SOA/ECMS – Systems'               ...
Software/Web engineering
—   Software engineering:
    «… is a profession dedicated to designing,
    implementing, and mo...
What is the Web?




  «Web Science, the science of decentralised
           information systems.»
      (A Framework for ...
Web pre-, prehistory:
WorldWideWeb Browser
Web prehistory: Mosaic Web
browser
Web of the «End of the
Century»
Web 2.0
What is Web Accessibility?




  «Web accessibility means that people with
       disabilities can use the Web.»
         ...
Components of the Web
Components of the Web 2.0


                            2W
Compliance: what to test?
Web Compliance in general

         SEC 17a-4 (USA)         Canadian          Basel II
                                 El...
Accessibility compliance
Device compliance and ...

             MobileOK




                               SEO




          Corporate Identity
Testing Web 1.0
—   Static pages
       Only form interaction
—   Limited layout possibilities
—   Limited CSS implementa...
… and the RIAs arrived
—   Technology Penetration Report (Security Space, 2009-09-01,
    1,485,767 web sites)
       Tec...
RIA Characteristics
—   Ubiquitous clients: desktop, mobile, …
—   Self-adapted across different platforms
—   Function in...
The problem with HTML
interfaces ...
—   Accessibility relies on abstracting semantics from both content
    and presentat...
Testing Web 2.0
ARIA: filling the gaps
—   Separation of content and presentation
—   States and Property attributes
       Full keyboard...
The contract model:
accessibility APIs
Challenges for a compliance
tool
—   Direct interaction with the server vs. accessing OS accessibility APIs
—   Emulation ...
Roles' summary
Type of tests
—   Automatic
—   Expert
—   Users



(See UWEM)
Testing workflow
Authoring Tool integration
Conclusions
—   Traditional testing approaches are no longer valid
—   Semantic Web technologies are needed:
       Defin...
Q&A
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Web accessibility from a software engineering perspective: how RIAs and the mobile web changed accessibility testing.

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Dr. Carlos Velasco, Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Information Technology (FIT)

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Web accessibility from a software engineering perspective: how RIAs and the mobile web changed accessibility testing.

  1. 1. Web Accessibility from a software engineering perspective: how RIAs and the Mobile Web changed accessibility testing Dr. Carlos A. Velasco Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Information Technology FIT Web Compliance Center – http://imergo.com/ 1st International AEGIS Conference 7-8 October 2010, Sevilla 20101007_AEGIS_Sevilla
  2. 2. About Fraunhofer FIT — Fraunhofer Society — Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Information Technology FIT  Web Compliance Center  Research Area “Life Science Informatics”
  3. 3. Work areas — Web Compliance Engineering — Consultancy & training:  SOA/ECMS – Systems' industry/public sector implementation — Interdisciplinary team:  Quality Assurance  UIs (accessibility, usability;  Computer science biofeedback and therapeutical  Pedagogics intervention systems) — Standards bodies (W3C)  Linguistics — Development &  Engineering commercialization of software
  4. 4. Software/Web engineering — Software engineering: «… is a profession dedicated to designing, implementing, and modifying software so that it is of higher quality, more affordable, maintainable, and faster to build.» (Wikipedia) — Web Engineering «The application of systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approaches to the cost-effective development and evolution of high-quality solutions in the World Wide Web.»
  5. 5. What is the Web? «Web Science, the science of decentralised information systems.» (A Framework for Web Science, Tim Berners-Lee et al.)
  6. 6. Web pre-, prehistory: WorldWideWeb Browser
  7. 7. Web prehistory: Mosaic Web browser
  8. 8. Web of the «End of the Century»
  9. 9. Web 2.0
  10. 10. What is Web Accessibility? «Web accessibility means that people with disabilities can use the Web.» (W3C/WAI)
  11. 11. Components of the Web
  12. 12. Components of the Web 2.0 2W
  13. 13. Compliance: what to test?
  14. 14. Web Compliance in general SEC 17a-4 (USA) Canadian Basel II Electronic Capital Electronic Ledger Storage Law Evidence Act Accord (Japan) HIPAA (USA) 11MEDIS-DC (Japan) ISO 18501/18509 AIPA (Italy) FDA 21 CRF GDPdU & GoBS Part 11 (Germany) NF Z 42-013 (France) Sarbanes-Oxley Act (USA) Public Financial Records Services Office (UK) Authority (UK) BSI PD0008 (UK)
  15. 15. Accessibility compliance
  16. 16. Device compliance and ... MobileOK SEO Corporate Identity
  17. 17. Testing Web 1.0 — Static pages  Only form interaction — Limited layout possibilities — Limited CSS implementation — Poor JS support in AT: JS was «evil» — UAs swallowed anything  Web = poorest & more successful software product of the history — Poorly defined criteria («until UAs ...») — Poor object models implementation
  18. 18. … and the RIAs arrived — Technology Penetration Report (Security Space, 2009-09-01, 1,485,767 web sites)  Technology Sites Percentage  JavaScript 955,494 64.31%  Frames 150,439 10.13%  StyleSheets 942,486 63.43%  Java 8,609 0.58%  Iframes 227,627 15.32%  GIF Images 918,961 61.85%  JPG Images 847,491 57.04%  PNG Images 293,430 19.75%  Flash/Shock. 183,363 12.34%
  19. 19. RIA Characteristics — Ubiquitous clients: desktop, mobile, … — Self-adapted across different platforms — Function in low bandwidth connections — Restore processing power to the client — Deliver engaging UIs: interactivity — Utilize seamlessly audio, video, images and text — Support the mobile workflow — Asynchronous content retrieval — Access multiple middle tier services and backend data stores: Web Services — Integrate with legacy applications and systems — Allow for the incremental addition of new functions
  20. 20. The problem with HTML interfaces ... — Accessibility relies on abstracting semantics from both content and presentational information  Semantic cues from HTML are unreliable (tag elements names) — HTML allows content to be repurposed for:  presentational formatting (e.g., tables instead style sheets)  dynamic custom components (e.g., combined with script and CSS) — HTML lacks the ability to attach meaningful metadata about document structure — HTML elements commonly used for repurposing produce custom components not keyboard accessible
  21. 21. Testing Web 2.0
  22. 22. ARIA: filling the gaps — Separation of content and presentation — States and Property attributes  Full keyboard focus  Mapping to accessibility APIS (passive monitoring of the application by AT) — Role attribute  Machine-readable information about purpose of an element — Role document landmark values — Taxonomy of ARIA role values (Semantic Web)
  23. 23. The contract model: accessibility APIs
  24. 24. Challenges for a compliance tool — Direct interaction with the server vs. accessing OS accessibility APIs — Emulation of user behaviour  Collect document landmarks (role taxonomy, derived from abstract roles):  Widget Roles  Document Structure Roles  Landmark Roles  Monitor WAI-ARIA states and properties (modifiable via JS events):  Managed (user-agent controlled)  Unmanaged (author controlled)  Focus management
  25. 25. Roles' summary
  26. 26. Type of tests — Automatic — Expert — Users (See UWEM)
  27. 27. Testing workflow
  28. 28. Authoring Tool integration
  29. 29. Conclusions — Traditional testing approaches are no longer valid — Semantic Web technologies are needed:  Definition and customisation of rules and rulesets (tests and test suites)  Expression of results (EARL) — Experts need to be incorporated into the workflow  «Expert Viewer» approach — Web apps to be accessed via rendering engine or OS Accessibility API
  30. 30. Q&A

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