World Applied Sciences Journal 14 (3): 378-386, 2011ISSN 1818-4952© IDOSI Publications, 2011               Impact of Manua...
World Appl. Sci. J., 14 (3): 378-386, 2011Systemic reviews concluded that acupuncture is more                  inclusion c...
World Appl. Sci. J., 14 (3): 378-386, 2011muscle group on each leg. The strengthening exercises                sets within...
World Appl. Sci. J., 14 (3): 378-386, 2011Table 1: Characteristics of clinic treatment group (group A) and home exercise p...
World Appl. Sci. J., 14 (3): 378-386, 2011                      DISCUSSION                                      results of...
World Appl. Sci. J., 14 (3): 378-386, 2011     Also NG et al. 2003 [24] reported that both EA and              techniques ...
World Appl. Sci. J., 14 (3): 378-386, 20115.    Felson, D.T., R.C. Lawrence, M.C. Hochberg, et al.,              16. Croft...
World Appl. Sci. J., 14 (3): 378-386, 201127. Berman, B.M., L. Lao, P. Langenbrg, W.L. Lehe,                34. Ernst, E.,...
World Appl. Sci. J., 14 (3): 378-386, 2011Scoring and interpretation:Response                                             ...
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Impact of manual therapy oa

  1. 1. World Applied Sciences Journal 14 (3): 378-386, 2011ISSN 1818-4952© IDOSI Publications, 2011 Impact of Manual Therapy, Supervised Exercises and Electro Acupuncture Versus Well-Designed Home Exercise Program on Pain and Physical Functions among Female Patient with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Comparative Study Amal HM Ibrahim Professor of Physical Therapy, Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Physical therapy, Cairo University, Egypt Abstract: Osteoarthritis of knee joint is the most form of arthritis. To compare the impact of clinical physical therapy program versus home-based physical therapy program among female with knee osteoarthritis. Forty females with knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned to clinic and divided into two equal groups. Group (A) received manual therapy, supervised exercises and electro-acupuncture like TENS and home exercise program, and group (B) received the same exercises as group A. Participants were evaluated by measuring knee range of motion, pain and use Arabic version of Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Group A, showed increase in knee flexion by 18.14%, and extension by 78.60%, reduction in pain by 51.90%. WOMAC demonstrated 53.07% pain reduction, 58.94% in stiffness and 49.30% increase in physical function. For group B, knee flexion was increased by 4.20%, knee extension by 24.66% and pain decreased by 23.94%. WOMAC reported reduction 31.81% in pain, 30.09% in stiffness and 12% increased physical function. Both clinical and home exercise programs were effective in improving knee osteoarthritis. The home exercise program can be used to reduce cost, save time and reduce OA patients waiting list in physical therapy clinic. Key words: Knee osteoarthritis % Manual therapy % Exercises % Electro-acupuncture % Home exercise program INTRODUCTION The treatment of OA is largely symptomatic and includes analgesics, non steroid anti-inflammatory drugs Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease. (NSAIDs), glucosamine, topical analgesics such asArticular cartilage in OA has shown to loss its mechanical capsaicin cream, exercises, behavioral interventions andresistance, elasticity and smoothness and consequently surgical treatment [5]. Currently, the aim of the treatmentworn out by the movement of the joint. This leads to is to control the symptoms of OA because as yet there isreactive bone remodeling, forming osteophytes, micro no disease modifying OA drugs [6]. Patients have to learnfractures and finally exposure of the articular end of the to live with the consequences: impairments (such as pain),bone [1]. activity restrictions (such as decreased ROM) and The etiology of OA of knee or hip is not entirely clear participation problems (such as restricted mobility). Theseand its incidence increase with age and in women [2]. consequences can negatively affect the quality of the lifePain, stiffness and disabilities are the major symptoms of (QOL) of older people [7].OA and should be assessed when evaluating the impact Long term use of NSAIDs is discouraged [8] andof OA [3]. Relationships have been reported between studies show that patients generally do not like takingdecrease of joint range of motion (ROM), angular drugs [9]. People with knee OA want non-pharmacologicaldeformities, muscle weakness and disabilities. These options for pain relief [10] and often choosesymptoms can severely impair or limit the ability to climb complimentary medicine [11]. Acupuncture is one of theflight of stairs, rise from a chair and walk ultimately most popular options but the place of acupuncture withinleading to a loss of independence [4]. mainstream health care remains controversial [12, 13].Corresponding Author: Dr. Amal HM. Ibrahim, Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Egypt. Address 7 Ahmed Elzaiat St. Ben Elsaryat, EI Dokki-Giza, Egypt. Tel: +2337617693, E-mails: & 378
  2. 2. World Appl. Sci. J., 14 (3): 378-386, 2011Systemic reviews concluded that acupuncture is more inclusion criterion was a diagnosis of osteoarthritis ofeffective than placebo for OA of the knee. However the the knee based on fulfillments of one of the followingquestions about the benefits of adding acupuncture to clinical criteria developed by Altman and colleagues1986,main stream, recommended treatments for this population [19]: (1) knee pain, age 38 years or younger and bonyremain unanswered [13]. enlargement; (2) knee pain, age 39 years or older, morning A growing body of evidence shows that exercise stiffness for more than 30 minutes and bony enlargement;improves knee joint function and decreases symptoms. (3) knee pain, crepitus on active motion, morning stiffnessHowever, the most effective types and combinations of for more than 30 minutes and bony enlargement; or (4)exercises and dosage are unclear. The setting in which the knee pain, crepitus on active motion, morning stiffness forexercises should be performed and the level of more than 30 minutes and the age 38 years or older.professional attention required to initiate and maintain the Altman and colleagues found these criteria to be 89%exercise program also should be the subject of further sensitive and 88% specific. Patients were excluded if theyinvestigation [14, 15]. could not attend the required number of visits, had The need for cost effectiveness throughout the received a cortisone injection to the knee joint within thehealth care system emphasizes the importance of knowing previous 30 days or had a surgical procedure on eitherwhether patients require numerous visits to physical lower extremity in the past 6 months. All patientstherapist or whether they might receive a similar benefit instructed to continue taking any medications that hadfrom a well-designed home program [16]. In a qualitative been initiated 30 days or more prior to enrollment inevaluation of physical therapist-supervised home this study.exercise program using weighted knee extension and The ethical approval was obtained from the hospitalsubjective reporting, the researchers demonstrated a great university research center. All patients were asked to signpositive effect of the home program as the same program a consent form to be enrolled in the study. All datawas performed in physical therapy clinic [17]. Another collection and clinical treatment sessions were conductedstudy by Fisher et al. 1994, quantified the effect of 3 in the physical therapy clinic of the university hospital.month home exercise program on patients with knee The patients were randomly assigned equally to twoosteoarthritis. They found a slight increase in functional groups. Clinic treatment group (Group A) designed tocapacity and they failed to demonstrate significant or receive clinical based physical therapy program consistsstatistical improvement in overall function after home of manual therapy, supervised exercises and EA likeexercise [18]. TENS. The total treatment session was 30 to 40 minutes The purpose of this study was to compare the impact three times per week conducted for 8 weeks.of clinical physical therapy program versus home-based Manual therapy (Mobilizing exercises) for increasingphysical therapy program among female with knee the knee range of motion and reducing pain were madeosteoarthritis. (three mobilizing exercises, knee distraction, dorsal glide Our hypothesis was that physical therapy consisting and ventral glide). In knee distraction the patient was sitof manual therapy, supervised exercises and electro- with the knee off the edge of the treatment Table, theacupuncture like TENS (EA like TENS) conducted in the therapist was sit in front of the patients knee distally. Theclinic would be more effective than exercise program dorsal and ventral glide were done with patient in supineperformed at home for decreasing pain and improving and her knees in resting position, the therapist stridefunction. standing facing the patients knee, the stabilizing hand support the femur from the distal dorsal side and hold it in MATERIAL AND METHODS position. The manipulating hand grasps the proximal tibia from the ventral side and glides the tibia in dorsal Forty female patients with osteoarthritis of the knee direction. Ventral glide of the tibia on the femur fromwith age (49.975±6.982) year, weight (73.3±2.556) Kg, the same position with both hands grasp the proximalheight (155.825±5.033) cm, were randomly assigned to the tibia from the dorsal side and glide tibia in ventralstudy. Physicians at various clinics of the university direction [20].hospital who normally see patients with osteoarthritis of Supervised exercises include flexibility, strength,the knee were informed about the study so that endurance and active range of motion. Flexibility exercisesappropriate referrals could be made. All patients referred were done to gastrocnemius-soleus, hamstring andby physicians to physical therapy clinic in the university quadriceps muscle by ask patient to hold the musclehospital were met the inclusion criteria. The main stretch for 30 seconds and do three repetitions with each 379
  3. 3. World Appl. Sci. J., 14 (3): 378-386, 2011muscle group on each leg. The strengthening exercises sets within first 4 weeks, followed by increases inconsisted of quadriceps and hamstring "sitting" followed resistance during the range of motion activities in theby maximal isometric contractions of the quadriceps and second 4 weeks. The appropriate ankle weights werehamstrings. The active range of motion maneuvers supplied to each subject to take home. Functionalperformed with straight leg raises (hip), activities (stair climbing, rising from a chair) wereabduction/adduction (hip), short arc extension (knee), progressively added during the last 2 weeks to betterleg extensions (knee) and leg curls (knee), strength, integrate the other three components (flexibility,endurance and active range of motion activities strengthening and endurance) of the program. The[21, 22]. patients were instructed to perform the exercises two The EA like TENS using [SOLITENS model NO. times daily for 20 minutes or as long as there was noSW-103B], applied to acupuncture points selected on the exacerbation of symptoms. The physical therapistTraditional Chinese Medicine Meridian Theory to treat reassessed the exercise program after 4weeks for eachknee joint pain. These points consists of 5 local points patient to keep the program challenging and beneficial.(Yanglinquan [gall bladder meridian point 34], Yinlinquan The patients were made aware of the side effects and[spleen meridian point9], Zhusanli [stomach meridian contraindications (swelling, increase joint pain) ofpoint 36], Dubi [stomach meridian point35] and extra point excessive exercise and were to teach how to stretch theirXiyan) and 4 distal points ( Kunlun [urinary-bladder quadriceps and hamstring [22].meridian point 60], Xuanzhong [gall-bladder meridianpoint 39], Sunyinjiao [spleen meridian point 6] and Taixi Evaluation and Assessment: Patients self assessment[kidney meridian point 3] [23-26]. The skin was cleansed were based on Western Ontario Mc Masters Arthritiswith an alcoholic swab. EA like TENS, with frequency of Index (WOMAC) questionnaire (Arabic translation,(15) Hz and maximum intensity can be tolerated was appendix I) [4]. The WOMAC is divided into threeapplied to the 9 selected acupuncture points. The dimensions: pain, stiffness and physical function listed inintensity was increased slowly up to a tolerable, non- 24 items. The Likert scale (a verbal scale of five points:painful "pounding" sensation level [27]. The treatment none = 0, slight =1, moderate = 2, severe = 3, extreme = 4)lasted for 20 minutes and the intensity of the EA was is used for scoring each item [4]. The knee range ofreadjusted, if necessary. The patients were treated 3 times motion was assessed by a universal goniometer toa week for 8 weeks. measure flexion and extension of both knees. The mean Home program exercise group (group B), received change of pain scores was assessed on 100 mm visualdetailed verbal and hands-on instructions in a home analogue scale (VAS). All measurements were done at thebased-program of the same exercises as the clinical beginning and at the end of 8 weeks of treatment.treatment group to maintain and improve muscle strengthflexibility around the knee joint. The home program Statistical Analysis: A descriptive statistical analysis ofconsists of exercises that are considered standard home all data was presented by mean and standard deviation.program [21, 22]. They have been studied previously by To test the hypothesis, paired t- test was used toChamberlain et al. [17] and include: flexibility, strength, determine the difference between the studied groups. Theendurance and active range of motion activities. Each data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for thesubject was taught the outline of the exercise program and Social Sciences (SPSS) version 18.provided with a written copy of the exercises with detailson how to perform them at home. Throughout the 8 RESULTSweeks, the patients began the daily program withflexibility exercises of the gastrocnemius-soleus, Forty female patients participated in the study, therehamstring and quadriceps muscle. They were asked to were no reported treatment complains and no patientshold the muscle stretch for 30 seconds and do three dropped out because of adverse effects at base line, therepetitions with each muscle group on each leg. The two groups were comparable with respect to age, weight,strengthening exercises consisted of quadriceps and height, body mass index and severity of OA. thehamstring "sitting" followed by maximal isometric characteristics of subjects were shown in Table (1) thecontractions of the quadriceps and hamstrings. The mean age of all subjects was 49.975 year, the mean BMIactive range of motion maneuvers performed were 30.15 indicated that the subjects are obese, the period ofstraight leg raises (hip), abduction/adduction (hip), short complain was about 7 years. There was no significantarc extension (knee), leg extensions (knee) and leg curls difference in the average age, weight, height and duration(knee). The exercises progressed from one set to three of knee pain. 380
  4. 4. World Appl. Sci. J., 14 (3): 378-386, 2011Table 1: Characteristics of clinic treatment group (group A) and home exercise program group (group B) with confirmed diagnosis of the knee joint Group A Group BNumber 20 20Age, year,mean(±SD) 50.45±6.786 49.6±7.316Sex female femaleBody mass index mean(±SD) 29.8±1.281 30.5±1.357Duration of complain mean(±SD) 6.15±0.813 5.9±0.788Table 2: Results on the outcome variables: flexion ROM, extension ROM, VAS and WOMAC index (pain, stiffness and physical functions)Measurements Mean (±SD) t-value P- value % of DifferenceFlexion ROMGroup A Pre 107.5±6.782 12.808 <0.0001 8.14% Post 127.8±3.197Group B Pre 117.75±7.86 5.423 4.20% Post 122.7±5.74Extension ROMGroup A Pre 2.95±2.505 5.417 <0.0001 -78.60% Post 0.68±1.003Group B Pre 3.65±2.46 9.200 -24.66% Post 2.6±2. 234VASGroup A Pre 6.55±1.85 17.228 <0.0001 -51.90% Post 3.15±1.42Group B Pre 7.1±1.71 13.309 -23.94% Post 5.4±1.57WOMAC index PainGroup A Pre 11.4±1.96 20.5 <0.0001 -53.07% Post 5.35±1.82Group B Pre 12.1±18.32 16.56 -31.81% Post 8.25±1.25WOMAC index StiffnessGroup A Pre 4.75±1.37 11.9 <0.0001 -58.94% Post 1.95±0.686Group B Pre 5.65±1.27 11.5 -30.09% Post 0.95±0.887WOMAC index Physical functionGroup A Pre 44.75±10.87 15.9 <0.0001 -49.30% Post 22.35±6.13Group B Pre 47.5±6.08 14.8 -12% Post 41.8±6.169Outcome Variables: Table (2) represents all the results of program where there was significant differences betweenthe outcome variables. pre and post measurements in both groups A and B ROM measurements: the results revealed that there (P <0.0001) while the percentage of difference was -51.90%was significant difference between pre and post and -23.94% for groups A and B respectively.measurements (P<0.0001) in both groups A and B. Thepercentage of difference from base line in knee flexion Physical Function: as measured by WOMAC indexwas18.14% and 4.20% and for knee extension the showed significant difference between pre and postpercentage of difference was -78.60% and -24.66% for values in both group A and B. The percentage ofgroup A and B respectively. difference for pain, stiffness and physical function for group A were -53.07%, -58.94% and -49.30% respectively.Pain: results as measured with VAS indicated positive On other hand for group B the percentage of differenceseffect of physical therapy intervention and home care was -31.81%, -30.09% and -12% respectively. 381
  5. 5. World Appl. Sci. J., 14 (3): 378-386, 2011 DISCUSSION results of O’Reilly et al. [31] and Balint et al. [32] who concluded that improved quadriceps strength is The goal of the present study was to compare the associated with less knee pain and less disability.impact of clinical physical therapy program versus Also the out standing improvement for patients inhome-based physical therapy program among female with this study compared with results of previous studies mayknee osteoarthritis. Both clinical based physical therapy be due to the manual mobilizing exercises which allowedgroup (group A) and home based physical therapy group the therapist to concentrate treatment on the areas of pain(group B) experienced clinically and statistically and limited function for each patient. The effect ofsignificant improvement in self perception of pain, mobilizing exercise combined with clinical exercisestiffness and functional ability. program provide greater improvements in strength, pain The difference between groups is likely attributable and function than did clinical exercise program the additional of effects of clinical intervention One argument for using acupuncture in theconsisting of manual therapy and supervision of the management of painful musculoskeletal conditions is thatexercises that group B was performing unsupervised at it is safer than standard drug treatment. Serious adversehome with respect to the beneficial effect of adding EA effects of acupuncture have been reported, althoughlike TENS to a course of manual therapy and exercises for those may be rare (33). Relative to those of standard druggroup A. treatments these may be infrequent or even negligible This study attempted to be objective with respect to [34-35]. Several prospective studies have shown that mildthe out come measures as a validated index questionnaire adverse effects after acupuncture occur in about 7% of alland quantified active/passive range of motion. It is the cases.first study that used the Arabic version of WOMAC In this study low frequency (15 Hz) EA like TENS wasindex; its validity and reliability were tested by Guermazi, used and it was found that it produces analgesia for long2004 [4]. duration which out lasts the 20-min stimulation session by The patients had symptoms of OA of the knee for about 30 min to many hours. In addition, its effects areabout 7 years with the treatment protocol described cumulative after several sessions of treatment given eitherabove, most symptoms were improved in 8 weeks with the daily or less frequently (2-3 times a week) for thesepercentage of difference from base line in flexion 18.14% reasons the low frequency EA like TENS was thereforefor group A in contrast to 4.20% for group B. Regarding given three times a week for eight weeks as commonlyto knee extension ROM the percentage of difference for recommended in EA like TENS A was -78.60% while for group B it was -24.66% Although there are several lines of evidence fromonly. many controlled and uncontrolled studies from short term The benefits of treatment were achieved in 24 clinic and long term effectiveness of acupuncture in relievingvisits most of previous studies have demonstrated the clinical pain [36]. The scientific data concerning thebenefits of exercises in 36 to 48 clinic visit [28]. Previous efficacy of acupuncture in OA are rare [37]. In addition,reports of average improvement with exercises have there are several systemic flaws among the studies due toranged from 8% to 27% decrease in pain and 10% to 39% inadequate sessions of acupuncture treatment [38]. Inimprovement in function [28-29]. The total improvement in addition to all of that there are a few studies whichWOMAC score in present study averaged 53%; average investigate the benefits of adding acupuncture to asubscale improvement were 58% for pain, 53% for course of advice and exercises delivered bystiffness and 49% for functional disability. Most physiotherapist for pain relieve in patients with OA of theimportant, these changes can be compared with those in knee. Few randomized control trials (RCT) studieshome exercise group who experience less improvement examined the effect of manual acupuncture for pain31.81%, 30.09% and 12% for pain, stiffness and physical reduction of OA of the knee. Yurtkuran and Kocaggil 1999function respectively. A recent best evidence summary of investigated the effect of EA applied on four acupuncturesystematic reviews concluded that exercise therapy points for OA of the knee their results showed that the(strengthening, stretching and functional exercises) percentage of improvement in pain were 96% and 53%compared with no treatment is effective for patients with respectively, but the results were without follow upknee OA (30). A reduction of pain may result from evaluation and unclear if analgesic effect of EA like TENSimprovement of muscle strength and this come with the could be prolonged [39]. 382
  6. 6. World Appl. Sci. J., 14 (3): 378-386, 2011 Also NG et al. 2003 [24] reported that both EA and techniques were applied to increase excursion in bothtranscutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) intra-articular and peri-articular tissues when restrictedtreatment demonstrated a significant reduction of knee mobility was judged to be related to the reproduction ofpain after eight sessions of treatment. They suggested symptoms of functional limitation.that pain modulation by low-frequency EA or low Studies on education of arthritis patients hadfrequency TENS could be caused by the release of suggested improvements in some aspects of pain, self-endorphins within the central nervous system. efficiency and functional status. Since self-care education Previous study that was done by foster at al. 2007 is thought to reduce health care utilization, make costs[13] concluded that acupuncture delivered by reduction and save patients time with less number ofphysiotherapist as a part of an integrated package of sessions for this care with advice and exercises for older adults withOA of the knee provide no additional improvement in pain CONCLUSIONscores compared with advice and exercise alone asmeasured with WOMAC index at six and 12 months. In Clinical physical therapy program of manualcontrast to the previous study, in this trial there was therapy, supervised exercises combined with EA likegreater improvement in pain scores as measured by TENS applied by physical therapist was comparedWOMAC index and VAS scales for group A as compared with home exercise program for decreasing pain andto group B. stiffness and improving function in subjects with knee The home-based exercise program described in this OA. The comprehensive clinical treatment programstudy focused on improving the flexibility, strength, resulted in great improvement after eight weeks ofendurance and movement flexibility of the knee treatment. The average improvement in ROM, pain,mechanism. Effectiveness, safety and patient complain stiffness and physical function seen in clinic treatmentwere considered in developing the program. The benefits group was twice the magnitude of the improvementfrom this comprehensive clinically instructed home observed in home exercise group. The satisfiedexercise program are consistent with the highest levels improvement of home exercise group can encourageof benefit from exercise reported in previously cited physical therapy clinic to organize an instruction lecturesstudies. This benefit occurred to patients in the current about the benefits of home exercise in reducing symptomsstudy with only two clinic visits with reassessment of knee OA for subject in appointment waiting list ofof exercise program after four weeks for each patient to physical therapy treatment.keep the program challenging and beneficial. The successof home program may be attributable to any or all of the REFERENCESfeatures designed into the program: careful instruction,minimal exercise performance time, an adherence log, a 1. Setnilkar, I., 1992. Antireactive properties ofhigh quality exercise folder and a comprehensive set chondroprotective drugs. Int. J. Tissue React,of exercise addressing muscle tightness, limitation in joint 14(5): 253-61.movement, muscle weakness and general fitness. 2. Felson, D.T., Y. Zhang, M.T. Hannan, et al., 1997. Although the exercises of the subjects in clinic Risk factors for incident radiographic kneetreatment group were observed and corrected as osteoarthritis in the elderly: the Framingham study.necessary, subjects in home exercise group exercised Arthritis Rheum, 40: 728-733.without the supposed benefits of frequent supervision, 3. Lachance, L., M.F. Sowers, D. Jamadar andthe received one-to-one supervision only initially and at M. Hochberg, 2002. The natural history of emergentthe four-week follow-up visit. osteoarthritis of the knee in women. Osteoarthritis This trial is important for two reasons. Firstly, Cartilage, 10: provides new information on the effectiveness of EA 4. Guermazi, M., M.D. Poiraueau, M. Yahia,like TENS for relieving pain on osteoarthritis patients M. Mezganni, H. Fermanian, J. Elleuc and M. Revel,delivered in addition to manual therapy and supervised 2004. Translation, adaptation and validation ofexercises within mainstream of health care. Secondly, Western Ontario and McMaster Universitiesmanual therapy reduces pain and stiffness allows osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) for an Arabpatients to participate more successfully in activities of population: the Sfax modified WOMAC.daily living. The manual therapy passive movement Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 12: 459-468. 383
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  9. 9. World Appl. Sci. J., 14 (3): 378-386, 2011Scoring and interpretation:Response PointsNone 0Slight 1Moderate 2Severe 3Extreme 4Score equal to sum points of relevant items.Interpretation:Minimum total score= 0Maximum total score= 96Minimum pain subscore= 0Maximum pain subscore= 20Minimum stiffness subscore= 0Maximum stiffness subscore= 8Minimum physical function subscore= 0Maximum physical function subscore= 68 386