Advising 2011   Advising for Language learner Autonomy                                                       November 12, ...
Background: ProblemLearning Hours and Emotional Factor behind it …
   Students don’t have enough Learning    Hours in/out of the English Classroom      2,000 – 5,000 Hours of Instruction ...
   Students don’t have enough Learning    Hours in/out of the English Classroom       ◦ Out-class Learning Hours         ...
   Many Japanese students say “English is an    important language,” but they do not study    the language …    ◦ Learnin...
Background: A SolutionGuided Autonomy Syllabus & “Learning How to Learn”
   With a (a) lack of learning time and (b)    high level of anxiety, what can we do for    students in the university cl...
   Aim & Concept of the Syllabus    ◦ Aim:      English Class for Autonomous Learning    ◦ Concept:      Teaching stude...
   Our Guided-Autonomy Syllabus      English Class for Autonomous LearningSelf-coaching                               “T...
Our PracticeAbout Phases 1-3 & Worksheet “Learning How to Learn”
   Syllabus Centered on Guided Autonomy          Phase 1                Learn basic ideas and skills on self-coaching and...
   Syllabus Centered on Guided Autonomy                           Session   01:   Introduction                           ...
   General Contents of the Worksheet                               Aims              Worksheet Contents                  ...
   Learn basic ideas and skills                           Session   01:   Introduction                                   ...
   Learn basic ideas and skills    Worksheet: Future Mandala Chart (Sample)     Study                           Job/Furth...
   Learn basic ideas and skills                            Session   01:   Introduction                                  ...
   Learn basic ideas and skills                           Session   01:   Introduction                           Envision...
   Learn basic ideas and skills                                        Master Module                                     ...
   Learn basic ideas and skills                           Session   01:   Introduction                        Envisioning...
   Goal of Phase 1: Learning MAP
   Develop plan and practice learning                          Session   06:   Weekly   Exercise   01                    ...
   Weekly Plan & Learning RecordOur Practice: Phase 2
   Weekly Plan & Learning RecordOur Practice: Phase 2
   Develop plan and practice learning                           Session   06:   Weekly   Exercise   01                   ...
   Case Study     Phase 3         Session                     Session                               11:                  ...
   Peer-advising on Vocabulary BuildingOur Practice: Phase 3
   Peer-advising on Listening Skills                     Grouping based on learning goals.Our Practice: Phase 3
Summary
       Students Comments    •   I learned a new style…I can continue studying English.    •   At the beginning I had many...
       Thomas Friedman (2006)    •   “learn how to learn, will be one of the most important        assets any worker can ...
   So, can you bring the horse to the water    and make him drink it?      No, but perhaps we can show them how to drink ...
Contact Information & Reference
   S. Fukuda    ◦ Lecturer of English Education      Faculty of Integrated Arts & Aciences      The University of Tokus...
•   Andrade, M., & Williams, K. (2009). Foreign language learning anxiety in Japan EFL university classes:    Physical, em...
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V7 Fukuda and Sakata

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Learning How to Learn: Advising language learners throughout a course

Presenters: Steve T. Fukuda and Hiroshi Sakata, University of Tokushima, Japan

The Learning How to Learn Worksheet (LHTL) was designed for implementation in a 15-week course at the tertiary level. It has an objective of equipping students with self-coaching skills to ensure more effective and continuous learning inside and outside of class. It accomplishes this by providing the learner with a primer in second language acquisition, as well as, guiding the learner in a step-by-step fashion in setting learning goals and creating weekly learning plans. During the course, peer support groups as well as the teacher conducted advising sessions centered on reflection of learning goals and plans, while gaining ideas from each other to create a more effective weekly learning plan to ensure continuous learning. Finally, survey data has shown that a course design based on the LHTL Worksheet ensures increased study time outside of class as well as an increase in students’ intrinsic motivation.

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V7 Fukuda and Sakata

  1. 1. Advising 2011 Advising for Language learner Autonomy November 12, 2011, Kanda University of International Studies, Japan V7 Learning How to Learn: Advising Language Learners throughout a Course Steve Fukuda & Hiroshi Sakata University of Tokushima Can you bring the horse to the water, AND make him drink it?Image from:http://www.fotolibra.com/gallery/41851/cartoon-you-can-take-a-horse-to-water-illustration/
  2. 2. Background: ProblemLearning Hours and Emotional Factor behind it …
  3. 3.  Students don’t have enough Learning Hours in/out of the English Classroom  2,000 – 5,000 Hours of Instruction is needed… (Odlin, 1992; Nakajima, 2006) ◦ Total class hours in Japanese schools is about 800 hrs. (Negishi, 2006; Benesse, 2008) Schools Class Hours Elementary Schools 35hrs Junior High Schools 301.7hrs Learners need to High Schools 361.7hrs learn English out of Universities 80hrs the school, but … TOTAL 806.4hrsTotal Hours of English Classes
  4. 4.  Students don’t have enough Learning Hours in/out of the English Classroom ◦ Out-class Learning Hours  High School Students (per day) (Negishi, 2006)  University Students (The University of Tokushima, 2011) ◦ About 70% of them do not study English They do not learn English out of the school… WHY?Out-class Learning Hours
  5. 5.  Many Japanese students say “English is an important language,” but they do not study the language … ◦ Learning Anxiety in/out of English Classroom ◦ In general, EFL learners learn English with a lot of anxiety for their learning (Burden, 2004, Kondo &Y-Ling, 2004; Ohata, 2005; Willimas & Andrade, 2008, Williams, 2009)  Quick change in education style aggravates their learning anxiety. ◦ Teacher controlled learners’ learning in junior high and high schools, but they suddenly are asked to be independent right after they entered university…Emotional Factor: Anxiety
  6. 6. Background: A SolutionGuided Autonomy Syllabus & “Learning How to Learn”
  7. 7.  With a (a) lack of learning time and (b) high level of anxiety, what can we do for students in the university classroom?  Enhancing of Students’ English Learning Autonomy ◦ To Provide supportive in and out-of-class learning environment is needed, but … ◦ To foster autonomous learning skills is more important Quick shift to independent learning Guided Autonomous Syllabus may rather aggravate their anxiety …What can we do?
  8. 8.  Aim & Concept of the Syllabus ◦ Aim:  English Class for Autonomous Learning ◦ Concept:  Teaching students not English, but “Learning How to Learn” – In the class … – Teachers act as a “facilitator,” not as a teacher – Students learn how to learn English using the worksheet “Learning How to Learn” – Class syllabus is designed based on self-coaching – Classes are classified into three Phases (Phases 1-3)Guided Autonomy Syllabus
  9. 9.  Our Guided-Autonomy Syllabus  English Class for Autonomous LearningSelf-coaching “There is need to enhance the ability of all learners to plan, carry out, and evaluate their own learning.” Merriam Envisioning et al., 2007 the Future Assessing Setting & Revising Goals Habit Formation Executing Creating Plans Study PlansFramework of our Practice
  10. 10. Our PracticeAbout Phases 1-3 & Worksheet “Learning How to Learn”
  11. 11.  Syllabus Centered on Guided Autonomy Phase 1 Learn basic ideas and skills on self-coaching and 100% Guided Learning autonomous learning management Sessions 01-05 Phase 2 Develop learning plan and practice English learning 50% Guided Learning referring to the advice of the facilitator/teacher Sessions 06-10 Phase 3 Develop a learning plan after each class and 100% Independent Learning practice English learning independently Sessions 11-15Outline of Phases
  12. 12.  Syllabus Centered on Guided Autonomy Session 01: Introduction Envisioning the Future Phase 1 Session 02: Learning Project for Future U (1)100% Guided Learning Session 03: Learning Project for Future U (2) Setting Goals Session 04: Building Learning Plan (1) Sessions 01-05 Session 05: Building Learning Plan (2) Creating Plans Session 06: Weekly Exercise 01 Executing Phase 2 Session 07: Weekly Exercise 02 Plans 50% Guided Learning Session 08: Weekly Exercise 03 & Self-Assessment, Management Session 09: Weekly Exercise 04 Assessing & Sessions 06-10 Session 10: Weekly Exercise 05 & Share Your Learning Plan (1) Revising Phase 3 Session Session 11: 12: Weekly Exercise 06 & Design Your Leaning (1) Weekly Exercise 07 & Design Your Leaning (2) Future Plan 100% Independent & Session 13: Weekly Exercise 08 Learning Habit Session 14: Weekly Exercise 09 & Share Your Learning Plan (2) Session 15: Reflection & Future Learning Project Formation Sessions 11-15* In every session, the teacher and peers are facilitators, advisers, and partners.Phases & Contents of Sessions
  13. 13.  General Contents of the Worksheet Aims Worksheet Contents Envisioning the Future Future Mandara Chart Phase 1100% Guided Learning Setting Goals Can-do Questionnaire 1. Create Learning MAP Sessions 01-05 Creating Plans Three Learning Modules Executing Plans Weekly Plan Phase 250% Guided Learning Sessions 06-10 Assessing & Revising Self-assessment Phase 3 Future Plan Learning Map 100% Independent & & Learning Habit Formation Weekly Plan Sessions 11-15 2. Use Learning MAP Learning MapPhases & Contents of Worksheet
  14. 14.  Learn basic ideas and skills Session 01: Introduction Envisioning the Future Phase 1 Session 02: Learning Project for Future U (1)100% Guided Learning Session 03: Learning Project for Future U (2) Setting Goals Session 04: Building Learning Plan (1) Sessions 01-05 Session 05: Building Learning Plan (2) Creating PlansLearning Project for Future U Study Job/Further MoneySessions 02-03 Education Giving students meanings and connections to their English study with Human How would you Connection with teacher & peer advising through Relationship like to change Abroad your life by sharing, discussions, and Q&A improving your teachers and students introduce their English ability? experiences and suggestions after students have filled out their chart. Culture & Skills & Technique Self- Knowledge consciousness Worksheet: Future Mandala ChartOur Practice: Phase 1
  15. 15.  Learn basic ideas and skills Worksheet: Future Mandala Chart (Sample) Study Job/Further Education Money I want to read papers of I want to be an English I want to earn stable money English Education in English. teacher in high school. by becoming an English teacher in high school. Human Relationship Connection with Abroad I wans to make a lot of How would you like I want to go abroad at least foreign friends. to change your life a few times a year. by improving your English ability? Culture & Knowledge Skills & Technique Self-consciousness I want to gain necessary I want to get conversational I want to know my possibility knowledge (related to skill enough to keep by getting great English English) to be an English relationship with foreign ability. teacher. friends.Our Practice: Phase 1
  16. 16.  Learn basic ideas and skills Session 01: Introduction Envisioning the Future Phase 1 Session 02: Learning Project for Future U (1)100% Guided Learning Session 03: Learning Project for Future U (2) Setting Goals Session 04: Building Learning Plan (1) Sessions 01-05 Session 05: Building Learning Plan (2) Creating PlansBuilding Learning Plan (1) Time / (Mon) / (Tue) / (Wed)Sessions 04 30 English Class Commute(JR) Wake-up and morning 11:00 prep 30 Giving students an understanding how 12:00 Coffee with my friends Lunch Lunch Commute(JR) to better manage their English studies 30 with teacher & peer advising through 13:00 30 Philosophy Class Club activity Lunch with my friends sharing, discussions, and Q&A 14:00 teachers and peers suggest times and Tutoring preparation 30 Talk with my friends activities for different times 15:00 30 Go to part-time job Go to tutoring place 16:00 Go home(JR) 30 Part-time job Tutoring 17:00 Break Worksheet: Record of Weekly Activities 30 18:00 30 Go to part-time jobOur Practice: Phase 1
  17. 17.  Learn basic ideas and skills Session 01: Introduction Envisioning the Future Phase 1 Session 02: Learning Project for Future U (1)100% Guided Learning Session 03: Learning Project for Future U (2) Setting Goals Session 04: Building Learning Plan (1) Sessions 01-05 Session 05: Building Learning Plan (2) Creating PlansBuilding Learning Plan (2)Sessions 05 Three Learning Modules Students incorporate models into their Giving students an understanding of how to incorporate English into their schedules based on weekly routines and daily schedules teachers and peers schedules. share ideas on different learning • Core module is daily with time is limited resources • Extended module is for students with extra time or deadlines to meet • Master module is used when student have more time to put into their English studies.Our Practice: Phase 1
  18. 18.  Learn basic ideas and skills Master Module Record, transcribe and correct 3-min speech and ask for native speakers to check the speech (Listening, Writing, Communication) Extended Module List up todays plan in English and make a 3-min speech about them (Writing, Reading, Speaking) Core Module Try to write my schedule in English when I write something on my notebook (Writing)Worksheet: Three Learning ModulesPhase 1 & Worksheet Contents
  19. 19.  Learn basic ideas and skills Session 01: Introduction Envisioning the Future Phase 1 Session 02: Learning Project for Future U (1)100% Guided Learning Session 03: Learning Project for Future U (2) Setting Goals Session 04: Building Learning Plan (1) Sessions 01-05 Session 05: Building Learning Plan (2) Creating PlansLearning MAPGoal of Phase 1 Students put their ideas together on the Learning Map and see the whole picture of their learning project. Worksheet: Learning MAPOur Practice: Phase 1
  20. 20.  Goal of Phase 1: Learning MAP
  21. 21.  Develop plan and practice learning Session 06: Weekly Exercise 01 Executing Phase 2 Session 07: Weekly Exercise 02 Plans 50% Guided Learning Session 08: Weekly Exercise 03 & Self-Assessment, Management Session 09: Weekly Exercise 04 Assessing & Sessions 06-10 Session 10: Weekly Exercise 05 & Share Your Learning Plan (1) RevisingWeekly Exercise 01-05Sessions 06-10 Planning and Practice Learning Cycle Based on learning from Phase 1, students develop a weekly learning plan in class and executing them outside of class. The following week, student are put in groups, where they self-assess their previous week of language studies based on their plans, then, receive feedback through peer- and teacher-advising. After each advising discussion, students develop a plan for the following week.Our Practice: Phase 2
  22. 22.  Weekly Plan & Learning RecordOur Practice: Phase 2
  23. 23.  Weekly Plan & Learning RecordOur Practice: Phase 2
  24. 24.  Develop plan and practice learning Session 06: Weekly Exercise 01 Executing Phase 2 Session 07: Weekly Exercise 02 Plans 50% Guided Learning Session 08: Weekly Exercise 03 & Self-Assessment, Management Session 09: Weekly Exercise 04 Assessing & Sessions 06-10 Session 10: Weekly Exercise 05 & Share Your Learning Plan (1) RevisingAssessment & ManagementShare Learning Plan Learning BehaviorSessions 08, 10 (Actions) Teacher gives lecture on being mindful in your own learning based on the three aspects (right), and with peers, give feedback and suggestions Psychologic Learning al aspects Strategies for bettering plans. (Feeling) (Thinking) Students, then, try to revise plans and goals before executing new plansOur Practice: Phase 2
  25. 25.  Case Study Phase 3 Session Session 11: 12: Weekly Exercise 06 & Design Your Leaning (1) Weekly Exercise 07 & Design Your Leaning (2) Future Plan100% Independent & Session 13: Weekly Exercise 08 Learning Habit Session 14: Weekly Exercise 09 & Share Your Learning Plan (2) Session 15: Reflection & Future Learning Project Formation Sessions 11-15 Basic English Class (Thursday) 1st Period (08:40 – 10:10) 2010 (1st Semester) 45 students (Integrated Arts and Sciences Majors)Our Practice: Phase 3
  26. 26.  Peer-advising on Vocabulary BuildingOur Practice: Phase 3
  27. 27.  Peer-advising on Listening Skills Grouping based on learning goals.Our Practice: Phase 3
  28. 28. Summary
  29. 29.  Students Comments • I learned a new style…I can continue studying English. • At the beginning I had many stresses…now…I think I can talk with using more words. • I enjoyed the class and using English and communicating with many people. • I could learn that the more I used English, the more English abilities improved. • I can’t speak fluently… important things is to speak English positively and to be not afraid of mistakes. • I understood that a way of studying English didn’t have a rule.Summary
  30. 30.  Thomas Friedman (2006) • “learn how to learn, will be one of the most important assets any worker can have, because job churn will come faster, because innovation will happen faster” (p.239).Summary
  31. 31.  So, can you bring the horse to the water and make him drink it? No, but perhaps we can show them how to drink it.Thank You
  32. 32. Contact Information & Reference
  33. 33.  S. Fukuda ◦ Lecturer of English Education  Faculty of Integrated Arts & Aciences  The University of Tokushima  steve@ias.tokushima-u.ac.jp H. Sakata ◦ Associate Professor of Cross Cultural Communication Studies  International Center  The University of Tokushima  kobayasi@isc.tokushima-u.ac.jpContact Information
  34. 34. • Andrade, M., & Williams, K. (2009). Foreign language learning anxiety in Japan EFL university classes: Physical, emotional, expressive, and verbal reactions. Sophia Junior College Faculty Journal, 29, 1-24.• Benesse, “Investigation Data Clip! Children and Education”, Benesse Educational Research & Development Center, (2008, February).• Burden, P. (2004). The teacher as facilitator: Reducing anxiety in the EFL university classroom. JALT Hokkaido Journal, 8, 3-18.• Friedman, T., “The World is Flat: The Globalized World in the Twenty-First Century”, London: Penguin, (2006).• Kondo, D. S., & Ying-Ling, Y. (2004). Strategies for coping with language anxiety: the case of students of English in Japan. ELT Journal, 58 (3), 258-265.• Nakashima, K., “Reasons for children to learn another language: From the perspectives of bilingual education”, BERD, Vol. 5, pp. 18-22, (2006).• Negishi, M., “GTEC examination of English education of senior high schools in east Asia”, Benesse Educational Research & Development Center, (2006, September).• Odlin, T., “Language transfer: cross-linguistic influence in language learning”, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, (1989).• Ohata, K. (2005). Potential sources of anxiety for Japanese learners of English: Preliminary case interviews with five Japanese college students in the U.S. TESL-EJ, 9(3), Retrieved at http://www.cc.kyoto- su.ac.jp/information/tesl-ej/ej35/a3.html.• The University of Tokushima. (2011). Learning Life. The University of Tokushima.• Williams, K. E., & Andrade, M. R., (2008). Foreign language learning anxiety in Japanese EFL university classes: Causes, coping, and locus of control. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 5 (2), 181- 191. References
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