Industrial Ethernet is trending to be the principal infrastructure choice for mission-critical
Untimely and costly disruptions can largely be
Maximum productivity with minimal                 Commercial-grade Components                      •	 Chemical Exposure. O...
Industrial Ethernet Hardware vs. Typical Office-grade Ethernet Hardware

    (Hub / Switch / Fiber Int...
“Ruggedized” for High Mean                       Conformal coating. A special coating                • Industrial grade Ca...
Industrial Ethernet Cable Selection

    Fiber optic Ethernet cables represent         twisted pair cables are available ...
The Proof is in the Testing                         Cold Bend. Conducted per UL 444, samples of           Cold Impact. In ...
Crushing. In this test, an Instron machine              Cut-Through. In this test, based on CSA            High Temperatur...
Oil Resistance. In this test, conducted per      UV Exposure. In this procedure-based           Water Immersion. In this t...
Ethernet Switch Selection Options

     Wireless or Wired?                            Panel Mount: A variety of switches
Hardware: Switches, Active Network               • Ring Topology. In a ring configuration,      • Mesh Topology. Mesh topo...
Be Sure Hardware Components                         • Shock and Vibration. Even the minutest
     Match the Application   ...
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Belden Industrial Ethernet White Paper


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A Robust Industrial Ethernet Infrastructure Consisting of Environmentally Hardened Network Cabling, Connectivity, and Active Components Is Essential to Long-Term Performance and Reliability

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Belden Industrial Ethernet White Paper

  1. 1. Industrial Ethernet is trending to be the principal infrastructure choice for mission-critical industrial automation and control applications. Industrial Ethernet is built on the same standards-based networking platform as enterprise Ethernet, which has long reigned as the universal network solution. A Robust Industrial Industrial Ethernet connects the office with the plant floor by utilizing a single cabling platform Ethernet Infrastructure with Ethernet connectivity and IP addressing. This convergence of open, standards-based Consisting of Environmentally Ethernet communications provides all the advantages of secure, seamless interoperability among Hardened Network Cabling, manufacturing enterprise networks — from corporate offices to the shop floor — and enables Connectivity, and Active Internet and enterprise connectivity, anytime and anywhere. Components Is Essential to Long-Term Performance In addition to system integration and interoperability, there are a host of other benefits to be and Reliability gained from implementing a complete, end-to-end Ethernet solution — from cabling and connectivity, to active components and associated hardware. Key business benefits include lower overall Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) and higher return on investment (ROI) resulting from real-time visibility and flexibility, reduced network maintenance and administration costs and labor, and greater physical and virtual network security. Operational benefits at both the plant and enterprise levels include: • Faster and less costly plant upgrades, expansions and changeouts • Access to real time data to improve overall plant operations Table of Contents • Faster installation, remote troubleshooting and corrective action capabilities Network Infrastructure Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 • Real time inventory visibility Network Safety, Uptime and Control . . . . . . . . .2 • Collaborative reviews of production data and virtual support groups Costs of Network Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 • Increased production capacity Commercial-grade Components . . . . . . . . . . . .3 • Shop floor system integration with ERP for scheduling, planning, quality tracking and delivery information Ethernet Hardware Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Features of Industrial-grade Network Infrastructure Risks in Extreme Environments Ethernet Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Industrial communications and control networks are expected to operate consistently and Industrial Ethernet Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9 reliably under extreme conditions, such as electromagnetic interference (EMI), high operating Industrial Ethernet Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-11 temperatures, ambient outdoor temperatures, power/voltage fluctuations, machine vibration, Matching Hardware Components mechanical hazards and more. to Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 For example: Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 • In the Oil, Gas and Petrochemical industry, signal transmission components typically have to withstand the destructive effects of temperature extremes, humidity, moisture, dust, mud, oil and solvents, and the potentially corrosive effects of chemicals. • In Water and Wastewater treatment plants, the cabling, connectivity and networking devices must endure high levels of humidity, grit and sludge, and, in some cases, are exposed to lime, as well as corrosive gases such as methane, hydrogen sulfide and chlorine. • In the rapidly growing Wind Power industry, signal transmission components in wind energy sites, whether on-shore or off-shore, are routinely exposed to temperature extremes, excessive moisture and humidity from rainfall, mist, and fog. Mechanical and electrical stressors may include vigorous, prolonged vibration, torque, damage from rodents, EMI interference, and even lightning strikes. • In the Mining industry, environmental conditions are extremely harsh. Dust, dirt and dampness can threaten signal transmission equipment and performance. In some mines, caustic chemicals and potentially explosive ambient conditions exacerbate the threat. While the use of conduit, aerial fiber optic cabling and wireless communications can alleviate some risk, mining remains one of the most challenging industries for industrial networking.
  2. 2. Untimely and costly disruptions can largely be prevented by installation of a robust network infrastructure utilizing environmentally hardened, industrial-grade components in all three OSI layers. A ruggedly designed framework enables industrial enterprises to carry out their mission-critical functions by providing the highest possible levels of: Safety. Optimum safety is critical in all industrial operations. Full safety demands fail-safe reliability and redundancy of data transmissions, as well as network components that meet and exceed industrial requirements for potentially hazardous environments. Uptime. Prevention of signal transmission problems is a major factor in ensuring consistent and dependable network uptime and plant productivity. Whether an operation involves a discrete manufacturing facility, a processing plant or an infrastructure site, Oil, gas and petrochemical plants, water and wastewater facilities, wind farms and mines are just a such as an airport or power generation plant, few examples of industrial operations in which extreme environmental hazards can be detrimental to the keeping operations running smoothly and performance and reliability of commercial-grade Ethernet cabling, connectivity and networking devices. reliably assures optimum uptime and peace of mind. Given these environmental risks, it is water and wastewater treatment facilities, Control. Continuous monitoring, management clear that the networked communications airports and transportation hubs, military and control, as well as operational efficiency, systems in extreme environments must be bases, ships and shipyards, railyards, tunnels, require continuity in data transmission and exceptionally rugged and durable. Any dams and bridges. network availability. Any network failure, and physical deterioration or electrical failure subsequent downtime, can result in severe Networks in all of these operations must in key data transmission components can and extremely costly consequences. perform in extreme and often hazardous lead to unreliable network performance environments and every operation has its own and/or safety issues, and may ultimately The Real Costs of Network Failure set of environmental challenges to contend lead to loss of critical data, costly downtime, with. Analysts report that an overwhelming Industrial plants rely heavily on their or even catastrophic failure. percentage of unplanned downtime in automation, instrumentation and control Network Safety, Uptime and industrial operations can be attributed to data communications to relay signals Control Are Paramount network infrastructure failure. According to between devices, machinery and the control one network management report, fully 72 system to activate events on an exacting and ‘Industry’ is a broad term encompassing percent of network faults can be attributed pre-determined schedule, with little or no a multitude of diverse operations — from to failure at the OSI (Open Systems margin for error. Many industrial facilities discrete manufacturing of every kind, to Interconnection) Layer 1 (Physical Media), are sizeable and their networking products processing of foods and beverages, pulp and Layer 2 (Data Link) and/or Layer 3 (Network). must meet or exceed stringent industrial paper, chemicals, oil/gas and petrochemicals, regulations and ratings. Users also desire to commercial and government sites such as optimal manageability and security so power generation plants, wind energy farms, that network availability attains 99.999% uptime or better. 2
  3. 3. Maximum productivity with minimal Commercial-grade Components • Chemical Exposure. Oils, solvents, downtime is a key goal, and 24/7 network Are Not the Solution chemicals and cleaning solutions can soak performance and reliability are critical to into COTS cables, especially under heat, In a typical office, the Ethernet achieving that goal. No matter what the causing the cable jacket to swell and lose infrastructure is installed in a relatively industry, if a switch, connector or cabling mechanical strength. clean, quiet environment with cables hidden system in the plant fails, the cost of parts On the hardware side, corrosive chemicals behind walls, in ceilings or under floors and replacement and repair represents only a tiny can damage the electronics in commercial network switches, hardware and connectivity fraction of the overall costs associated with switches, whereas ruggedized industrial components sheltered in protected areas. production downtime. switches are securely sealed to prevent Industrial facilities present a very different ingress of these substances. For example, if a cabling system component reality. Here, many if not most cables, or Ethernet switch fails in a power generation • Humidity Levels of up to 99 percent connectors, switches, and active network facility, the repair/labor costs alone could be can be accommodated by industrial-grade components are integral to machine 15-20 times the cost of the component itself. switches, which can also be sealed to automation, instrumentation and control However, disruptions in the plant’s flow of meet IP67 standards. systems, which places them in harsh and information or control signals could lead to potentially hazardous situations. Even the • UV Radiation Exposure can cause power outages — which, even today, cost the best Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) COTS cable jackets to decompose at power generation industry as much as $150 Ethernet systems are not made to handle such an accelerated rate, compromising billion per year. Downtime in an automotive conditions over time. Rugged conditions call mechanical strength and electrical assembly plant capable of producing one for ruggedized cables and only industrial- performance. vehicle per minute would stand to lose profits grade Ethernet system components are built • Physical Hazards. The factory floor of about $2,000 to $3,000 per minute for tough enough to withstand the hazards and holds many mechanical risks, especially small car production, and up to $8,000 per risks they are exposed to day after day. for machine automation cables and minute for SUV and pick-up truck production! Consider, for example, the deleterious effects connectors. Excessive machine movement The indirect costs of Ethernet system failure or vibration can result in cables being the following common environmental in any industry must take into account lost pulled or stretched with excessive force, conditions can have on network components: productivity, delayed downstream processes, which can create imbalance between the cost of system shut-down and start-up, and • Temperature Extremes. Extreme cold pairs, degrade electrical performance, and the potentially devastating loss of service to can make COTS cables stiff and brittle, increase susceptibility to ambient EMI/RFI. customers relying on the plant’s mission- while elevated temperatures can degrade Plant floor vehicles, such as forklifts and critical output. Depending on the industry the plastic used in the cables’ construction moving carts, can accidentally run over and overall operating costs, these indirect and cause an increase in attenuation. cables, causing abrasion, crushing or effects can send total downtime costs Industrial-grade cables are available that cut-through. soaring to hundreds of thousands, even will operate in a wider temperature range millions of dollars. (-40°C to +85°C) than commercial cables Even well-made, properly installed COTS (0°C to +60°C). Ethernet components are not constructed That is why investing in a high-quality, Commercial-grade hardware (switches, to survive these kinds of hazards. Only rugged Ethernet infrastructure designed etc.) is designed to operate from 0°C to hardened, industrial-grade components specifically for use in harsh environments is a +40°C, while industrial Ethernet hardware are robust enough to withstand the wise business decision — one that can provide can operate efficiently from 0°C to environmental challenges present every tremendous peace of mind to network +60°C — extendable to -40°C to +85°C day in industrial settings. engineers and administrators and the organizations they serve. (conformal coating also available for humid/moist applications). 3
  4. 4. Industrial Ethernet Hardware vs. Typical Office-grade Ethernet Hardware Characteristics (Hub / Switch / Fiber Interfaces) Industrial Ethernet Hardware Typical Office-grade Ethernet Hardware Operating Temperature 0°C to +60°C standard, with extended temp of -40ºC to 0°C to +40°C +85°C and conformal coating available Humidity 99% (non-condensing); 100% using IP67 (waterproof) switches Typically 10-85% (non-condensing) EMC EN50082-2 EN50082-1 Operating Voltage Variety of voltages, but 24 V (redundant) 120 / 240 V being the most common/standard Internal power supply No internal power supply Redundancy Media ring reconfig time < 30ms and as Depending upon topology, low as 10 ms. possibly significantly more Link Media Multimode / Single-mode / UTP/STP Multimode / Single-mode / UTP/STP Communication Distances Up to 68 miles longhaul single-mode Up to 68 miles longhaul single-mode Management SNMP (Simple Networking Management Protocol) SNMP (Simple Networking Management Protocol) WEB-Based Management WEB-Based Management Serial (RS232) Serial (RS232) CLI (command line interface) CLI (command line interface) EtherNet / IP™ and PROFINET profiles for integration of management into PLC/HMI Diagnostics Fault relay output(s) e.g., to PLC LED (visual information) I/O Port LED (visual information) SNMP trap to OPC server Chassis - Material Plastic / Metal Plastic / Metal - Dimensions Small (e.g. 80x140x85 mm) Medium (e.g. 440x70x380 mm) - Mounting DIN rail / Rack Desktop / Rack Approvals CE, cUL 1950, UL508, FCC Part 15, Germanic Lloyd, CE, cUL Class 1 Div 2, IEC 61850-3, IEEE 1613, NEMA TS2, EN 50121-4, EN 50155 Vibration 2g (IEC 60068-2-6 FC) Typically not rated/tested Shock 15g+ (IEC 60068-2-27) Typically not rated/tested Cooling System Fan-less operation Fan Operation Resistance RFI/EMI, dust, oil (even IP67) Dust Data Throughput 10Mb, 100Mb, 1Gb, 10Gb 10Mb, 100Mb, 1Gb, 10Gb Switches Yes (DIN rail, 19” rack and hard mount) Yes (19”rack or tabletop) Hubs Yes (DIN rail) Yes (19”rack or tabletop) Transceiver Yes (DIN rail) Yes (19”rack or tabletop) Firewall Yes (DIN rail) Yes (19”rack or tabletop) 4
  5. 5. “Ruggedized” for High Mean Conformal coating. A special coating • Industrial grade Cat 5e (2-pair and Time Between Failure is applied to PCBs to protect electronic 4-pair) and Cat 6 UTP (4-pair) cables components in damp or corrosive with heavy-duty oil- and UV-resistant In selecting physical media, data links and environments. jackets. Some Category cables feature a network hardware for the industrial Ethernet, Bonded-Pair inner construction in which multiple factors should be considered to Redundancy. Redundant power, redundant the conductor insulation of the pairs is ensure optimal performance, ease of media paths and even redundant devices can affixed along their longitudinal axis to maintenance, and long-term reliability. assure 24/7 uptime. ensure consistent conductor concentricity Ruggedized industrial Ethernet products have Bandwidth. With an ever-increasing number to prevent any performance-robbing been designed specifically to network in tough of Ethernet-enabled devices being added to gaps between the conductor pairs during environments, to support the industrial networks, sufficient bandwidth is needed to installation and use. protocols which are being transmitted across ensure meeting future needs. • Upjacketed and armored cables for more these networks, and to accommodate the extreme environments. environmental rigors of the location. Key Hardened Components Protect considerations in specifying industrial-grade Network Integrity • Continuous flex cables designed for network components include: use with continuous motion machines As stated previously, an overwhelming and automation systems. MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure). percentage of network performance problems • Low smoke zero halogen (LSZH) Industrial Ethernet products are designed to are due to failure at OSI Layer 1, Layer 2 or cables, waterblocked and burial cables provide the same lifespan as other automation Layer 3. Therefore, it is critical to ensure that are also available. components — typically 10 to 30 years or components at all three layers — physical more. By comparison, typical commercial- media, data links and active network devices • Cables designed for use with leading grade products are built to achieve a 5-year — are designed and constructed to withstand industrial automation networking and average lifespan. the operational and environmental stressors communications protocols, such as to which they are subjected. For each category, EtherNet/IP (ODVA), Modbus TCP/IP, Mounting options. Industrial Ethernet ProfiNet and Fieldbus HSE. multiple factors need to be considered to hardware devices are usually DIN rail mounted ensure optimal performance, ease of • Industrial-grade connectivity components, or bolted directly onto the machines that maintenance, and long-term reliability of such as: IP67- or IP20-rated UTP or FTP receive transmitted data. the mission-critical network. patch cords, connectors, modular jacks and Small form factor. Equipment is typically plug kits, adaptors, faceplates and surface designed to occupy less space to allow greater Physical Media — mount boxes. density within a control panel. Cabling & Connectivity Ventilation without fans. Industrial Ethernet For the physical media layer, there are a host devices rely on passive heat dissipation. of products in today’s marketplace that fully conform to the Ethernet LAN.IEEE 802.3 Protection class. Devices must be available standard. Selection will depend on each in dustproof and waterproof housings. plant’s network configuration and application requirements. Products include: • Heavy-duty, all dielectric, indoor/ outdoor-rated optical fiber cabling in single-mode and multimode constructions. Many feature water- blocking agents for added protection in moisture-laden environments. 5
  6. 6. Industrial Ethernet Cable Selection Fiber optic Ethernet cables represent twisted pair cables are available using • Insulations: Most industrial-grade the ultimate in future-proofing and are any number of conductor types, Ethernet cables utilize a polyolefin available for indoor use (riser or tray) insulations, shielding and jackets . insulation . For extreme temperatures, or outdoor use (including direct burial) . Armoring is also available for extremely however, an FEP insulation (and Typical designs use multimode fibers harsh environments . jacket) is recommended . in a loose tube configuration, usually Construction selection criteria: • Jackets: Oil- and sunlight-resistant available in 2- to 72-fiber constructions . cables typically have a PVC jacket . For plenums, tight buffered, 2- or 6-fiber • Unshielded or shielded? If the cables are exposed to moisture, single-mode or multimode construc- Unshielded products can be used a waterblocking agent should be tions are typically available . in most environments; shielded part of the cable’s construction, as products are recommended for • To handle Gigabit Ethernet light well as inner and outer PE jackets if especially high noise environments . sources and any expanded bandwidth the cable is buried . Gas-resistance requirements some cables use a • Shields: Typically a foil or braid calls for an FEP-jacketed cable, while laser-optimized fiber . is used to protect the integrity low smoke zero halogen (LSZH) PVC of the signal and to screen out jackets are available for environments • For moisture protection, a water- any undesirable interference or where smoke/flames are a risk . For blocking agent should be included noise . However, to provide extra extreme temperature environments, in the cable’s construction . durability and noise protection, a the cables should feature an FEP • In particularly harsh environments, foil/braid combination can be used . jacket (for an extended operating a CPE outer jacket will provide addi- temperature of -70ºC to +150ºC) . • Solid or stranded conductors? Solid And, for continuous flexing or robotic tional protection against chemicals or conductors are appropriate for most applications (which could include abrasion; an armor tape or aluminum/ installations; stranded conductors the complication of weld splatter), steel armoring may also be appropri- provide extra flexibility for better cables with TPE inner and outer ate for the extreme environments, handling in close environments . For jackets are recommended . including some burial situations . robotic/continuous flex applications, • Ratings include: UL Type: OFNR, use of a cable with a highly stranded cUL Type: OFN FT4, IEEE 383-2003 conductor is recommended . Flame Test . • Pair conformity/centricity: Copper Ethernet cables are the Bonded-Pair cables provide resis- more traditional option in industrial tance to the rigors of installation by installations, available for either Cat- utilizing a manufacturing technique egory 5e or Category 6 applications . that affixes the insulation of the cable Category 5e cables are the dominant pairs along their longitudinal axes choice today, while Category 6 cables so no gaps can develop between the are finding increasing use where Giga- conductor pairs; a nonbonded-pair bit speeds and increased bandwidth cable construction can be susceptible are desired and/or for future-proofing to pair-gapping during installation purposes . Category 5e and Category 6 (and impedance mismatches) . 6
  7. 7. The Proof is in the Testing Cold Bend. Conducted per UL 444, samples of Cold Impact. In this test, also conducted cables were left in a controlled temperature per UL 444, an aluminum weight was A series of rigorous tests conducted by Belden and humidity chamber called a cold box. They dropped down a hollow guide-tube to smash on COTS cables versus industrial-grade cables remained for one hour prior to testing. They against a segment of cable under test. The has proven that the COTS cables simply do not were then tested (at -80°C, -60°C, and -40°C) impact force delivered 24 in-lbs or 2.7 joules stand up as well as industrial-grade Ethernet by being partially wound around a 3-inch of impact energy. Each length of cable cables in harsh environments. All nine tests diameter horizontal mandrel with one end of had been previously cooled; and a total of were performed on state-of-the-art testing the cable under tension from an aluminum ten samples were inspected at a series of equipment, and all the cables used in the weight. The cables were then unrolled and increasingly lower temperatures to determine study initially tested as fully compliant to visually inspected to check for cracks in the if the cables’ jacket integrity was damaged, ANSI/TIA/EIA 568-B.2 Cat 5e standards. jacket. The COTS cable became brittle and a condition which could allow ingress of Following is a summary of tests performed showed visible cracks. The industrial-grade chemicals and moisture and could potential and the results: high/low temp cable had no visible damage. lead to a conductor-to-conductor short Abrasion. Using a fixed drum covered with or even catastrophic failure. The standard sandpaper, cables were stretched across a jacketed COTS cables failed at -20°C. The portion of its circumference, then moved back industrial-grade cables, protected by and forth cyclically for 25 cycle counts. At high-low temperature jackets, did not that point, the conductors of the COTS cable crack until impacted at -70°C. could be seen through breaks in the jacket, which would cause it to lose mechanical and electrical integrity. The pairs of the armored industrial cable were not compromised. In the cold bend test, the cables were first placed into a cold box. In the cold impact test, after the cable is cooled an aluminum weight smashes against it. The test set-up — with the cables on a fixed drum covered with sandpaper. After the cold box, the cables were partially wound around a mandrel and subjected to the tension experienced through the use of an aluminum weight. Commercial cable after 25 cycles. Industrial cable after 25 cycles. 7
  8. 8. Crushing. In this test, an Instron machine Cut-Through. In this test, based on CSA High Temperature. In this test, three spools head brings a 2-inch by 2-inch plate down standard #22.2, a chisel-point mandrel on an of cable were suspended from a mandrel in a on a segment of cable to crush it — with Instron machine was lowered onto a segment high-temperature oven. The blue cable in the failure defined as the point at which the of cable to test the cable’s susceptibility to a middle is a COTS Cat 5e cable with standard cable would no longer reliably support cut-through leaving the conductor exposed. PVC jacket. The other two are black industrial- Cat 5e performance. Each cable’s electrical Several kinds of cable were sliced by the grade Cat 5e cables, one with a PVC jacket, characteristics were measured throughout chisel to the point where a short circuit the other jacketed in FEP. All cables were first the testing. At 400 lbs applied force, the was sensed across the conductors, creating tested at an ambient temperature of 20°C and COTS cable with PVC jacket failed — it was a potentially hazardous situation. The COTS were then tested again after being exposed smashed flat and would not spring back to cable shorted out at 92 lbs of applied force. to a high temperature of 60°C over time. The its original shape. The industrial-grade, Two unarmored industrial-grade cables COTS cable functioned acceptably at 20°C black-jacketed armored cable had a took 205 lbs and 346 lbs of applied force to but, over time, at 60°C, attenuation increased failure value of 2,250 lbs — over a ton. short. The armored industrial cable took to where the cable would not support a run 346 lbs applied force to pierce the armor; distance of 100 meters. The industrial-grade however, the conductors did not short until cables, even after exposure to 60°C over a force of 1,048 lbs was applied. time, continued to support the maximum run distance. The Instron crushing device. A chisel-point mandrel on an Instron machine The cables were tested, as suspended, performs the cut-through procedure. in a high temp oven. COTS vs 7928A vs 7922A Cat 5e Attenuation at 20°C and 60°C 0 -5 Atten (dB) -10 -15 -20 The COTS cable is smashed flat and fails at 400 lbs. -25 -30 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Freq (MHz) The industrial-grade cable showed little attenuation — even at 60°C. The industrial-grade armored cable fails only after a ton of crush pressure. 8
  9. 9. Oil Resistance. In this test, conducted per UV Exposure. In this procedure-based Water Immersion. In this test, the UL 1277, lengths of cable were immersed ASTM G 154 test (Standard Practices for electrical properties of the cables (primarily in containers of oil, which in turn were Operating Fluorescent Light Apparatus for attenuation) were measured initially. Then immersed in a water bath that was placed in UV Exposure of Non-Metallic Materials), the cables were coiled into a dry container, a chamber held at 125°C for 60 days. After segments of various cables were affixed and water was added to submerge them. the test period, cable segments were removed to panels that were mounted so that the The cables were tested intermittently over and their jackets evaluated for tensile and cables directly faced a fluorescent light a six-month period. The COTS cable showed elongation properties. Exposure to oil and source whose output range was adjusted increased attenuation as soon as the cable lubricants can make jacketing brittle and to match that of solar radiation levels. The was immersed in water and this continued to fragile, even at room temperature, resulting cables were exposed to light for 720 hours degrade over the half-year immersion. After in loss of mechanical properties and reduced (30 days), then their jackets were visually six months of immersion, the industrial- service life. The blue COTS cable showed signs checked for discoloration, as well as for grade cable showed only a slight increase of this type of deterioration. The industrial signs of degradation in tensile strength in attenuation — and the cable still cable’s jacket did not, because the and elongation. The COTS cable was not exceeded the Cat 5e requirements. materials and jacket thickness are rated sunlight-resistant and their jackets showed for exposure to oil and other substances, discoloration, a precursor to degradation of even at elevated temperatures. the jacket material. The industrial-grade cables were rated to resist the effects of sunlight and other UV sources and showed no jacket damage. The oil bath test, conducted as specified The UV exposure test is based upon The water bath test is a six-month long test, in UL 1277. ASTM procedures. with the cables fully submerged in water. 9
  10. 10. Ethernet Switch Selection Options Wireless or Wired? Panel Mount: A variety of switches and wireless Ethernet devices are While wireless has its advantages available, some with adapters for in industrial applications, it is poorly panel mounting . Some companies suited for transmitting time-sensitive offer ultra-rugged switch options for control data that could adversely use in extreme environments . affect productivity or safety . Wireless IP67 Ethernet Connectors? Pros: Provides mobility and network flexibility . Limited cabling costs . IP67-rated connectors are ideal Overall convenience . for use in extremely damp/wet environments and applications where This Hirschmann OCTOPUS switch is ideal Cons: Not as reliable or as secure for installation in vibration-prone environments. significant vibration could result in Here, the Ethernet IP67 switch is used to provide as a cabled solution . Larger and more intermittent communication from passenger compartment video surveillance, as complex networks require a site survey . connector contact deterioration . The well as travel updates and entertainment. Achieving long distance communica- connector, approved by the ODVA tions reliably can be very difficult . (Open Device Vendor Association), is Managed or Unmanaged Switches? Wired the M12 D-code Ethernet connector — a 4-pin connector that uses CAT 5e or A classic analogy for management Pros: Significantly more reliable and better (2-pair) . has always been the dashboard and secure . Far higher data speeds are electronics of a car: possible — up to 10 Gigabit with some wired switches . 3 4 Pin Function A managed switch is akin to a car with 1 TD + Transmit Data + a dashboard and an unmanaged switch Cons: Lower flexibility . High initial cost 2 RD + Receive Data + is one without . A managed switch can, 3 TD - Transmit Data - of cabling and the cost of relocating an 4 RD - Receive Data - through web browser access (secured Ethernet device (if it will not be close 2 1 Housing: shield by password), control certain internal to a network connection/port) . switch functionality that may be criti- cal to the flow of data and the function The IP67/waterproof connector of the network . A managed switch also DIN Rail, 19" Rack or Panel Mounted? solution is typically available as field- has the ability to inform and react to installable connectors or pre-terminated certain conditions and provide a level The mounting choice/preference will and overmolded patch cords (single of security, making it an ideal solution dictate which products are applicable . M12 or RJ45 or double ended M12-M12, for an application with a higher need for DIN Rail Mount: Managed and M12-RJ45 and RJ45-RJ45) . A bulkhead uptime (where control data, rather than unmanaged open rail switches, M12 is an excellent solution for migrat- measurement data is transmitted) . unmanaged switches, and wireless ing the Ethernet cable from the inside An unmanaged switch has none Ethernet devices . of the control panel to the outside . of this functionality and is typically a Rack Mount: Some suppliers offer a Keep in mind that the IP67 rating is plug-and-play switch and is best used DIN rail adapter for 19" racks, permit- not always used in wet environments or on smaller stand-alone applications or ting multiple DIN rail mount devices to applications where vibration is an issue: as an edge-switch in a larger network . be mounted inside a 19" rack . Some users choose instead to deploy all M12 D-code connectors so that they can eliminate control panels . 10
  11. 11. Hardware: Switches, Active Network • Ring Topology. In a ring configuration, • Mesh Topology. Mesh topologies Devices and Accessories the easier and simpler of the two types, require that all switches in the mesh a series of managed switches are daisy- support STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) A wide range of hardware is available to chained and the first and last switch of or RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol). enable management of industrial Ethernet the chain are then linked to form a ring. While supported by most managed networks at the information, control and In the event of a failure in the media or switches, this feature can be difficult device levels. There are products to support any of the switches, data is automatically to configure and network recovery can both copper and optical fiber media, as well re-routed, achieving network resiliency be several seconds — depending on the as switches capable of data speeds as high as in milliseconds. number of switches in the mesh and 10 Gigabits per second. At a minimum, all how the fail-over is configured. of these network components — switches, connectors, and other hardware — should offer robust construction and resistance to high temperatures, vibration and EMI. Industrial Ethernet Hardware Standards and Specifications The Importance of Redundancy Temperature and Humidity/Moisture cUL 1604 — the standard for Class 1, Another Ethernet factor considered to be Division 2, hazardous locations an industry best practice for mission-critical Typical industrial temperature range is 0° to +60°C IEC 61850-3 — the standard for electrical applications is redundancy, which is extremely substation automation networks important but sometimes overlooked in Extended temperature range selecting industrial Ethernet switches. Two components are available from IEEE 1613 — the standard for specific kinds of redundancy are key -40° up to +85°C communications networking devices to maintaining uninterrupted signal in electrical substations IP20/IP30/IP67 (95% relative humidity, transmission and maximum uptime. non-condensing — not applicable EN50155 — European specification for to IP67 onboard rolling stock/train applications Power source redundancy. Having an uninterruptible power source (UPS) is IP classifications are governed by EN50121-4 — European specification absolutely critical to consistent and reliable the IEC 429 standard for track-side rail applications switch performance. Specifying switches that Mechanical Stability NEMA TS-2 — US-based standard for have dual power input capabilities means traffic signaling and communications that if one power source fails, the other Shock and vibration tests should immediately takes over. be in accordance with PLC standards ATEX100A, ZONE 2 — a standard IEC 1131-2, EC 60068 required in Europe for hazardous/ Data path redundancy. The daisy-chain explosive environments (similar to, Electric Requirements network topologies used by many industrial but not compatible with cUL 1604 plants to connect automated machinery and EMI: EN 50022-2, FCC part15 (class B) Class 1, Div 2) devices have one inherent flaw: if any link GL (Germanischer Lloyd) — a German IEC 1000-4-2, IEC 1000-4-6, between the two switches fails, the entire standard that has gained global accep- IEC 1000-4-4, EN 61000 system could potentially go down, as the tance for marine (ship, offshore oil, etc .), devices on one network segment can no Certifications some petroleum and wind industries longer communicate with devices in other cUL 508 — the basic and most segments. The solution is to build in a common safety standard for industrial redundant data path which can take the control equipment form of either a ring or mesh topology. 11
  12. 12. Be Sure Hardware Components • Shock and Vibration. Even the minutest Match the Application vibration on a plant floor can wear on the RJ45 connections over time, causing As with selection of the network’s cabling, it is intermittent data communication. For critical to ensure that the specifications of the applications such as this, look for switches active hardware are suited to the application. that utilize the M12 D-code connector. Some factors to keep in mind when making buying decisions include: • Industry Approvals. While UL508, the requirement for all automation • Temperature. Standard PLC requirements equipment, is a must-have, some often are 0-60°C (a standard met by most neglect to take into consideration the industrial switches), but some applications other approvals that are common to Belden’s matched, end-to-end “Complete Industrial can present an ambient temperature as the various automation markets. Solution” for Ethernet includes switches/active high as 85°C and as low as -40°C. network devices, networking software, Note: Although most switches will run at – cUL1604 — The standard for Class I, connectivity and cable. extremely low temperatures, many will Division 2, hazardous locations not start up after having been idle. – IEC 61850-3 and IEEE 1613 — The standard for electrical substation the application and environmental conditions. automation networks As many adopters of industrial Ethernet have EN50155 and EN50121-4 A — already discovered, taking a “total system” Railway networking/communication approach will result in a more integrated specifications system with all products seamlessly matched to deliver interoperability and consistently An Industrial Ethernet reliable performance day after day, and Infrastructure Built to Last year after year. Field-proven Solutions Deliver Proven Conclusion Reliability. The most effective — and cost- effective — path to ensuring long-term Most industrial organizations invest performance and reliability of the industrial significantly to protect the safety and Typical industrial Ethernet hardware is rated for temperature ranges of 0° to +60°C. Most Ethernet is to find and invest in network security of their production processes, and Hirschmann switches offer an extended range infrastructure components designed and rated to provide workers with safety and protective of -40° to +70°C, or up to +85°C and beyond. This thermal photograph demonstrates the specifically for use in harsh and demanding gear, such as hard hats, safety glasses, gloves superior heat-resistant performance of environments. End-to-end industrial-grade and footwear. Doesn’t it make good business Hirschmann industrial Ethernet switches over sense to invest wisely to preserve, protect a typical industrial-grade switch. products are more ruggedly engineered and constructed in every way, incorporating design and defend the data network infrastructure features and materials capable of withstanding that supports all of the facility’s mission- • Moisture. Conformal coating or IP67 critical information, automation and housing solutions can negate these issues. the severe environmental and physical stressors to which they are subjected every day. control functions? The IP67 connectivity of choice is the ODVA-approved M12 D-code Ethernet End-to-End Integration Ensures Optimum connectors (a 4-pin circular connector Interoperability. During the selection process, that is available as a field-installable IP67/ it is important to take the time to evaluate waterproof connector or as pre-terminated the marketplace and select a qualified patchcords using Cat 5e with an industry- supplier capable of providing a top-quality, appropriate jacket material). end-to-end Ethernet framework tailored to Belden Technical Support 1 .800 .BELDEN .1 IEWP 2009 12 © Copyright 2009, Belden Inc.