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JJ Thomson (student preso)



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general physics 1
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Physics Nobel Prize Winner
21 Feb 2009



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JJ Thomson (student preso) JJ Thomson (student preso) Presentation Transcript

    • Joseph John Thomson
    • 18 December 1856 - 30 August 1940
    • an English physicist, the discoverer of the electron
    • Born in Manchester, England
    • One of his students was Ernest Rutherford, who would later succeed him in the post.
    • Influenced by the work of James Clerk Maxwell, and the discovery of the X-ray, he deduced that cathode rays existed of negatively charged particles, which he called "corpuscles", and which are now known as electrons.
    • His discovery was made known in 1897, and caused a sensation in scientific circles, eventually resulting in his being awarded a Nobel prize (1906).
    • Prior to the outbreak of World War I in 1918, he made another ground-breaking discovery: the isotope.
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    • Investigate if the negative charge could be separated from the cathode rays by means of magnetism
    • A cathode ray tube ending in a pair of cylinders with slits which are connected to an electrometer
    • If the rays were magnetically bent such that they could not enter the slit, the electrometer registered little charge. As a result, the negative charge was inseparable from the rays.
    • Failed because of trace amount of gases
    • Investigated if the rays could be deflected by an electric field
    • A cathode ray tube with a practically perfect vacuum, and coated one end with phosphorescent paint
    • Thomson found that the rays bend under the influence of an electric field, in a direction indicating a negative charge.
    • Wanted to see if the mass could be measured to charge ratio (mass divided by amount of charge).
    • Measured how far the ray was deflected by a magnetic field
    • He found that mass to charge ratio was over a thousand times lower than that of a hydrogen ion (H+), suggesting either that the particles were very light or very highly charged.
    • In the year 1896 he defined the connection of particles charge and its mass (q/m).
    • Based on collector's mass, its specific heat and the heat gain, he could evaluated thermal energy.
    • The total charge Q assembled on the collector one can evaluate knowing the charge of one particle q and a number of particles falling on the instrument n
    • http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1906/thomson-bio.html
    • http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/Th/Thomson.html
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