Principles of Management


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Principles of Management

  1. 1. UNIT – I – HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT1. What is Management?Management is the process of giving direction and controlling the various activities of the people to achieve the objectives ofan organization.2. Define Management.According to Knootz and Weihrich “Management is the process of designing and maintaining of an environment in whichindividuals working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims”.3. Write some characteristics of Management. Management is a continuous process.¬ Manager use the resources of the organization both physical as well as human to¬Achieve goals. Management aims act achieving the organization goals by ensuring effective use of Resources.¬4. What are the roles of management in organization?1. Management helps in determination of the objectives of an organization.2. Economic and social development takes place through management.5. Write any 2 points favor for management as a science.1) Management principles should be verifiable.2) Reliable basis through management.6. Write any 2 points favor for management as an art.i. Management is creative.ii. Management includes the use of practical knowledge and personal skill.7. Who is the father of Scientific management?Frederick Winslow Taylor.8. What is Time Study?The movements which takes the minimum time is the best one.9. What is Motion Study?Taylor suggested that eliminating wasteful movements and performing only necessary movements.10. Write Fayol’s 14 principles of management. Division of work Authority and ResponsibilityDisciplineUnity of CommandUnity of directionIndividual interest to general interestRemunerationCentralizationScalar chainOrderEquityStabilityInitiativeESprite de crops.11. What is Authority?
  2. 2. It is the power given to a person to get work from the subordinates.12. What is Responsibility?It is the amount of work expected of from a man by his superior.13. Comment: Management is both- A science and an art.Management is a science because it contains general principles. It is also an art because it requires certain personal skills tobe achieve desired results.14. What is Centralization?The organization is centralized when the power is concentrated with one person.15. What is Decentralization?If the power is fully distributed to the subordinates of the organization.16. What is Esprit – de- crops?This means union is strength. In organization employees should be harmony and unity.17. What are Management Levels?Top levelMiddle levelLower level18. Write the functions of management. Planning¬Organizing¬Staffing¬Coordinating¬Controlling¬19. What are the essential skills need for the managers? Technical skill Human skillConceptual skill.20. Define Sole trading.The sole proprietorship is that form of business organization which is owned and controlled by a single individual.21. What is Partnership?A partnership is an association of two or more persons to carry on business and to share its profit and lossess.22. What is Joint stock company?A private limited company is a company which has a minimum paid up capital destroyed be prescribed.24. What is a Co-operative society?It is a voluntary association of persons for mutual benefit and it aims accomplished through self help and collective effort.25. What is a social responsibility?Society is the parts of the management to interact actions wither to protect social interest a society.
  3. 3. UNIT –II - PLANNING1.Define planning.Planning is the process of selecting the objectives and the determining the course of action required to achieve theseobjectives.2. What are the objectives of planning? Planning is the primary function of an organizationϖ It helps in achieving objectivesϖIt is done to cope with uncertainty and changeϖIt helps in facilitating controlϖIt helps in coordinationϖIt increases organizational effectiveness.ϖIt guides in decision making.ϖ3. List out the features of planning. Planning –a primary functionPlanning – a dynamic processPlanning – based on objectives and policiesPlanning – a selective processPervasiveness of planning.4. What are the different types of planning?STANDING PLANS SINGLE USE PLANSMission or purpose ProgrammesObjectives BudgetsStrategies SchedulesPolicies MethodsProcedures projectsRules5.Define Mission.Mission may be defined as “as a statement which defines the role that an organization plays in the society ”.6. Define objectives.The term objectives or goals are often used interchangeably. Objectives are the end results towards which the activities offirm are aimed or directed.7.What is meant by strategy?Strategy of an organization is the programmes of action and deployment of resources to attain its objectives.8. What are the factors to be considered while formulating strategies?1. Mission and objectives of an organization.2. Values, aspirations and prejudices of top level management3. Opportunities and threads of the external environment.4. Strength and weakness of the firm in various aspects such as funds, organization structure, human talent, technology,etc.
  4. 4. 9.Define policies.Policies are general statements or understandings which provide guidance in decision making to various managers.10. What is procedure?Procedure is a chronological order of actions required to implement a policy and to achieve an objectives.11. How rules can be defined?Rules are plans in which they suggest the required course of action .12. What is programme?Programme is a broad term which includes goals, policies, procedure, rules, task assignment, steps to be taken, resourcesto be employed to carry out a given course of action.13. Define Budgets.A budget is a statement of expected results in numerical terms and therefore, it may be referred as a numerical programme.14. Classify budgets.i. Variable budgets or Flexible budgetsii. Programme budgetsiii. Zero-base budget15. Give the flow diagram of planning steps.SERIAL NUMBER PLANNING STEPS1 Identification of opportunities2 Establishment of objectives3 Developing planning premises4 Identification of alternatives5 Evaluation of alternatives6 Selecting an alterative7 Formulating derivative plans8 Establishing sequence of activities16. What is objective?Objectives are the aims, purposes or goals that an organization wants to achieve over varying periods of time.17. List down the guidelines for the objective setting.1. objective should cover the main features of the job2. objectives must be clearly specified in writing3. The list of objectives should not be too long. Wherever it is possible, combine some objectives to make the listreasonable.4. objectives should be verifiable.18. Mention the different areas of an organization towards objective setting. Market standing¬
  5. 5. Innovation¬Productivity¬Resources- physical and financial¬Profitability¬Manager performance and development¬Public responsibility¬Worker performance, attitude and development.¬19. What are the benefits of objective setting?i. It sets specific targets for the employee to achieve which are liked to business/ development plan.ii. It states how the performance of the employee is to be measured to assess progress.iii. It provides direction of the employee.iv. It allows progress, targets, and successes to be monitored and measured by the manager.v. It helps build working relationships between the employee and the manager and improves overall communications.20. What is MBO?MBO is a process where by the superior and the subordinate managers of an enterprise jointly identify its common goals,define each individual’s major areas of responsibility in terms of results expected of him, and use these measures as guidesfor operating the unit and the contribution of each of its members is assessed.21. What are the benefits of MBO?o Improvement of managingo Clarification of organizationo Personnel satisfactiono Team worko Development of effective control.22. Explain the term decision and decision making.A decision may be a direction to other to do or not to do. Decision making is defined as the process of choosing a course ofaction from among alternatives to achieve a desired goal. It is one of the functions of management and also a core processof planning. The management executive takes a number of decisions every day. Thus, a decision may be rational orirrational. There are number of alternatives available to the management. The best one is selected out of the availablealternatives.23. Write down the process followed in decision – making process.SERIAL NUMBER DECISION MAKING PROCESS- STEPS1 Identification of problem2 Diagnosis and analysis the problem3 Search for alternatives4 Evaluation of alternatives5 Selecting an alternatives6 Implementation and follow up7 Feed back24. What is planning premises?The assumptions about future derived from forecasting and used in planning are known as planning premises.25. How would you evaluate the importance of a decision?Decision making is a selection process. The best alternative is selected out of many available alternatives.Decision-making is a goal –oriented process.Decision making is the end process.Decision making is a human and rational process involving the application of intellectual abilities.
  6. 6. Decision making is a dynamic process.UNIT-III - ORGANISING1. Define organizing.Organizing is the process of identifying and grouping of activities required to attain the objectives, delegating authority,creating the responsibility and establishing relationships for the people to work effectively.2. What do you understand by effective organizing?Effective organizing focuses on finding mistakes in present organizing and avoiding such mistakes by proper planning.Effective organizing avoids organizational inflexibility and makes the staff work effectively by avoiding conflicts byclarification.3. Mention any 4 characteristics of an organization. Common objectives♣ Specialization or division of labor♣Authority of structure♣Group of persons.♣4. State the kinds of organizational charts. Vertical chart¬ Horizontal or left to right chart¬ Circular or concentric chart.¬5. What is Span of control?Span of control means the number of people managed effectively by a single superior in an organization. The term “span ofcontrol” is also known as “SPAN OF MANAGEMENT”, “SPAN OF AUTHORITY” and “SPAN OF RESPONSIBILITY.” Butspan of management is a better term because control and supervision are elements of management.6. Mention the 3 categories of span of management.1. Direct single relationship2. Direct group relationship3. Cross relationship.7. State the important factors in determining an effective span.SERIAL NUMBER FACTORS DETERMINING AN EFFECTIVE SPAN1 Capacity of superior2 Capacity of subordinate3 Nature of work4 Type of technology5 Delegation of authority8. What are the types of Departmentation?SERIAL NUMBER TYPES OF DEPARTMENTATION
  7. 7. 1 Departmentation by numbers2 Departmentation by time3 Departmentation by Enterprise function4 Departmentation by Territory5 Departmentation by Customers6 Departmentation by equipment or process7 Departmentation by product or service9. What is a matrix structure?Matrix structure is a hybrid organizational form, containing characteristics of both project and functional structures.10. How can we define power?“power is the probability that one actor within the relationship will be in a position to carry out his own despite resistance”.11. What is Staff authority?The relationship between a staff manager and the line manager with whom he works depends in part on the staff duties.12. Define Staffing.Staffing is the part of the management process which is concerned with the procurement utilization, maintenance anddevelopment of a large satisfied work force on the organization.13. Define HRP.“HRP is the process by which an organization ensures that it has the right number and kind of people at the right place atthe right time, capable of effectively and efficiently completion, those tasks that will help the organization achieve its overallobjectives”.14. What are the steps involved in man power planning? Forecasting man power needs Forecasting man power inventoryIdentifying man power gapsMan power programme.15. What is job analysis?Job analysis is a detailed study of job to identify the skills, experience and aptitude required for the job.16. What is job design?The job design is usually broad enough to accommodate people’s, need and desires.17. What is job rotation?The job rotation refers in the movement of an employee from the job to another.18. Define Recruitment.B. FIPPO defined recruitment as “the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating to apply for jobs in theorganization”.19. What is selection?Selection is the process of finding out the most suitable candidate to the job out of the candidates attached.
  8. 8. 20. What are the steps involved in selection process?SERIAL NUMBER SELECTION PROCESS1 Screening of applications2 Selection tests3 Preliminary interview4 Reference check5 Medical examination6 Final interview7 Approved by appropriate authority8 Placement21. What is performance appraisal?Performance appraisal evaluates the performance of worker also his potential for development.22. What is Halo effect?It is tendency of rather to depend excessively on the rating of one. Trait or behavioral consideration in rating all other traits orbehavioral considerations.23. What is assessment centre?In this approach individuals from various departments are brought together to spend two or three days working on anindividual or group assignment similar to the ones they would be handling when promoted.24. Define Training.According to B.FIPPO “training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job”.25. What are the methods of Training?SERIAL NUMBER ON THE JOB TRAINING SERIAL NUMBER OFF THE JOB TRAINING1 Job rotation 1 Lecture2 Apprenticeship and coaching 2 Seminars3 Committee assignments 3 Case studies4 Experience 4 Business game5 Temporary promotions 5 In basket method26. What is basket training method?Basket contains a number of correspondences like memo, circulars, lectures and reports. The trainees are required to solveach problem and to record their decisions within a specified tie period. This training is promotes the skills like logicalthinking, time management skill and decision making skill.UNIT- IV - DIRECTING1. What is meant by the term directing?Directing may be defined as the process of instructing, guiding and inspiring human factors in the organization to achieveorganization objectives. It is not only issuing orders and instruction by a superior to his subordinates but also including theprocess of guiding and inspiring them to work effectively.2. List down the human factors in managing.
  9. 9. Multiplicity of rolesIndividualityPersonal dignity3. Define creativity.Creativity is defined as the ability to produce new and useful ideas through the combination of know principles andcomponents in novel and non obvious ways. Creativity exists throughout the population, largely independent of age, sex,and education.4. What are the steps involved in creative process? Saturation¬Preparation¬Frustration and incubation¬Inspiration or illumination¬Verification.¬5. How are problems solved by creative tool?Creativity tools are designed to help you devise, creative and imaginative solutions to problems. It helps you spotopportunities that you might otherwise miss.6. What does SCAMPER stand for? S - Substitute¬C - Combine¬A - Adapt¬M - Modify¬P - Put to another use¬E - Eliminate¬R - Reverse¬7. What are the steps involved in simplex tool?1. problem finding2. fact finding3. problem identification4. idea finding5. selection and evaluation6. planning7. sell data8. Action.8. How can be harmonizing objectives achieved?1. Mutual trust2. Cooperation and understanding.3. Workers participation in management, and4. Balancing the objectives of the organization with those of individuals.9. Define “multiplicity of roles”.Individuals are not only the productive factor in management’s plans. They are members of social system of many
  10. 10. organizations.10. What is meant by brain storming?Brain storming is an excellent way of developing many creative solutions to a problem. It works by focusing on a problem,and then coming up with very many radical solutions to it. The essence of brainstorming is a creative conference, ideally of 8to 12 people meeting for less than an hour to develop a long list of 50 or more ideas. Suggestions are listed without criticismon a black board or news print as they are offered.11. Define Motivation.Motivation is a general term applying to the entire class of drives, desires, needs wishes and similar forces that induce anindividual or a group of people to work.12. What are the steps involved in motivation process? Analysis of situationϖ Preparing, selecting and applying a set of appropriate motivating tools.ϖFollow up.ϖ13. What are the types of motivation? Positive motivation¬Negative motivation¬Extrinsic motivation¬Intrinsic motivation¬14. List out the basic needs in a hierarchy.1. Physiological needs2. Safety needs3. Social needs4. Esteem needs5. Self- actualization needs.15. What is job enrichment?Job enrichment is therefore based on the assumptions that in order to motivate personnel, the job itself must provideopportunities for achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement and growth.16. Define leadership.Leadership is the process of influencing the behavior of others towards the accomplishment of goals in a given situation.17. Mention the importance of leadership.i. Motivating employeesii. Leader develops team workiii. Better utilization of manpoweriv. Creating confidence to followersv. Directing group activitiesvi. Building moralevii. Maintaining discipline.18. List out few leadership traits.• The Michigan studies• The ohio state university studies• The managerial grid.19. Name the various leadership styles.• Autocratic or Dictatorial leadership• Participative or Democratic leadership.• Laissez- faire or Free- rein leadership.
  11. 11. 20. What is communication?Communication is the passing of information from one person to another person.21. Mention the various elements in the process of communication?1. sender2. communication channels3. symbols4. receiver5. noise and feedback in communication.22. Name the various types of communication.1. Down ward communication2. Upward communication3. Horizontal or lateral communication.23. Note down the various communicating networks.1. simple chain2. wheel3. circular4. free flow5. inverted v24. What are the physical barriers involved in effective communication.1. physical barriers2. socio-psychological or personal barriers3. organizational barriers4. semantic barriers5. mechanical barriers.25. List out the various effective media in communication. A large bank supplies hardware and software to its customers¬Several banks now make bank – by – phone services available even to individuals.¬E- mail service making easy delivery of documents.¬UNIT-V – CONTROLLING1. Define Control.According to koontz “controlling to the measurement and correction of performance in order to make sure that enterpriseobjectives and the plans devised to attain them are accomplished”.2. What are the characteristics of control? Control process is universalϖControl is a continuous processϖControl is action basedϖControl is forward looking.ϖ3. Why need of control in the organization?
  12. 12. Control can minimize the mistakesϖTo discover the deviations in the managementϖTo minimize dishonest behavior of employees.ϖ4. Give some critical point standards of control. Cost standardsϖ Revenue standardsϖGoals standardsϖProgram standards.ϖ5. What are the types of control? Feedback controlϖ Concurrent controlϖFeed forward controlϖ6. What are the requirements for effective control?i. The control should be economicalii. It must be simpleiii. It should be flexibleiv. It should be clear objectives.7. What is management by exception?Actual performance compare with the standard performance deviations which cannot significant should be avoid.8. What are traditional techniques of control?i. Personal observationii. Break –even analysisiii. Statistical reportsiv. Budgetary control.9. What are modern techniques of control?i. Management auditii. Return on investmentiii. PERT& CPMiv. MIS10. Define Budgetary control.According to J. Batty “A system which uses budgets as a means of planning and controlling all aspects of producing and orselling commodities and services”.11. What are the different types of Budgets?FUNCTIONAL BUDGET TIME CLASSIFICATION ACTIVITY LEVELShort term budget Fixed budget¬i. Sales budget Current term budget Flexible budget¬ii. Production budget Long term budget¬iii. Purchase budgetiv. personnel budgetv. Cash budgetvi. Research and Development budgetvii. Capital budgetviii. Master budgetix. Profit budgetx. Cost budget12. Define MIS.“A system of obtaining abstracting , storing and analyzing data, to productions information for use in planning, controllingand decision making by managers at the time they can most effectively use it”.
  13. 13. 13. What are the MIS Resources?Computer hardwareSoftwareDataPeople.14. Define productivity.Productivity is a measure of how much input is required to produce a given output i.e. the ratio(output/input ) is calledproductivity.15. What are the factors consider for product design?MarketingGovernment policyProductionTechnologyProduct quality16. Define OR.OR is a systematic analysis of a problem through scientific methods, carried out by appropriate specialists, working togetheras a team, finding an optimum and the most appropriate solution to meet the given objective under a given set ofconstraints.17. What is Inventory control?The inventory control refers to the control of raw materials, and purchased materials in store and regulation of investment inthem.18. What is Economic order Quantity?Formula , EOQ = 2DS/ CWhere,D- Demand per yearC- Annual carrying cost of one unit.S- Ordering cost.19. What is JIT?Just In Time inventory system. In this method the suppliers delivers the materials to the production spot just in time to beassembled. This method reduces cost of inventory.20. What are the objectives of value engineering? Modify and improve product design¬ Reduce the product cost¬Increase the profit¬Simplify the product.¬21. What is quality circle?To improving productivity and quality everyone in the organization. The circles presents the solutions to the topmanagement.22. What are the steps in value engineering? Blastϖ CreateϖRefine.ϖ
  14. 14. 23. What is Gantt chart?It involves the representation of work progress over a period of time in the form of a bar chart.24. Define MNC.“An enterprise which own or control production or service facilities outside the country in which they are based”.25. What are the attitudes need by MNC manager? Ethnocentric attitude¬Polycentric attitude¬Geocentric attitude¬26. What are global theory of Management?1. situational and contingency approach2. motivation and leadership theory3. organizational behavior.