Vietnam war america enters

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  • 70,000-80,000 killed immediately.
  • OUSTING OF DIEM/KENNEDY ASSASSINATION CREATES CHAOS—CONVINCES N. VIETNAM TO PLAY LARGER COMBAT ROLE AND PUSH FORWARD IN SOUTH
  • How can you win over a population if you’re destroying their livelihoods/land?
  • Vietnam war america enters

    1. 1. AGENDA <ul><li>VETS EVENT/HW </li></ul><ul><li>SLIDESHOW </li></ul><ul><li>KENNEDY & VIETNAM </li></ul><ul><li>NOTES—ESCALATION </li></ul><ul><li>VIDEO </li></ul><ul><li>HW: VETS BIO/QUESTIONS/STUDY GUIDE </li></ul>
    2. 2. VIETNAM THE THIRTY YEAR FIGHT FOR INDEPENDENCE
    3. 4. KEY TERMS AND PEOPLE
    4. 5. HO CHI MINH <ul><li>EDUCATED IN EUROPE, INFLUENCED BY LENIN, & AMERICAN REVOLUTION </li></ul><ul><li>UNITED COMMUNISTS, NATIONALISTS, ALL POLITICAL FACTIONS --FORMS VIETMINH </li></ul><ul><li>LEADER OF THE FIGHT FOR VIETNAMESE INDEPENDENCE AND UNIFICATION OF VIETNAM </li></ul>
    5. 6. VIETMINH FORMED BY HO CHI MINH AND VO NGUYEN GIAP LED PRIMARILY BY COMMUNISTS BUT WELCOMES PEOPLE OF ANY POLITICAL PERSUASION FOUGHT IN WWII, HELP DEFEAT JAPAN DEFEAT FRENCH IN 1954 ESTABLISH COMMUNIST GOVT. IN THE NORTHERN REGION OF VIETNAM
    6. 7. NGO DINH DIEM <ul><li>FIRST PRESIDENT OF SOUTH VIETNAM (1955-1963) </li></ul><ul><li>DEVOUT CATHOLIC, ANTI-COMMUNIST </li></ul><ul><li>CORRUPT—EXECUTES 50,000 COMMUNISTS AND DISSIDENTS, IMPRISONS 75,000 </li></ul>
    7. 8. VIETCONG—AKA NATIONAL LIBERATION FRONT <ul><li>VIETCONG—S. VIETNAMESE “COMMUNIST” GUERILLAS </li></ul><ul><li>ONLY ABOUT 10% WERE ACTUALLY COMMUNISTS, MOST NATIONALIST PEASANTS AND INTELLECTUALS </li></ul><ul><li>UP UNTIL 1963 VC DO MUCH OF THE FIGHTING AGAINST SOUTH VIETNAMESE GOVERNMENT/ AMERICANS </li></ul>
    8. 9. 1945-1963 The U.S. and Vietnam: Two Worlds Collide
    9. 10. 1945-US <ul><li>US DROPS ATOMIC BOMBS ON HIROSHIMA and NAGASAKI, JAPAN (8/6 & 8/9) </li></ul><ul><li>ENDS WWII </li></ul><ul><li>JAPAN SURRENDERS IN VIETNAM </li></ul>
    10. 11. HIROSHIMA BEFORE THE BOMBING HIROSHIMA AFTER THE BOMBING
    11. 12. 1945/1946-VIETNAM <ul><li>HO CHI MINH DECLARES VIETNAM’S INDEPENDENCE (9/2) </li></ul><ul><li>BRITISH FORCES RESTORE AUTHORITY TO THE FRENCH—ALLOW SOME AUTONOMY </li></ul><ul><li>INDOCHINA WAR BREAKS OUT VIETNAM, CAMBODIA, LAOS v. FRENCH </li></ul>
    12. 13. US 1947-1949 <ul><li>MARSHALL PLAN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OFFER FINANCIAL/ ECONOMIC AID TO WESTERN EUROPE—HELP REBUILD EUROPE AFTER WWII </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MAKE COUNTRIES LESS LIKELY TO FALL TO COMMUNISM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NATO FORMED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ALLIANCE OF US AND WESTERN EUROPEAN NATIONS </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. VIETNAM 1947-1949 <ul><li>VIETMINH MOVE INTO HANOI (N. VIETNAM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FRENCH FAIL TO DEFEAT VIETMINH EARLY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FRENCH PLEDGE TO BUILD NATIONAL ANTI-COMMUNIST ARMY </li></ul>->
    14. 15. US 1950-1953 <ul><li>US ENTERS KOREAN WAR </li></ul><ul><li>MCCARTHYISM </li></ul><ul><li>JULIUS AND ETHEL ROSENBERG EXECUTED FOR ESPIONAGE </li></ul>
    15. 16. VIETNAM –1950-1953 <ul><li>USSR AND CHINA GIVE WEAPONS TO VIETMINH </li></ul><ul><li>US PLEDGES $15 MILLION TO AID FRENCH AGAINST VIETMINH (TRUMAN) </li></ul><ul><li>1953—FRANCE GRANTS LAOS INDEPENDENCE </li></ul>
    16. 17. US 1954-1955 <ul><li>BROWN V. BOARD OF EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>PRES. EISENHOWER FORMALLY ANNOUNCES DOMINO THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>DISNEY LAND OPENS </li></ul>
    17. 18. VIETNAM 1954-1955 <ul><li>VIETMINH DEFEAT FRENCH AT DIEN BIEN PHU </li></ul><ul><li>GENEVA CONFERENCE-- SCHEDULES 1956 ELECTIONS TO UNIFY COUNTRY </li></ul><ul><li>DIEM REFUSES NATIONWIDE ELECTIONS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DIEM BECOMES PRES. OF S. VIETNAM (EISENHOWER SUPPORTS) </li></ul></ul>
    18. 19. US 1956-1957 <ul><li>SOVIET PREMIER, KHRUSHCHEV, “WE WILL BURY YOU” </li></ul><ul><li>SOVIETS LAUNCH SPUTNIK </li></ul><ul><li>LITTLE ROCK 9 </li></ul>
    19. 20. VIETNAM 1956-1957 <ul><li>FRENCH LEAVE VIETNAM </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTION DEADLINE PASSES </li></ul><ul><li>US TRAINS SOUTH VIETNAMESE ARMY </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNIST INSURGENCY BEGINS SOUTH VIETNAM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VIETCONG </li></ul></ul>
    20. 21. US 1958-1959 <ul><li>BROOKLYN DODGERS AND NY GIANTS MOVE TO CALIFORNIA </li></ul><ul><li>US STEEL CALLS STRIKE </li></ul><ul><li>CUBAN REVOLUTION </li></ul>
    21. 22. VIETNAM 1958-1959 <ul><li>COMMUNIST FORCES SETTLE IN S. VIETNAM </li></ul><ul><li>WEAPONS BEGIN MOVING ALONG HO CHI MINH TRAIL </li></ul><ul><li>DIEM ORDERS CRACKDOWN ON COMMUNISTS/DISSIDENTS </li></ul>
    22. 23. US 1960-1961 <ul><li>U-2 SPY INCIDENT </li></ul><ul><li>SIT-INS AT LUNCH COUNTERS THROUGHOUT THE SOUTH </li></ul><ul><li>JFK ELECTED PRESIDENT </li></ul><ul><li>BAY OF PIGS FIASCO </li></ul>
    23. 24. VIETNAM 1960-1961 <ul><li>KENNEDY AUTHORIZES GREEN BERETS </li></ul><ul><li>V.P. LYNDON JOHNSON DECLARES “STRONG US SUPPORT FOR DIEM </li></ul>
    24. 25. US 1962-1963 <ul><li>US-SOVIET SHOWDOWN: CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS </li></ul><ul><li>MLK DELIVERS “I HAVE A DREAM SPEECH” </li></ul><ul><li>PRESIDENT KENNEDY ASSASSINATED </li></ul>
    25. 26. VIETNAM 1962-1963 <ul><li>US EMPLOYS AGENT ORANGE </li></ul><ul><li>BATTLE OF AP BAC </li></ul><ul><li>DIEM OVERTHROWN IN MILITARY COUP </li></ul>MAJOR GENERAL VAN MINH DUONG WITH NEW PRIME MINISTER NGUYEN NGOC THO.
    26. 27. <ul><li>Upon learning of Diem’s ouster and death, Ho Chi Minh is reported to have said, &quot;I can scarcely believe the Americans would be so stupid.“ </li></ul><ul><li>After Diem’s assassination, South Vietnam was unable to establish a stable government and numerous coups took place during the first several years after his death. While the U.S. continued to influence South Vietnam's government, the assassination bolstered North Vietnamese attempts to characterize the South Vietnamese as supporters of colonialism </li></ul>
    27. 28. <ul><li>The North Vietnamese Politburo was more explicit, predicting: &quot;The consequences of the 1 November coup d'état will be contrary to the calculations of the U.S. imperialists ... Diem was one of the strongest individuals resisting the people and Communism. Everything that could be done in an attempt to crush the revolution was carried out by Diem. Diem was one of the most competent lackeys of the U.S. imperialists ... Among the anti-Communists in South Vietnam or exiled in other countries, no one has sufficient political assets and abilities to cause others to obey. Therefore, the lackey administration cannot be stabilized. The coup d'état on 1 November 1963 will not be the last.“ </li></ul>
    28. 29. AMERICA ESCALATES LBJ: THE TRAGEDY OF VIETNAM
    29. 30. THE WAR EVOLVES (1963) <ul><li>HOW DO N. VIET./VC VIEW THE WAR? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HOW DID DIEM’S OUSTING IMPACT THE WAR? </li></ul><ul><li>N.VIETNAM ARMY INCREASES ROLE—WHY? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PAVN: TIME TO STRIKE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N. VIET. INCREASE ATTACKS W/ VIETCONG (VC ) </li></ul></ul>
    30. 31. LBJ TAKES THE REIGNS--1964 <ul><li>LBJ WINS ELECTION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GREAT SOCIETY OVERSHADOWED </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GULF OF TONKIN INCIDENT </li></ul><ul><li>GULF OF TONKIN RESOLUTION </li></ul><ul><li>US TROOP LEVELS REACH 206,000 </li></ul>
    31. 32. VIETNAM (1964-1965) <ul><li>GENERAL NGUYEN KHANH SEIZES POWER </li></ul><ul><li>GULF OF TONKIN INCIDENT </li></ul><ul><li>OPERATION ROLLING THUNDER </li></ul><ul><li>BATTLE OF IA DRANG </li></ul>
    32. 33. U.S. STRATEGY <ul><li>GENERAL WESTMORELAND </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US COMMANDER IN VIETNAM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WAR OF ATTRITION </li></ul><ul><li>OPERATION ROLLING THUNDER </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SUSTAINED US BOMBING CAMPAIGN V. N. VIETNAM </li></ul></ul>
    33. 34. BATTLING THE ELEMENTS
    34. 35. FIGHTING AN INVISIBLE ENEMY: VIETCONG TUNNEL SYSTEM
    35. 36. FIGHTING AN INVISIBLE ENEMY
    36. 38. AGENT ORANGE
    37. 39. THE WAR HEATS UP
    38. 40. MAJOR BATTLE SITES
    39. 41. Vietnam on the Home Front <ul><li>Why do you think the Vietnam War will become such a controversial war and cause contention on the home front? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Television/Media Coverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tensions Already High in U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cold War </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Movement </li></ul></ul></ul>
    40. 43. <ul><li>VIETNAM CLASS DISCUSSION </li></ul><ul><li>LBJ—GREAT SOCIETY </li></ul><ul><li>MCNAMARA STUDY </li></ul><ul><li>VIETCONG STRATEGY </li></ul><ul><li>STUDY GUIDE </li></ul>
    41. 45. US 1966-1967 <ul><li>LBJ MEETS S. VIETNAMESE LEADERS </li></ul><ul><li>DOW RECRUITERS DRIVEN FROM WISCONCIN CAMPUS </li></ul>
    42. 46. VIETNAM 1966-1967 <ul><li>B-52s HEAVY BOMBING OF NORTH </li></ul><ul><li>OPERATION CEDAR FALLS BEGINS </li></ul><ul><li>MCNAMARA CALLS BOMBING RAIDS INEFFECTIVE </li></ul>
    43. 47. TET <ul><li>VIETNAMESE NEW YEAR (LIKE XMAS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>COOK, CLEAN, SHOP, FAMILY/RELATIVES, DECORATE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NEW YEAR TREE (BAMBOO POLE) </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY AT THE CENTER/ HONOR ANCESTORS </li></ul>
    44. 48. TET OFFENSIVE <ul><li>BEGINS JAN 31 ST . </li></ul><ul><li>N. VIETNAM: “TIME RUNNING OUT” </li></ul><ul><li>COORDINATED ATTACK AGAINST 100 S. VN CITIES </li></ul>
    45. 49. TET OFFENSIVE <ul><li>OBJECTIVES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EXHAUST U.S. WAR POTENTIAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SPLIT THIEU GOVERNMENT IN SOUTH VIETNAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TERRORIZE SOUTH VIETNAM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TURN PEOPLE AGAINST US </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FORCE US TO NEGOTIATING TABLE </li></ul></ul>
    46. 50. VIETNAM 1968 <ul><li>TET OFFENSIVE </li></ul><ul><li>BATTLE OF HUE </li></ul><ul><li>MY LAI MASSACRE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SEARCH AND DESTROY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PARIS PEACE TALKS </li></ul>
    47. 51. US 1968 <ul><li>US TROOP LEVELS REACH 537,000 </li></ul><ul><li>MLK JR. ASSASSINATED IN MEMPHIS </li></ul><ul><li>ROBERT KENNEDY ASSASSINATED </li></ul><ul><li>NIXON ELECTED </li></ul>1968 DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL CONVENTION
    48. 52. VIETNAM 1969-1970 <ul><li>NIXON BEGINS SECRET BOMBING OF CAMBODIA </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. ANNOUNCES VIETNAMIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>HO CHI MINH DIES </li></ul>
    49. 53. US 1969-1970 <ul><li>DRAFT EXTENDED </li></ul><ul><li>LARGEST ANTI-WAR PROTEST IN HISTORY (11/15/69) D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>WOODSTOCK </li></ul><ul><li>KENT STATE </li></ul>
    50. 54. US 1971-1972 <ul><li>PENTAGON PAPERS ARE PUBLISHED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DANIEL ELLSBERG </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BREAK-IN AT WATERGATE HOTEL </li></ul><ul><li>US/N. VIETNAM CLOSE TO PEACE PLAN </li></ul>
    51. 55. VIETNAM 1971-1972 <ul><li>SECRET PEACE TALKS BETWEEN US AND N. VIETNAM </li></ul><ul><li>US INCREASES BOMBING OF HANOI AND HAIPHONG </li></ul>
    52. 56. US 1973-1974 <ul><li>CEASE FIRE SIGNED </li></ul><ul><li>FINAL US TROOPS BROUGHT HOME </li></ul><ul><li>NIXON RESIGNS </li></ul>
    53. 57. VIETNAM 1973-1974 <ul><li>THIEU ANNOUNCES RENEWAL OF WAR </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNISTS TAKE MEKONG DELTA </li></ul><ul><li>COMM. PLAN MAJOR OFFENSIVE </li></ul>PAVN --BY WAR’S END EQUIPPED TO FIGHT CONVENTIONAL WAR
    54. 58. VIETNAM 1975 <ul><li>COMMUNISTS TAKE CONTROL THROUGHOUT VIETNAM </li></ul><ul><li>LAST AMERICANS EVACUATE AS SAIGON FALLS </li></ul>
    55. 59. VIETNAM—COMMUNIST GOVT. <ul><li>ISSUES FACING VIETNAM: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>COUNTRY REUNIFIED AFTER YEARS OF COLONIAL RULE AND CIVIL WAR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SOME ANGER/DISTRUST </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SOUTH SOCIETY HEAVILY INFLUENCED BY WEST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CHANGING SOUTH FROM CAPITALIST SOCIETY TO COMMUNIST SOCIETY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BRAIN DRAIN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SOUTH VIETNAMESE LEADERS </li></ul></ul>
    56. 60. COMMUNIST POLICIES <ul><li>THOUGHT REFORM—PARTY SPONSORED STUDY SESSIONS </li></ul><ul><li>AIM TO DESTROY CAPITALIST CLASS </li></ul><ul><li>POPULATION RELOCATION—COLLECTIVED FARMS; LABOR CAMPS </li></ul><ul><li>CONSTANT SURVEILLANCE </li></ul>
    57. 61. SE ASIA TODAY <ul><li>#1 ISSUE FACING THE REGION: GOVT. CORRUPTION </li></ul><ul><li>LAOS/VIETNAM SLOWLY ACCEPTING CAPITALISM </li></ul><ul><li>STILL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES </li></ul><ul><li>THAILAND: ASIAN TIGER—MODEL FOR THE REGION </li></ul>

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