Six characteristics that reflect classroom’s complexity and potentially:
Classrooms are multidimensional.
- The setting for many activities such as reading, writing, playing games etc.
Activities occur simultaneously
- A student might be writing at the desk, another might be discussing with the teacher,
one student might talking about what they are going to do after school and so on.
WHY CLASSROOMS NEED TO BE MANAGED EFFECTIVELY.
THE OLDER VIEW
•emphasized creating and applying rules to
control students' behavior.
•orients students toward passivity and
compliance with rigid rules
•undermine students' engagement in active
learning, HOT and social construction of
•teacher as a director
THE NEWER VIEW
• focuses more on students' needs for
nurturing relationships and oppurtunities
for self regulation.
• guiding students toward self-discipline
• less on externally controlling the students
• teacher is a guide, coordinator and
•challenge of managing 20 - 25
children for entire day.
•spend more time with same
•confinement, boredom and
interaction with the same people
all day can create problems.
•Good managers design
classrooms for optimal learning
•create positive environment for
•establish and maintain rules
•get students to cooperate
•effectively deal with problems
•good communication strategies.
•challenge of managing 5 or 6
different groups of 20-25
students for 50 minutes a day.
•spend less time seeing the
•classroom lesson moving quickly
•discipline problems are
frequently more severe
•demand more elaborate and
MANAGEMENT ISSUES IN ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY
THE CROWDED, COMPLEX AND POTENTIALLY CHAOTIC
Things happen quickly
- Events often occur rapidly in classrooms and frequently require immediate response.
Events are often unpredictable
- Some events will occur unexpectedly. For example a fire alarm goes off, a student
gets sick, a computer won’t work and so on.
Lack of privacy
- Classrooms are public places. Students observe teacher handles discipline problems,
unexpected events and frustrating circumstances.
Classrooms have histories
- Students have memories in their classrooms. They remember how the teacher handled
Kounin (1970) found that good classroom managers effectively manage the group activities.
Teacher who competently guide and structure classroom activities are more effective than
teachers who emphasize their disciplinary role (Brophy, 1996).
complexity of the
•make careful use of the 1st few days of school.
•to engaged in advanced planning before the school begins.
At the beginning of
•communicate your rules and procedures to the classroom.
•get students to engage effectively in learning activities.
GETTING OFF TO THE RIGHT START
EMPHASIZING INSTRUCTION AND A POSITIVE CLASSROOM
Effective classroom management has two main goals:
speaking with calm voice setting clear rules
Help students spend
more time on learning
and less time on non-
Prevent students from
activities to learn
MANAGEMENT GOALS AND STRATEGIES
Before we will organize the classroom’s physical space, teachers should know what type
of instructional activity students will be engaged in.
• separate areas (desks,
• easily accessible
you can see
• must have clear line of
sight between desks,
instructional locations and
• students should not have to
move their chairs or stratch
their necks in the whole
• minimize preparation and
clean up time
The traditional teaching
model DESIGNING THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE CLASSROOM
PRINCIPLES OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
•sit facing the
•when want to
talk to each
•refer to the seat in the front and
center of the row
•students in these seats like to
interact with teacher.
•move around the room
•establish eye contact and direct
comment with students outside the
•change seats periodically
Post students’ photographs,
artwork, written projects, charts
that list birthday.
Positive expressions of students’
A bulletin board.
- “Student of the week”
- “Students’ best work of the
PERSONALIZING THE CLASSROOM
•encourage students to be independent thinkers. Involve considareble verbale
give and take with student, a caring attitude toward students and limits on
student behavior when necessary
•Restrictive and punitive, with the focus mainly on keeping order in the classroom
rather than instruction or learning. Students tend to be passive learners.
•Allows students considerable autonomy but provides them with little support
for developing learning skills or managing their behavior .
Reasonable and necessary
Clear and comprehensible
Consistent with instructional
and learning goal
Consistent with school rules
CREATING A POSITIVE ENVIRONMENT FOR LEARNING
CREATING, TEACHING AND MAINTAINING RULES AND PROCEDURES
GETTING STUDENTS TO COOPERATE
The increasing diversity of students make managing the classroom more complex. Too often
teachers are not knowledgeable about the cultural background of their students and as a
consequence miscommunicate with them. Cultural mismatches may especially occur in school in
which the teachers overwhelmingly non-Latino White the students are mainly from ethic minority
groups. Engaging in culturally responsive teaching and demonstrating sensitivity to cultural can
help teachers reduce discipline problems in the classroom.
There are three key aspect of communication :
Developing a positive relationship with students
Getting them to share and assume responsibility.
•Involve student in the planning and implementation of school and classroom
•encourage them to judge their own behavior, don’t accept excuses, and give the
self-responsibility strategy time to work.
Rewarding appropriate behavior
•choose effective reinforcers,
•use prompts and shaping effectively
•use rewards to provide information about mastery
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND DIVERSITY
BEING A GOOD COMMUNICATOR
These are some strategy for speaking with class :
Clearly communicate information and clarity
Strategy for speaking clearly (Florez, 1999):
Selecting vocabulary that understandable and appropriate for the student
Speaking at an appropriate pace.
Being precise and avoiding vagueness
Using good planning and logical thinking skills
Knowing some good strategies for giving a speech can significantly reduce teacher
anxiety and help on deliver an effective speech.
•eg: "It's your
own fault you
Name calling &
•eg: "You are a
•talking down to
•eg: "That's so
easy to solve. I
•eg: "Clean up
this space, right
•eg: "If you don't
listen to me, I'm
they should do
•eg: "You should
time; you ought
Talk directly to the
audience. Don’t read or
refer to script
Keep focus throughout
the talkUse eye contact,
supportive gesture and
Help the audience grasp
key ideas and vary the pace
of the talk
SPEAKING WITH THE CLASS AND STUDENTS
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE VERBAL COMMUNICATION
GIVING AN EFFECTIVE SPEECH
Listening is a critical skill for making and keeping relationships. Good listeners actively
listen. Active listening means giving full attention to the speaker, focusing on both the
intellectual and the emotional content of the message. Some good active listening
strategies are as follow:
Many communication experts stress that most interpersonal communication is
nonverbal. It’s hard to mask non-verbal communication, so a good strategy is recognize
the type of non-verbal communication.
By examining facial expression, personal space and silence we would know what
really matter to them. A smile, a frown, a puzzled look all communicate. We often act as
if there is something wrong with anyone who remains silent for more than a second or
two after something is said to them.
We indicate that after asking a question, many teachers rarely remain silent long
enough for students to think reflectively. By being silent, a good listener can observe the
speaker’ eye, facial expression, posture and gesture for communication, think about the
other person is communicating and consider what the most appropriate response is.
Pay attentionto the person who is talking
Synthesize themes and patterns
Feedback in a competent manner
The Scope Aggression
and School Violence
A recent national
study of U.S. schools
school violence are
higher in middle
schools than in
or high schools.
In elementary school
teacher usually stop a
fight. If for some
reason teacher can not
get help from other
Let the fighters have a
cooling-off period to
calm down. Later, have
a conference with
one of every three
students said they
had experienced as a
victim in bullying.
are often the victims
Defiance or Hostility
Towards the Teacher
Try to defuse the
event by keeping it
private and handling
In extreme cases, student
will be completely
should send another
student to the office for
DEALING WITH PROBLEM BEHAVIORS
DEALING WITH AGGRESSION
Using Others as Resources
Can be trained to help students resolve quarrels and change undesirable behaviors.
Describe the problem and say that you would appreciate any support that they can give you.
Enlist the Help of the Principal or Counselar
If teacher have tried unsuccessfully to deal with the behavior, consider asking the school’s
administration or counselor.
Find a Mentor
A mentor can provide such student with the guidance they need to reduce problem behaviors
Management experts distinguish between minor and moderate
interventions for problem behaviors
Example : Student leaves their
seats without permission
Engage in sosial talk when it is
Eat candy in class
Example : Students abuse
Disturpt an activity
Use nonverbal cues- Make eyes contact and signal such as
finger to lips, a head shake or a hand signal to issue the desist.
Keep the activities moving- start the next activity in more
Move closer to students- moving near the student
Redirect the behavior- let them know what they are
supposed to be doing
Provide needed instruction-involves carefully monitoring
students’ work and providing guidance when needed
Directly and assertively tell student to stop- let them know
what they are supposed to be doing
Gives the student a choice
Withhold a privilege Isolate or remove student
Impose a penalty