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  • 1. Enterprise Resource Planning Systems: the Integrated Approach Sergey V. Zykov ITERANET Co. Ltd., ITERA International Group of Companies, Moscow, Russia szykov@itera.ru Abstract • ERP design methods classification and analysis; Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems enjoy • integrated data and metadata model development; an increasingly wide coverage. However, no truly integrate solution has been proposed as yet. ERP • ERP component integration algorithm development; classification is given. Recent trends in commercial • HRIS prototyping and full-scale implementation. systems are analyzed on the basis of human resources (HR) management software. An Research methods meeting the problem domain specific innovative “straight through” design and features are based on a creative synthesis of fundamental implementation process of an open, secure, and statements of lambda calculus [18], category [8] and scalable integrated event-driven enterprise solution semantic network [16] theories. is suggested. Implementation results are presented. The data model is introduced provides integrated1. Introduction problem-oriented event-driven data and metadataFrequent priority changes in versatile corporations dynamics and statics management of heterogeneous weak-development demand fast and flexible adaptation of structured problem domains in a more adequate way thanpersonnel organizational structure to rapidly changing previously known ones. The integration algorithmmodern market with stiff competition. Such adaptation suggested allows to generate system architecture solutionshould be based on strategic software integration, and is for open, distributed, interoperable environmentespecially urgent for comprehensive ERP systems that supporting front-end versatile data warehouse processinginvolve a collection of technologies allowing to support based on dynamic SQL with stored procedures and object-complex production-and-trade cycles. oriented CORBA, UML and business-process reengineering (BPR) technologies.During the two recent decades, the data models (DM) andarchitectures underlying software development process 2. ERP Historyhave been changed significantly to support objectmethodologies and interoperability [9]. Since early 90-s, ERP construction procedures are based on data model,rather uniform file-server systems of versatile material architecture, DBMS and CASE technologies. Let usresource planning (MRP) supporting relational [4] DM briefly describe major ERP development approaches.have been developed up to well-consolidated ERPsystems based on extendable relational DM supporting 2.1 Legacy Systemsobject-relational and object-oriented DBMS. Attempts of First enterprise-level solutions have been obtained,enterprise application integration (EAI) have also been apparently, in 60-s as custom-made IS for inventoryundertaken [2,5,6,10,12]. control (IC) based on mainframes. Examples includeThe approach suggested in this paper for ERP integration hierarchical (IBM IMS, 1968) and network (Cullinethas been practically approved while prototyping and Software IDMS, 1971) systems.implementing a full-scale HR information system (HRIS). Some of the IC systems included such advanced featuresMain objectives of the paper are the following ones: as multimedia personal data handling and flexible form and report generation. Security has been restricted by 1
  • 2. bulky procedures for explicit enabling/disabling rights of Oracle Applications services are based on highly scalableevery user for each entry form, report or query. Since and reliable relational database Oracle Universal Server.legacy systems have been based on file-server, they lack The ERP benefits compact storage, effective retrieval offlexibility and portability, therefore reengineering and multimedia data, advanced form generator and reportdata publishing is a serious problem. writer, object-oriented visual interface script language, SQL-based procedure-oriented query language, cross-A positive example of such systems is UniQue HRIS from platform support, WWW-ready applications development.Q Data Dynamique originally designed for use withAS/400 and later on, in 1993, adapted for PC LANs [21]. Multi-platform client/server support is provided for most of leading operating systems including MS Windows NT,However, the legacy IC systems are not based on a data Sun Solaris, IBM AIX and other UNIX dialects etc.model and therefore they use rather primitive set ofstandard functions. Neither do they feature front-end Developed and deployed database-oriented applicationsprogramming and development environment, nor can they become Web-enabled through Oracle Web Server.transparently acquire foreign source data. Oracle Designer/2000 CASE and RAD tool allows to enhance and optimize business processes through visual2.2 From Legacy to High-End: Integration interface and SQL-based PLSQL language as a basis andand Flexibility Start Here a visual object-oriented script language at upper level.Standards and Models Change: MRP to EAI There are certain points of integration between Oracle Assets and Oracle Human Resources that allow usingIn 70-s material resource planning (MRP) systems personal data from for depreciation and tax calculations.appeared in order to satisfy emerging demand for However, Oracle Applications group products areenterprise resource management. The MRP systems were integrated loosely enough and much is still desired tobased on relational DBMS [4]. The major prototypes build a real enterprise level solution out of them.included System R [11] and Ingres [20] which lead tocommercial IBM DB2 and CA Ingres. In general, MRPsystems support dynamic SQL and provide more flexible 3. Related Worksresource control than IC systems. MRP solutions are Papers [1,8,4,9-11,16-19] provide rigorous mathematicsaimed at corporations employing less than 10,000 people. foundation and solid theoretical research background for database structure notations. Relational DBMS and weak-In early 90-s further development of data models structured document solutions are cross-examined.(P.Chens ERM [3]), data manipulation languages(SQL2), industrial DBMS (Oracle, Informix, Sybase) [15] Object hierarchy and semantic network as a basicand integrated CASE tools has resulted in advent of approach to handling object storage and databaseclient/server ERP systems that provided comprehensive structure manipulation is described in [6,7].resource management for large corporations with more Lattice of flow diagrams, used for data flow modeling, isthan 10,000 employees. Later on, general-purpose system discussed in [17].integration software solutions based on challengingconcepts and tools have been obtained by D.Calvanese Through rigorous mathematics background papers [22,23][2], D.Florescu, A.Levi [6] (ODBC/JDBC data provide an overview of object-oriented systemsintegration), D.Linticum [12], H.Davis [5] development and a number of practical solutions.(COM/CORBA application integration) as well as Enterprise groupware-based solution is outlined in [24]Y.Kambayashi [10] (Java, ActiveX, MOM and RPC and given a wider coverage in [25-28]. ERP overview isinterface integration). based on user and system manuals [21] directly fromThe most successful example of state-of-the-art vendors. World-recognized independent expert opinioncommercial ERP is Oracle Applications. [15] is also considered. Current ERP market status is acquired from WWW sources [13,14].Oracle Applications: an Integrated ERP SolutionThe Oracle Applications group includes the following 4. Architecture and Interface Requirementsintegrated modules: Human Resources, General Ledger,Accounts Payable, Accounts Receivable, Fixed Assets, According to problem domain research results, vital issuesManufacturing, Project Management, and Purchasing. of problem-oriented ERP construction for integrated corporate resource management have been formulated. In 2
  • 3. accordance with problems detected, fundamental information processing from various repository types ofrequirements for versatile enterprise-level software design heterogeneous enterprise problem domains is supportedand implementation have been classified. providing front-end data access based on event-driven procedures and dynamic SQL technologies.Specific features of the problem domain require supportfor dynamic multilevel personnel restructuring process The computational model suggested is based on the two-with multi-alternative assignment-based complex level conceptualization scheme [22], i.e. process ofestimation of enterprise activity. Interface requirements establishing relationship between concepts of problemset should allow dynamic variation of mandatory input domain.fields, flexible access rights differentiation and constant Individuals h, according to the types T assigned, aredata integrity support. united in assignment-depending collections, thus makingIn architecture respect, the system should provide variable domains of sortinteroperability, expandability, and flexible adaptation to HT(I) = {h | h : I→T},problem domain changes as well as data and metadatacorrection possibility, e.g. through rollback. that simulate problem domain dynamics. When fixing data model individuals, uniqueness of5. The Integrated Data and Metadata Model individualization of data object d from problem domain D by means of the formula Φ is required:5.1 The Data Object Model || Ix Φ (x) || i = d ⇔ {d} = {d∈D | ||Φ(d)|| i = 1}.Mathematical formalisms existing for problem domainsare not fully adequate to dynamics and statics semantic 5.2 The Metadata Object Modelpeculiarities. Besides, modern methods of CASE-and-RAD design and implementation of integrated enterprise Compression principle for the computational data objectapplications do not result in solutions of a wide model introducedapplication spectrum; the corresponding commercial ERP C = Iy: [D] x : D(y(x) ↔ Φ ) = {x : D | Φ}do not provide a significant degree of complexheterogeneous problem domains data usage. allows to apply the model to concepts, individuals and states separately, as well as to data objects as a whole.According to results of research on enterprise personnelmanagement problem domain specific features, a The computational metadata model expands traditionalcomputational data model (DM) based on object calculus ER-model [4] by a principle of compression:has been built. The model is a theoretical methodsynthesis of finite sequences, categories and semantic xj+1 Izj+1: […[D]…] ∀xj: […[D]…] (zj+1(xj) Φj), wherenetworks. zj+1, xj+1 – metadata predicate characters in relation toDate objects (DO) of the DM introduced can be level j,represented as follows: xj- individual of level j,DO = < concept, individual, state >, Φj - data object definition language construction of level j.where a concept is understood as a collection of functions The suggested comprehensive model of objects of thewith the same definition area and the same value range. data, metadata and states is characterized by scalability,An individual implies an essence selected by a problem aggregation, metadata encapsulation, hierarchy structuredomain expert, who indicates the identifying properties. and visualization.State changes simulate dynamics of problem domainindividuals. Expandability, adequacy, neutrality and semantic correctness of the formalism introduced provide problem-Compared to research results known as yet, the DM oriented software design with adequacy maintenance at allsuggested enjoys significant advantages of more adequate stages of implementation.dynamics and statics mapping of heterogeneous problemdomains, as well as support problem-oriented integrated Semantics of computational model of objects of the data,data management. In architecture and interface aspects the metadata and states is adequately and uniformlyDM provides straightforward iterated design of open, formalized by means of typed λ-calculus, combinatorydistributed, interoperable HRIS based on UML and BPR logic, and semantic network-based scenario description.methodologies. As far as implementation is concerned, 3
  • 4. Figure 1 Generalized implementation scheme for enterprise information systems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igure 2 Implemented enterprise HRIS structure 4
  • 5. TXDOLILFDWLRQ W W WUXH [ UHV D D Y F @ ) ) ) QXPEHU D R IXQ [ SUHG SUHG GLIIHU FKDUDFWHUL]H FKDQJH W ,6$ ,6$ WUXH ! WUXH UHV SUHG UHV ) D [ D ) D D ) R [ D ) ] IXQ SUHG SUHG D GLIIHU FKDJH FKDUDFWHUL]H HPSO Figure 3 Situation business-model fragment in the form of semantic network Figure 3 Situation business-model fragment in the form of the semantic network , *HQHUDOL]HG HPSORHH FODVV$ $ $ (PSORHH ODERU IXQFWLRQV ,7 ,6 SURJUDPPLQJ
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  • 9. Figure 4 4 Levels of generalized personnel class class hierarchy Figure Levels of generalized personnel hierarchy 5
  • 10. 5.3 The Integrated Model Application to ERP changing his position to Department_Director, managing a department of more than 50 employees” (see fig.3).Enhancing HR Component: Personnel AppraisalModel Now let us consider an example of employee activity evaluation based on the formal DM (see fig.4).Let us introduce an appraisal modeling formalism meetingthe general requirements for specific features detected Let the F functional denote the most general class ofduring ERP problem domain analysis. In the below employees. Let the assignment s={development, support}example most essential employee evaluation parameters: accounts for corporation personnel labor functions.• hierarchy-based corporation organizational structure; Let F(s) stand for the set of employees, for whom the labor functions are restricted to development and support.• employee working functions; Let the assignment p={information technologies,• vacant positions currently available; programming, information systems} accounts for department-level organization unit.• enrolled employee amount Let us name as F(s)(p) the set of employees with• are combined. development and support labor functions for whom anThe last three parameters can be detailed from the organization unit is assigned i.e., currently enrolled ones.corporation level down to its smallest structural unit, For the sake of simplicity and without loss of generality,while the first parameter is a global one. let us consider that in general the employee set (i.e., corporate personnel), referred above as functional F isLet us assume that A and B are sets. dependent upon vacancy number (v), number of staff/HW : stand for the mapping from A to B: members (e), their labor functions and organization units (i.e., on organization structure):: = {f|f: A-B}. F=F((v), (e), …)./HW XV PDWFK : with the mapping In this case, the formula F=F((v), (e), …)indicates a°  = {f | f BA×A → B}, formal procedure that evaluates parameterized functional,i.e. with ° evaluation function. the expression F=F((v), (e), …) (s)evaluates employees with given labor functions (s), and the formalThus, the following equation holds true “procedure” F=F((v), (e), …) (s) (p)evaluates°  = (f, x) = f(x), or, in the other form, employees with given labor functions (s) from organization units (p).f, x  = f(x). The introduced functional F can be considered aNow, let us build the semantics network language model. foundation for a computational formalism ofLet us consider an ordered pair of DO of the form parameterized procedure of comprehensive appraisal of aL=R,C, where certain corporation organization unit level (from companies and departments to employees).R={R1,R2, …} stands for predicate dyadic predicatesymbols set and Let us demonstrate that two-level conceptualization scheme is sufficient for the model adequacy.C={C1,C2, …} stands for constants set. Let us introduce the following denotations:Therewith, the atomic formulae of the model suggestedcorrespond to simple frames, and terms denote problem r = {rl.f., ro.u.} – specific costs;domain individuals. z = {zl.f., zo.u.} – segmentation degree (i.e., possibilityLet us construct frame evaluation procedure using the of dividing the personnel into stable and independentintroduced evaluation function ° . Let us also relate work groups)the semantic network-based DM with databases in qi =qi – overheads;general, and with relational databases in particular. li =li – work (contract, project, order, target goal)Let us consider the following natural language situation of stage duration;HR management: ”An General_Director employee is 6
  • 11. ni =ni – number of work stages. 6. The Integrated ERP ImplementationEvaluated values are generalized, i.e., there is nouniqueness of value choice for specific costs and 6.1 Customizing the Implementation Schemesegmentation degree. During design process, ERP specification is transformedGeneralization level decrease is achieved by assignment from problem domain concepts to data model essencespoint s consideration: and further through CASE-tools to DBMS scheme with PLSQL as data object manipulation language to target  z(devel.) = zdevel. , ERP description with appropriate architectural andz(s) =  interface components (see fig.1). In accordance with problem domain specific features analysis results,  z(support) = zsupport ; computational data model and generalized scheme of ERP development have been adapted to satisfy the required personnel management conditions. The problem-domain  r(devel.) = rdevel. , oriented ERP design scheme includes five stages:r(s) =  • corporation board of directors formulates objectives, measures and plans on restructuring which are  r(support) = rsupport . mapped in formal business rules of ERPMoreover, further generalization level decrease by computational model (see fig.5);considering the second assignment point p does not resultin success: • experts in personnel and information create the specified structural and functional conceptualz(s)(p) = z(s); corporation business model in a form of object map;r(s)(p) = r(s). • system analysts make OLAP-research of corporate business model variants for various developmentThe result obtained can be explained by the fact that the scenarios;evaluation procedure does explicitly include organizationstructure position. • database and ERP developers formalize businessHowever, it is obvious that overheads qi are dependent logic of the architecture and interfaces using object-both on labor functions and on organization structure oriented script language, language, which is assembled in UML-data model by means of CASE-position, i.e. we should let qi= {qi devel., qi support.}. synthesis methodology;The equality qi= qi implies that • database, local area network and security managersqi devel.= qi support = qi . implement and support target ERP and DB schemes.Generalized Component Integration Algorithm 6.2 Problem-Oriented Interface and Event-According to the ERP design and implementation scheme Driven Architecture(see fig.1), a generalized algorithm of new componentintegration into existing ERP structure is suggested. According to detailed ERP design sequence, a generalized heterogeneous repository processing scheme is introducedThe algorithm is based on the semantically preferred data that allows users to interact with distributed database in aobjects analysis and provides consistency and integrity of certain state depending on dynamically activated (i.e.,extendable data object models as well as possibility of assigned) scripts. Thus, the scripts in a form of databaseiterated information system design through by business connection profiles and stored object-oriented programmodel reengineering. The algorithm unifies object-based language procedures are initiated depending on user-heterogeneous management information system triggered events. Scripts provide transparent andintegration process. intellectual client/server front-end user-to databaseAn important feature of the generalized component- connection. Dynamically varied database access profilesintegration algorithm is its semantic orientation. In terms provide high fault tolerance and data security both forof human resources information management system it ordinary and privileged system users in the heterogeneousimplies organizational structure dependency. environment. The profiles are implemented using CORBA technology as an intellectual media between end user andThe author has performed research of corporation heterogeneous data warehouses.organizational structure semantics earlier. Researchresults are presented in [25-28], where they are discussedin a more detailed way. 7
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  • 15. Figure Figure 5 system design and implementation levels 5 ERP ERP system design and implementation levels 8
  • 16. BEGIN Choose a component No Yes Is the component No a new one? Design the model Reengineer of data objects the model of data objects All components processed? Choose a component Yes No Choose a data object No No Yes Does the OD belong to an adjacent PD? Is the OD a semantically No preferred one? NoEliminate DO Add the DO to the duplication dataintegrated object model All OD processed? Yes All components processed? Yes END Figure 6 ERP integration algorithm Figure 6 ERP integration algorithm 9
  • 17. Depending on semantic-oriented corporation From the system architecture viewpoint the integrated HRorganizational structure, which defines ERP user position component provides certain level of data input, correction,in the corporation hierarchy, a certain database connection analysis and output (from president down to chief of aand access level profile is assigned dynamically. The department) depending on front-end position (i.e.,profile is valid only until the end of a data exchange assignment) in personnel hierarchy. Problem-orientedsession. According to the corporation hierarchy, user gets form designer, report generator, on-line documentationaccess to data under one of the basic scenario profiles and administration tools are used as interactive interfaceranging from corporation president to a department facilities. The ERP database supports the integratedemployee. Access is granted not only to data, but also to storage for data (for on-line user access) and for metadatametadata (i.e., data object dimensions, integrity (data object dimensions, integrity constraints and otherconstraints, access rights, appraisal parameters, business process parameters).corporation structure etc.). During the ERP design process problem domain dataAdministrative users have extended access to metadata. model specification (represented as semantic networkThus, under the model, introduced data and metadata fragments) has been transformed into use-case UMLobjects are manipulated uniformly. This makes system diagrams, then, by means of Oracle Developer/2000interface a problem-oriented, straightforward and uniform integrated CASE-tool - into ER-diagrams and, finally, intoone and significantly increases system performance and the attributes of target ERP and databases.user-friendliness. On the basis of the information model developed, architecture-and-interface solution for integrated6.3 Implementation Description personnel management software has been designed;The introduced design methodology has been practically details of database processing for various system user andapproved during ERP HR component implementation at administrator classes have been considered.ITERA International Group of Companies. The enterprise Software implementation has been divided into twopersonnel management software consists of eight stages: 1) fast prototype created with an SQL-based querycomponents (see fig.2). Personal Data component is language, supporting triggers and stored procedureintended for storage and processing of employee mechanisms using PowerScript script object-orientedbiography data. The subsystem, connected to the above language and 2) full scale and capacity softwareone, named Personnel Dynamics allows to control implementation based on the Oracle integrateddynamics of employees enrollment, transfer, dismissal and information system development tools platform.re-enrollment events. The adjacent software moduleCharges and Deductions provides registration of salaries, To prove adequacy of the computational data andbonuses and other kinds of payments, as well as material metadata model developed and component integrationpenalties. The central Appraisal and testing component algorithm suggested, a fast software prototype has beensupports comprehensive employee labor activity designed on the basis of generalized architecture schemeestimation based on individual, psychological, and supporting interfaces.professional and other kinds of tests, as well as on Sybase S-Designor/PowerBuilder has been chosen asadjacent modules and third-party software data. Vacancies CASE- and RAD-toolkit for implementation environmentcomponent supervises personnel selection according to as a result of carried out comparative analysis.given criteria. Leaves and Sick-Lists subsystem accountsemployees working hours and supports multi-type leaves. According to prototype approbation results full-scaleTraining and Skills Improvement component implements object-oriented software has been implemented andtraining policy judging by appraisal results and tracks subsequently adapted for personnel managementtraining service payments. Finally, Equipment Fixing application development.subsystem provides registration for accountable persons To provide required levels of industrial scalability andand major corporation resources used by them. fault tolerance, judging by the results of CASE-and-RADAll of the HR component modules are captured by unified tools multi-criteria comparative analysis Oracleinterface and integrated into ERP environment of the Developer/2000 toolkit has been chosen as an integratedOracle Applications financial and commodity solution supporting methodologies of universal modelingmanagement systems and Oracle InterOffice document (UML) and business processes reengineering (BPR)management system. methodologies. 10
  • 18. Target ERP implemented consists of eight components been developed on the basis of generalized interface andusing a set of Oracle tools. All of the components are architecture of structural and logical UML scheme.implemented according to technical specifications Using the prototype approbation results, a full-scaledesigned by the author personally, and amount to more object-oriented ERP application has been designed andthan 1000 source text pages. 150 high complexity applied for a versatile enterprise-level implementation.bilingual screen forms and reports, as well as about 30-page source text size Equipment Assignment component The full-scale enterprise-level software has beenhave been also created by the author. According to customized for corporate resource management andspecification requirements developed by the author implemented at a corporation with more than 1000together with ITERA International Group of Companies employees.personnel service the software implemented had beensignificantly improved. In particular, procedures of 8. Conclusionaccounting salaries and vacation bonus have been coded. Results for integrated ERP solution implemented have proved significant decrease in terms and costs ofThe full-scale implementation is based on the hardware implementation as well as growth of portability,platform of an IBM RS/6000 two-server high availability expandability, scalability and ergonomics levels incluster running under AIX operating system. comparison with existing commercial software of theThe information system has been implemented in a large kind. Iterated multilevel software design is based oninternational corporation and has passed a three-year formal model synthesizing object-oriented methods ofexperimental check. data (data objects) and knowledge (metadata objects) management. Industrial implementation of the ERP HRAs a result of software implementation designed on the component has been carried using integrated CASE- andbasis of the model introduced, implementation terms and RAD-toolkits. Practical implementation experience hascost and cost compared to existing commercial software proved importance, urgency, originality and efficiency ofof the kind are considerably reduced while the functional the approach as a whole as well as of its separate stagesset is extended. and solutions.In the opinion of users, the software implemented features Theoretical and practical statements outlined in the paperhigh degrees of openness, expandability, flexibility, have been approved by enterprise-level ERP softwarereliability, ergonomics and ease of mastering. successful implementation at ITERA International GroupThanks to problem-oriented interface, primary data entry of Companies.speed exceeds that of commercial software of the kind bythe average of 20% and amounts to about 150 seconds per Referencesemployee data entry. Access levels differentiation allows 1. K.Baclawski, D.Simovici, W.White. A categoricalto considerably result risk of information distortion or approach to database semantics. Mathematicalloss. Structures in Computer Science, vol.4, p.p.147-183, 19947. Results 2. D.Calvanese, G.Giacomo, M.Lenzerini, D.Nardi,Computational data model has been introduced providing R.Rosati. Source Integration in Data Warehousing.integrated manipulation of data and metadata objects DEXA Workshop 1998, p.p.192-197especially under the conditions of rapidly changing 3. P.P.Chen. The Entity-Relationship Model - A basisheterogeneous problem domains. The model is an alloy of for the Enterprise View of Data. Americanmethods of finite sequences, category theory and semantic Federation of Information Processing Societiesnetworks. (AFIPS) National Computer Conference, Dallas, Texas, 1977, AFIPS Press, Vol. 46, p.p. 77-84An original generalized scheme of straightforward 4. E.F.Codd. Relational Completeness of Data Baseenterprise ERP design and implementation has been Sublanguages Data Base Systems. In: Rustin R.proposed on the basis of formal data and metadata model. Eds.,.- New York; Prentice Hall, 1972 (CourantThe scheme includes a for new components integration Computer Sci. Symposia Series No.6)into an ERP that provides adequacy, consistency and data 5. H.C.Davis, S.Knight, W.Hall. Light Hypermediaintegrity. Link Services: A Study of Third Party ApplicationAccording to the above mentioned scheme and algorithm, Integration. ECHT 1994, p.p.41-50a generalized ERP interface has been designed based on 6. D.Florescu, A.Y.Levy. Recent Progress in Dataan open and extendable architecture. Integration - A Tutorial. ADBIS 1998, p.p.1-2 7. R.Godin, H.Mili. Building and MaintainingTo solve a complex applied task of enterprise resource Analysis-Level Class Hierarchies Using Galoismanagement, fast event-driven prototype software has Lattices. OOPSLA 1993, p.p.394-410 11
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