Being a Teacher  in Singapore A Designer & A Critical Thinker
Tutorial 2 The Professionals in Education <ul><li>Philosophical Refections –  Key Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Herbert A Simon ...
Herbert A Simon 2 Schools of Thought <ul><li>School of Natural Science  – the teaching and learning about how natural thin...
Herbert A Simon  Education as Science of Design <ul><li>Design  is the core of all professional training </li></ul><ul><li...
Herbert A Simon  Science of Design <ul><li>Educators as designers must be  open  to </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfice  – reach a...
Herbert A Simon  Science of Design <ul><li>Ethics  </li></ul><ul><li>to help them acknowledge the need, and also recognise...
Herbert A Simon  Science of Design <ul><li>3. to let intelligence’s direction lead towards  choiceworthy ends   (decision-...
Herbert A Simon Implications –Nurture Creativity <ul><li>Educators (designers)   must communicate the rationale  which gui...
Herbert A Simon As Designers <ul><li>How are you a “designer” in Education? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you design? </li></ul>
Herbert A Simon As Designers <ul><li>3. Show examples of your “designs” as a </li></ul><ul><li>A) Teacher </li></ul><ul><l...
Jurgen Habermas Critical Theory <ul><li>The  quest for human freedom and emancipation  where human beings are free to part...
Jurgen Habermas Reconstruct of the Critical Theory <ul><li>Replace the paradigm of consciousness (knowing) with the  parad...
Jurgen Habermas Theory of Communicative Action <ul><li>Habermas conceptualises society as constituted at two levels </li><...
Jurgen Habermas Theory of Communicative Action <ul><li>Intersubjective – that is, representing a set of shared meanings wh...
Jurgen Habermas Theory of Communicative Action <ul><li>The system   (operations) </li></ul><ul><li>regulates social relati...
Jurgen Habermas  Theory of Communicative Action <ul><li>In modern capitalist and bureaucratic societies,  the lifeworld ha...
Jurgen Habermas   Case of lifeworld “colonised” by system <ul><li>When  school teachers’ and leaders’  individual and coll...
Jurgen Habermas Need for Communicative Action <ul><li>The colonisation of the lifeworld  leads to crises in the system  in...
Jurgen Habermas Communicative Action <ul><li>In  communicative-oriented action  or universal pragmatics, human agents are ...
Challenges Faced by Schools   As Critical Thinkers <ul><li>What do you understand by the following issues? Give an example...
Challenges Faced by Schools <ul><li>Diversity versus Uniformity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision of TSLN is economy driven  </...
Challenges Faced by Schools <ul><li>Autonomy versus Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy does not mean that they are fre...
Challenges Faced by Schools <ul><li>Innovation versus Conservatism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore brand of leadership is ...
Challenges Faced by Schools <ul><li>Equity versus Elitism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students possess different socio-economic ...
Jurgen Habermas Implications <ul><li>Policy makers’ primary concern  is the efficient and effective implementation of educ...
<ul><li>Give your perspectives on these Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Launch of Thinking Schools Learning Nation (TSLN) in...
Jurgen Habermas Discourse Ethics for an “ideal” speech situation <ul><li>Every speaker can state what he believes </li></u...
<ul><li>Give your perspectives on these Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Launch of Thinking Schools Learning Nation (TSLN) in...
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Tutorial 2 The Professionals In Education Simon & Habermas

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  • From this recruitment video, it is obvious that our topic today is “Being a Teacher in Singapore”. As you can see, this topic is very broad, and you’ll soon realise that all the previous topics covered by all of us seated here, point to, or can be applied to today’s topic. The fact that you are seated here shows that you are going to play a significant role in the nurturing of the students in Singapore. But before we start the presentation proper, let’s get some of us to share on what YOU think is a teacher? Thank you for all your contributions. After hearing from all the groups, let’s take a look at what MOE says a teacher is.
  • Tutorial 2 The Professionals In Education Simon & Habermas

    1. 1. Being a Teacher in Singapore A Designer & A Critical Thinker
    2. 2. Tutorial 2 The Professionals in Education <ul><li>Philosophical Refections – Key Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Herbert A Simon (Chp 9) </li></ul><ul><li>Jurgen Habermas (Chp 8) </li></ul><ul><li>Implications </li></ul><ul><li>As Designers </li></ul><ul><li>As Critical Thinkers </li></ul>
    3. 3. Herbert A Simon 2 Schools of Thought <ul><li>School of Natural Science – the teaching and learning about how natural things are and work </li></ul><ul><li>School of Science of Design – how things should be </li></ul>
    4. 4. Herbert A Simon Education as Science of Design <ul><li>Design is the core of all professional training </li></ul><ul><li>Schools are all centrally concerned with the process of design </li></ul><ul><li>Science of design hints at the discovery of how things should be </li></ul>
    5. 5. Herbert A Simon Science of Design <ul><li>Educators as designers must be open to </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfice – reach a solution that is generally acceptable but which may not be the theoretical best </li></ul><ul><li>Style – consider differences in style, give freedom to design and allow designers to choose the way to go </li></ul><ul><li>Self-constitution – give free choice to students; draw out the gift of himself; discover himself </li></ul><ul><li>Communal-constitution – be a member of the collective group; collaborate freely </li></ul>
    6. 6. Herbert A Simon Science of Design <ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>to help them acknowledge the need, and also recognise the opportunity for finding and discovering themselves (nurture potential) </li></ul><ul><li>to reason logically about factual truths and their relations and to judge suitable means to a given end (reasoning) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Herbert A Simon Science of Design <ul><li>3. to let intelligence’s direction lead towards choiceworthy ends (decision-making) </li></ul><ul><li>4. to alert students of reason’s direction to avoid bad-forms of self-constitution through choices that reason prohibit (moral values) </li></ul>
    8. 8. Herbert A Simon Implications –Nurture Creativity <ul><li>Educators (designers) must communicate the rationale which guide the design process. </li></ul><ul><li>They must be open to satisfice for a variety of possible & permissable design solutions instead of optimising for a best design solution. </li></ul><ul><li>They are free to choose to craft their final design & discuss themselves in the process of design. </li></ul><ul><li>They should support their students’ authentic self-constitution by supplying a context of freedom and alerting them against irrational thoughts. </li></ul><ul><li>They guide communal constitution in a democratic way towards a collective decision </li></ul>
    9. 9. Herbert A Simon As Designers <ul><li>How are you a “designer” in Education? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you design? </li></ul>
    10. 10. Herbert A Simon As Designers <ul><li>3. Show examples of your “designs” as a </li></ul><ul><li>A) Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>B) Student </li></ul><ul><li>C) Principal </li></ul><ul><li>D) Minister </li></ul><ul><li>Use the resources provided to express your designs: rationale (why), plans (what) & processes (How) </li></ul>
    11. 11. Jurgen Habermas Critical Theory <ul><li>The quest for human freedom and emancipation where human beings are free to participate in the democratic process & to transform their social conditions </li></ul><ul><li>The primary goal is to enlighten and emancipate human persons from forces of ideological beliefs or consciousness that are false </li></ul>
    12. 12. Jurgen Habermas Reconstruct of the Critical Theory <ul><li>Replace the paradigm of consciousness (knowing) with the paradigm of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Shift from struggles with classes (of people) to struggles with crisis (situations) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Jurgen Habermas Theory of Communicative Action <ul><li>Habermas conceptualises society as constituted at two levels </li></ul><ul><li>The life world (people & their perceptions) </li></ul><ul><li>preconscious and taken-for-granted presuppositions, understandings and perceptual filters that determine how people experience reality (prejudices) </li></ul><ul><li>impenetrable, inaccessible & unknowable because it is essentially pre-reflective and vast with an incalculable web of background assumptions employed by human agents in moments of communication (pre-conceived) </li></ul>
    14. 14. Jurgen Habermas Theory of Communicative Action <ul><li>Intersubjective – that is, representing a set of shared meanings which make it possible for people to communicate with each other (opportunities & possibilities) </li></ul>
    15. 15. Jurgen Habermas Theory of Communicative Action <ul><li>The system (operations) </li></ul><ul><li>regulates social relations “only via money and power” </li></ul><ul><li>employs self-interested strategic action </li></ul><ul><li>outcomes are reached by influencing opponents’ definition of the situation through external means such as weapons or goods, threats or sentiments </li></ul>
    16. 16. Jurgen Habermas Theory of Communicative Action <ul><li>In modern capitalist and bureaucratic societies, the lifeworld has become “colonised” by the system where the system imperatives of money and power have invaded or penetrated the lifeworld and thus become the predominant influence on people’s behaviour, morality, ethics and rationality. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Jurgen Habermas Case of lifeworld “colonised” by system <ul><li>When school teachers’ and leaders’ individual and collective actions are primarily motivated and determined by the key performance indicators set up by the education ministry along with the benefits or reprisals of the appraisal system, the lifeworld can be said to be “colonised” by the system. </li></ul><ul><li>In this case the school teachers and leaders no longer seek to enter into a dialogue or debate and consensual agreement on matters and issues pertaining to the purposes of education and the means of achieving them. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Jurgen Habermas Need for Communicative Action <ul><li>The colonisation of the lifeworld leads to crises in the system in the form of pathologies (illnesses), alienation and loss of meaning, which will inadvertently disrupt the successful functioning of the system. </li></ul><ul><li>Preserving the lifeworld would therefore mean the need for communicative action where human agents enter into a rationally mutual understanding to reach consensual action. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Jurgen Habermas Communicative Action <ul><li>In communicative-oriented action or universal pragmatics, human agents are constantly and inevitably engaged in the assessment or evaluation of validity claims made by participants. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Challenges Faced by Schools As Critical Thinkers <ul><li>What do you understand by the following issues? Give an example to illustrate each controversy. </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity versus Uniformity </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy versus Control </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation versus Conservatism </li></ul><ul><li>Equity versus Elitism </li></ul>
    21. 21. Challenges Faced by Schools <ul><li>Diversity versus Uniformity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision of TSLN is economy driven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although students are given the choice over the type of school, programme and subjects to take, the syllabi must be approved by MOE </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Challenges Faced by Schools <ul><li>Autonomy versus Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy does not mean that they are free from central control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School Excellence Model (SEM) and School Achievement Tables are means to exert control over education outcomes </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Challenges Faced by Schools <ul><li>Innovation versus Conservatism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore brand of leadership is seen as too “risk-averse” (Long, 2004) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovative programs will remain fairly superficial if schools still rely on academic performance </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Challenges Faced by Schools <ul><li>Equity versus Elitism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students possess different socio-economic and cultural capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students from higher-income and English-speaking families tend to cluster in elite schools (Kuek, 2007) </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Jurgen Habermas Implications <ul><li>Policy makers’ primary concern is the efficient and effective implementation of educational reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers perceive the tool of implementation is useless, yet they are still constrained to carry out the implementation because of control mechanism. </li></ul>
    26. 26. <ul><li>Give your perspectives on these Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Launch of Thinking Schools Learning Nation (TSLN) in 1997 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking Schools: Teach Less Learn More (TLLM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Nation: Lifelong Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More autonomy given to schools to innovate </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthening of National Education (NE) </li></ul><ul><li>Ability-Driven Education (ADE) </li></ul>MOE Initiatives – Teachers’ Views
    27. 27. Jurgen Habermas Discourse Ethics for an “ideal” speech situation <ul><li>Every speaker can state what he believes </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone who disagrees must give a reason for it </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone with the competence is allowed to take part </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone is allowed to question any assertion </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone is allowed to introduce any assertion </li></ul><ul><li>No one will be prevented from excercising his rights </li></ul>
    28. 28. <ul><li>Give your perspectives on these Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Launch of Thinking Schools Learning Nation (TSLN) in 1997 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking Schools: Teach Less Learn More (TLLM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Nation: Lifelong Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More autonomy given to schools to innovate </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthening of National Education (NE) </li></ul><ul><li>Ability-Driven Education (ADE) </li></ul>MOE Initiatives – Teachers’ Views
    29. 29. THANK YOU

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