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  • 1. Chapter 9: Understanding Claims By Adriana Cuevas
  • 2. What is a Claim?
    • A claim is always a STATEMENT.
    • “ Any single statement of controversy advanced for the purpose of argument.” (p.136)
  • 3. The Seven Characteristics of a Claim
    • Should be phrased as statements, not questions.
    • Should be phrased equally for both sides.
    • Should be phrased as specific as possible.
    • Claims must be phrased against the status quo.
  • 4. The Seven Characteristics of a Claim Cont.
    • The burdens should be clear to both sides.
    • Both sides should debate the same claim.
    • Should promote a pro/con argumentative environment.
  • 5. There are three types of claims:
    • Fact: Something that is, was or will be.
    • Value: If something is good or bad.
    • Policy: If something should or should not be.
  • 6. The Purpose of a Claim:
    • The foundation of an argument.
    • The focus of the argument.
    • Represents the starting and ending points
    • Has two sides: pro and con
    • Both sides have the responsibilities known as burdens.
  • 7. Types of Burdens:
    • Burden of Proof: Reasons why the status quo must be replaced by the claim being advocated.
    • Burden of Presumption: The defense of the status quo, why it should remain intact.
    • Burden of Rebuttal: The obligation to respond to the argument.
    • failure to respond indicates compliance.
  • 8. Argumentative Burdens
    • Negative Side
    • ● Burden of Presumption: Why things should stay the way they are.
    • ● Burden of Rebuttal: Obligation to respond to the argument.
    • Affirmative Side
    • ● Burden of Proof: Why status quo should be changed.
    • ● Burden of Rebuttal: Obligation to respond to the argument.
  • 9. Types of Debate Environments
    • Scholarly: Emphasizes factual claims. Is meant to discover what is, how and why it is.
    • Religious: Which religion is best.
    • Political: Calls for specific action to be taken to deal with problems in the status quo.
    • Business: What can be done to better the overall well being of the business.
  • 10. Types of Debate Environments Cont.
    • Legal Debate: Whether something is legal or illegal and whether someone is guilty or innocent.
    • Educational: Occur in high schools and colleges. Can be centered around debates of claims of value and/or policy.
    • Social: The least unstructured, deals with personal values.